Sababu za Mtoto kuzaliwa Njiti

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Kila mwaka watoto takribani milioni 15 huzaliwa kabla ya miezi tisa yaani njiti na idadi hii imekuwa ikiongezeka siku hadi siku. Ni moja kati ya sababu inayochangia kwa wingi vifo vya watoto walio chini ya miaka mitano duniani.

Shirika la Afya Duniani (WHO) lilikadiria takribani watoto milioni moja walipoteza maisha kutokana na tatizo hili mwaka 2015, hata hivyo, inaelezwa robo tatu ya vifo hivyo vingeweza kuzuilika. Kwa kila watoto kumi wanaozaliwa, mmoja kati yao ni njiti. Na pia, takribani watoto milioni moja hupoteza maisha kila mwaka kutokana na tatizo hilo kwa mujibu wa utafiti uliofanywa na WHO.

Je, nini chanzo cha watoto kuzaliwa Njiti?

Wanawake wenye historia ya kupatwa na uchungu mapema, wapo katika hatari ya kuzaa njiti ukilinganisha na wasio na historia hiyo.

Pia, kuwa na mimba yenye zaidi mtoto mmoja huchangia kuzaa njiti. Tafiti mbali mbali zilizofanyika, zinaonyesha nusu ya watoto wanaozaliwa mapacha ni njiiti ukilinganisha na anayezalizaliwa peke yake.

Chanzo kingine ni kwa wanawake wenye matatizo katika maumbile ya mfumo wa uzazi, nao wapo katika hatari zaidi. Sababu nyingine ni maradhi katika njia ya mkojo, UTI, maradhi yanayosababishwa na ngono zembe ukiwamo Ukimwi, kisonono, kaswende na trikomonasi.

Tatizo la shinikizo la damu, kutokwa na damu katika sehemu za uzazi, mama kuwa na uzito mdogo au mkubwa kupitiliza kiasi wakati wa ujauzito, kujifungua mara kwa mara katika kipindi kifupi, kuchanika kwa mfuko wa uzazi na kondo la nyuma kabla ya wakati na kisukari cha mimba huchangia katika tatizo hili.

Mambo megine yanayochochea ni umri wa mjamzito. Inaelezwa wanawake wanaojifungua wakiwa chini ya umri wa miaka 18 wapo katika hatari ya kuzaa njiti kwani katika kipindi hicho mfumo wa uzazi unakuwa bado haujakomaa.

Wanawake walio na umri unaozidi miaka 35 wapo katika hatari pia kwasababu katika umri huu mkubwa, wengi wao huwa na maradhi chochezi kama kisukari na shinikizo la damu.
Matatizo ya kifamilia, msongo wa mawazo na ya kisaikolojia kama kupigwa na kuteswa wakati wa ujauzito, kufanya kazi za kusimama kwa muda mrefu ni moja ya mambo yanayochochea.

Dalili zinazoambatana na tatizo hili

Maumivu chini ya mgongo, yanayoweza kuwa ya kudumu au kuja na kuondoka na hayaondolewi kwa kubadilisha pozi.
Kutokwa na maji maji na damu sehemu ya siri yanayoashilia kupasuka kwa chupa. Kupatwa na uchungu zaidi ya mara nne ndani ya saa moja.

Mtoto njiti anaweza kukumbwa na matatizo gani?

Matatizo ambayo huwakumba watoto wanaozaliwa njiti ni pamoja nay a kupumua, kwani wakati huu mfumo wa hewa huleta shida kwa sababu mapafu yanakuwa hayajakomaa.

Shida nyingine ni upande wa ulaji au unynyaji kutokana na mfumo changa wa chakula. Mara nyingine watoto hawa hupatwa na matatizo katika kusikia na kuona ambayo huchochewa na kuchelewa kwa ukuaji wa mfumo wa fahamu, hali hii huathiri ukuaji wa mtoto kwa ujumla.

Mambo muhimu ya kuzingatia

Hakikisha kipindi cha ujauzito hautumii vilezi, sigara na dawa za kulevya, hudhuria kliniki kwa ajili ya afya ya uzazi pamoja na kupima maradhi ya zinaa, pata muda wa kutosha wakupumzika kwa kujiepusha na kazi nzito na zinazohusisha kusimama kwa muda mrefu, pata lishe ya kutosha yenye virutubisho muhimu kwa ajili ya ukuaji wa mtoto na afya ya uzazi. Kujiepusha na mimba katika umri mdogo hasa chini ya miaka 18 na kuzingatia maagizo ya uzazi wa mpango kwa kuepuka kubeba mimba kila baada ya muda mfupi, hasa ulio chini ya miaka 2. Si jukumu la mama tuu, bali pia baba, katika kuutunza ujauzito ili kuepusha matatizo katika kipindi cha ujauzito.
 

mwanamwana

JF-Expert Member
Aug 1, 2011
851
1,000
Asante sana JamiiTalks kwa elimu, naamini itasaidia kwa kiasi fulani kwasababu mtaani huku vijana tunakosa taarifa\elimu sahihi kuhusu elimu ya uzazi.
 

The Sheriff

JF-Expert Member
Oct 10, 2019
249
1,000
Elimu muhimu sana hii. Itawasaidia wengi. Lakini pia, nina swali: Je, ni vigezo gani vinazingatiwa ili mtoto njiti kutolewa katika huduma ya karibu ya wataalamu wa afya?
 

Kichuguu

Platinum Member
Oct 11, 2006
10,402
2,000
Jambo moja la ajabu ni kuwa watoto wengi waliozaliwa njiti wakiweza kukua basi hukomaa mapema sana na huwa wana akili sana.

New study says that premature babies are smarter

Adolescents and adults who were born very prematurely may have “older” brains than those who were born full term, a new study reveals.

Researchers identified changes in the brain structure of adults born between 28 and 32 weeks gestation that corresponