Kilimo cha zao la Ufuta: Masoko, Mbinu na Ushauri toka kwa wadau | Page 24 | JamiiForums | The Home of Great Thinkers

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Kilimo cha zao la Ufuta: Masoko, Mbinu na Ushauri toka kwa wadau

Discussion in 'Kilimo, Ufugaji na Uvuvi' started by Safari_ni_Safari, Nov 30, 2010.

  1. Safari_ni_Safari

    Safari_ni_Safari JF-Expert Member

    #1
    Nov 30, 2010
    Joined: Oct 5, 2007
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    KILIMO BORA CHA UFUTA
    Ufuta (sesamum indicum)ni zao linalolimwa kwa wingi katika mikoa ya Lindi, Mtwara, Ruvuma, Pwani, Morogoro, Dodoma, Tanga na ukanda wa chini katika mikoa ya Rukwa na Mbeya. Zao hili hulimwa kwa ajili ya chakula na biashara. Mbegu za zao hili huwa na wastani wa mafuta kiasi cha asilimia 45.


    MAMBO YA KUZINGATIA WA KATI WA KUZALISHA MBEGU
    - Chagua aina ya mbegu inayotoa mazao mengi na bora, inayovumilia mashambulizi ya magonjwa na wadudu, inayokomaa mapema na kutoa mafuta mengi.

    - Chagua mbegu inayokomaa kwa pamoja ili kurahisisha uvunaji na pia kuepuka upotevu wa zao shambani.

    - Aina nyeupe ya mbegu ya ufuta hupendelewa zaidi kuliko aina nyeusi.

    MBOLEA
    Ufuta unahitaji rutuba ya kutosha ili kutoa mazao bora. Katika kudumisha rutuba ya udongo, tumia kilimo cha mzunguko wa mazao au weka mbolea za asili pale inapobidi.

    PALIZI
    Dhibiti magugu kwa kupalilia ili kuruhusu ufuta kutumia vizuri unyevu na virutubishi. Magugu mengine huwa ni maficho ya wadudu waharibifu wa zao la ufuta.

    MAGONJWA NA WADUDU
    Ufuta hushambuliwa na magonjwa na wadudu mbalimbali ambao huweza kusababisha upungufu na ubora wa mazao. Hivyo kagua shamba mara kwa mara hasa kwenye maua na mapodo ili kuona dalili za mashambulizi. Endapo kuna dalili zamashambulizi, chukua tahadhari mapema kabla ya uharibifu mkubwa haujatokea.

    MAANDALIZI KABLA YA KUVUNAKAGUA SHAMBA
    - Kagua shamba kuona kama ufuta umekomaa.
    - Ufuta hukomaa, kati ya miezi mitatu na minne tangu kupanda kutegemea aina.
    - Aina ya ufuta usiokuwa na matawi hukomaa mapema kuliko ile yenye matawi.
    - Ni muhimu kuwahi kuvuna ili kuepuka ufuta kupukutikia shambani.

    DALILI ZA KUKOMAA UFUTA SHAMBANI
    - Kwa kawaida majani hubadilika rangi kutoka kijani na kuwa ya manjano na hatimaye kudondoka.

    - Mashina hubadilika rangi kutoka kijani na kuwa ya kahawia.

    VIFAA VYA KUVUNIA
    - Kamba
    - Siko
    - Panga

    VIFAA VYA KUKAUSHIA
    - Sehemu ya kukaushia yenye Sakafu ya saruji
    - Maturubai
    - Sakafu safi

    USAFIRI

    - Mikokoteni
    - Matela ya matrekta
    - Magari

    KUVUNA
    - Vuna ufuta mapema kabla mapodo kukomaa sana na kuanza kupasuka na kuachia punje.Mapodo ya ufuta yaliyokomaa sana yakiguswa au kutikiswa na upepo hupasuka na kuachia mbegu, hali inayosababisha upotevu mkubwa.

    - Mbegu za ufuta ni ndogo na zikidondoka chini ni vigumu kuziokota. Vilevile mbegu zilizodondoka ni vigumu kuzitenganisha na uchafu.

    - Uvunaji wa ufuta huhusisha ukataji wa mimea yenye mapodo kwa kutumia vyombo vya mkono kama panga kwa kukata mashina.

    - Kwa aina za ufuta zenye mapodo yanayopasuka, uvunaji ufanyike wakati mimea bado ni kijani ili kuepuka upotevu wa mbegu.

    - Aidha uvunaji ufanyike wakati hakuna upepo wala jua kali.

    - Baada ya kukata mashina yafunge katika mizigo midogo na kuweka katika vyombo vya kusafirisha kama vile mikokoteni, matela au magari hadi sehemu ya kukaushia.

    - Panga mizigo midogo kwa kusimamisha katika malundo madogo yasiyozidi mizigo minane kwenye sehemu safi za kukaushia.

    KUKAUSHA
    Mapodo ya ufuta hukaushwa yakiwa yamefungwa katika vitita. Vitita huwekwa kwa kuegeshwa kwenye fremu ya kukaushia kwa muda wa wiki mbili hadi tatu kutegemea hali ya hewa. Fremu hii huwekwa juu ya turubai au sakafu ili kuzuia upotevu wa punje kutokana na kupasuka kwa mapodo.

    KUPURA
    Upuraji hufanyika kwenye turubai, mkeka au kwenye sakafu safi.

    - Vitita hupigwa taratibu kwa kutumia mti au hutikiswa vikiwa vimegeuzwa vichwa chini ili kuruhusu punje za ufuta kudondoka kwenye sakafu safi au turubai.

    KUPEPETA NA KUPEMBUA
    Kupepeta na kupembua hufanywa ili kuondoa takataka kama vile mawe, vipande vya mapodo,vijiti na vumbi.Njia bora ya kupepeta na kupembua ni kwa kutumia mikono.

    - Ufuta huwekwa kwenye vyombo kama vile ungo kwa kiasi cha kilo mbili hadi tatu. Ufuta hurushwa hewani kwa kasi ndogo na takataka nyepesi huchukuliwa na upepo. Zile nzito huondolewa kwa mikono.

    KUFUNGASHA
    Mbegu za ufuta zilizo safi huwekwa kwenye vifungashio kama vile magunia madogo ya aina ya juti ya ujazo wa kilo 50.

    - Fungasha mbegu za ufuta kwenye magunia yenye uzito usiozidi kilo 50. Kabla ya kufungasha hakikisha mbegu zimekauka hadi kufikia unyevu wa asilimia 10.

    KUHIFADHI
    - Panga magunia ya ufuta juu ya chaga.
    - Panga kwa kupishanisha ili kuruhusu mzunguko wa hewa kati ya magunia.

    KUSINDIKA MBEGU ZA UFUTA

    Ufuta husindikwa kupata bidhaa ya mafuta ambayo hutumika katika mapishi mbalimbali. Mafuta hukamuliwa kwa kutumia njia za asili na kwa kutumia mashine.

    Njia za asili zina ufanisi mdogo ukilinganisha na zile za kukamua kwa mashine, hivyo ni vyema kutumia mashine. Kuna mashine za aina mbili zinazotumika kukamua mafuta; mashine za mkono na zile zinazoendeshwa kwa injini au mota ya umeme. Mashine za mikono zinazotumika zaidi hapa nchini ni za aina ya daraja (Bridge press) na Ram.

    KUKAMUA KWA MASHINE YA DARAJA
    Mashine ya daraja ni moja ya mashine za kisasa zinazoweza kukamua mafuta ya ufuta. Mashine hizi huendeshwa kwa mikono na zina uwezo wa kukamua mafuta kwa asilimia 68 hadi 72.

    Inaweza kukamua kilo 25 za ufuta kwa saa moja. Ili kupata ufanisi mzuri wa mashine hii, ni muhimu ufuta uwe na unyevu wa kati ya asilimia 11 na 13. Iwapo unyevu utakuwa chini ya kiwango hicho inashauriwa kunyunyizi maji kwenye ufuta kabla ya kukamua.

    VIFAA VYA KUKAMULIA MAFUTA
    - Mashine ya daraja
    - Sufuria - Vifungashio
    - Mifuko midogo ya nguo au viroba vyenye upana wa sentimita 20 na urefu wa sentimita 20.
    - Chombo cha kukinga mafuta.
    - Chujio safi
    - Lebo
    - Lakiri Malighafi
    - Mbegu za ufuta safi
    - Maji safi

    UKAMUAJI MAFUTA
    - Nyunyuzia maji kidogo kwenye ufuta ili kuongeza unyevu kufikia asilimia 11 hadi 13. Mafuta hutoka vizuri kwenye kiwango hicho cha unyevu.

    - Jaza ufuta kwenye vifuko vya nguo au viroba

    - Vipange vifuko hivyo kwenye silinda na kuanza kuzungusha mhimili hadi mafuta yaanze kutoka kupitia matundu ya silinda.

    - Acha kwa muda mafuta yaendelee kutoka kisha endelea kuzungusha mhimili hadi mafuta yaishe. Mhimili ukiacha kuzunguka ni dalili kuwa mafuta yamekwisha.

    - Kusanya mafuta, chuja na fungasha kwenye chupa safi zilizochemshwa. Hakikisha chupa ni kavu na zina mifuniko.

    - Weka lebo na lakiri
    - Hifadhi mahali pakavu na pasipo na mwanga mkali.

    MASHINE YA RAM
    Mashine ya Ram ina uwezo wa kusindika kilo 7 za mbegu za ufuta kwa ufanisi wa asilimia 57%.Aina ya Ram (BP-30) ina uwezo wa kukamua lita 20 za mafuta kwa siku.

    VIFAA
    - Ndoo
    - Mashine ya Ram
    - Kichujio au kitmbaa safi
    - Vifungashio safi

    UKAMUAJI
    - Anika mbegu za ufuta juani kwa kuzitandaza kwenye mabati ili zipate joto la kutosha.

    - Lengo la kuanika mbegu juani ni kurahisisha ukamuaji wa mafuta.

    - Jaza mbegu za ufuta kwenye mpare wa kulishia

    - Funga wenzozuia (HANDLE)ili mbegu za ufuta zisitoke.

    - Nyanyua wenzozuia mpaka juu ili kuruhusu mbegu za ufuta kuingia kwenye silinda.

    - Shusha wenzozuia chini ili kuruhusu pistoni kusukuma mbegu za ufuta ziingie ndani ya eneo la shindilio

    . - Nyanyua tena wenzozuia mpaka juu na kushusha na wakati huohuo ukiendelea kujaza mbegu za ufuta kwenye mpare wa kulishia. Wenzoinua ukiwa mzito ni dalili kuwa msukumo wa kutosha umejengeka. Msukumo huo utasababisha mafuta kutoka.

    - Mafuta yanapoanza kutoka legeza wenzozuia ili kuruhusu mashudu kutoka.

    - Chuja na hifadhi mafuta kwenye vyombo safi vyenye mifuniko vilivyochemshwa.

    MATUMIZI
    Mafuta ya ufuta hutumika katika mapishi mbalimbali ili kuongeza ladha. Pia husaidia kuleta nguvu na joto mwilini. Mbegu za ufuta huchanganywa na vyakula mbali mbali kama mikate, keki, mboga na kadhalika.

    Kwa hisani ya mdau MITIKI -KILIMO KWANZA: KILIMO BORA CHA UFUTA

     
  2. e

    emmanuel shadrack New Member

    #461
    Jul 27, 2015
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    Hivi gharama za heka moja approx inafika sh ngapi?
     
  3. Root

    Root JF-Expert Member

    #462
    Jul 27, 2015
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    Nadhani inabidi tuwekeze kwenye kilimo cha umwagiliaji, tuachane na haya ya kusubiri jua na mvua
     
  4. suleym

    suleym JF-Expert Member

    #463
    Jul 30, 2015
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    heka au eka? kumbuka heka 1 ni sawa na ekari 2.5
     
  5. jerrey07

    jerrey07 New Member

    #464
    Aug 5, 2015
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    Habari umu samahanini mm mgeni umu ila nimependa hii naombeni namba ya mtu anayejishughulisha na hiki kilimo
     
  6. M

    Martin Mhina Senior Member

    #465
    Dec 20, 2015
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    habari wakuu nina ufuta gunia mbili hivi kwa sasa soko kilo sh.ngapi wadau?
     
  7. The hammer

    The hammer JF-Expert Member

    #466
    Dec 22, 2015
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    Unazungumzia hekta wewe...kuna hekta na ekari
     
  8. LUCAS MPILUKA

    LUCAS MPILUKA Member

    #467
    Dec 26, 2015
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    Thanks
     
  9. real G

    real G JF-Expert Member

    #468
    Jan 7, 2016
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    nitakijaribu nione
     
  10. little hulk

    little hulk JF-Expert Member

    #469
    Jan 27, 2016
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    Acre moja ya ufuta inatoa kilo ngapi za ufuta?
     
  11. brenda18

    brenda18 JF-Expert Member

    #470
    Mar 31, 2016
    Joined: Sep 17, 2013
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    nimejaribu kwa heka chache huko mkuranga,ngoja nione hio risk nilioifanya ntarudi kutoa experience...
     
  12. h

    handsome2 Senior Member

    #471
    Mar 31, 2016
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    mimi nilinunua eka tano kimanzichana kwa 1mil,nikafyeka kwa laki tano pote,nikalima kwa 250,000 kote ,nimepanda ufuta kila eka 35,000 mbegu nilinunua naliendele(lindi white elfu 10,000 kwa kilo),nimepanda na umeota naandaa palizi la kwanza
     
  13. N

    Ninaweza JF-Expert Member

    #472
    Apr 6, 2016
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    Palizi huwa ngapi?
     
  14. O

    Omerta JF-Expert Member

    #473
    Apr 19, 2016
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    Naweza kupata eneo la kilimo huko kwa bei nafuu?
     
  15. T

    The_Analyst JF-Expert Member

    #474
    May 16, 2016
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    Salaam,
    Bado wafanya hii biashara ya ufuta. nataka kuanza kama chomachoma- mnunuzi binafsi. ningependa kuomba ushauri.
    asante.
     
  16. karugila

    karugila JF-Expert Member

    #475
    May 23, 2016
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    Jaman ufuta ekari 5 gunua 30.hilo si kweli.maana mi nimelima sana ufuta ni kwenye ekari moja sanasana unaweza pata gunia moja na nusu
     
  17. Mchoro senior

    Mchoro senior New Member

    #476
    Jun 9, 2016
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    Ki
     
  18. Mchoro senior

    Mchoro senior New Member

    #477
    Jun 9, 2016
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    Nahtaj kujua mbegu bora ya ufuta...mahtaj....na gharama zake..
     
  19. R

    Rubo Senior Member

    #478
    Jun 22, 2016
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    Wadau naomba anayefahamu soko la ufuta hapa Dar es salaam anisaidie nataka kufanya biashara ya kulangua mikoani na kuja kuuza hapa Dar es salaam.
     
  20. p

    primaquin Senior Member

    #479
    Jul 27, 2016
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    Ni mikoa gani ya Tanzania inafaa kwa kilimo cha kibiashara cha ufuta?
    Na je soko kuu la ufuta ni nni?
     
  21. Freedom tommorrow

    Freedom tommorrow JF-Expert Member

    #480
    Jul 27, 2016
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    Mikoa ya pwani HASA MKOA WA LINDI HUSASAN WILAYA YA KILWA. na baadhi ya maeneo yanayokaribiana na wilaya hiyo... USITOKE NJE YA HIYO LOCATION
     
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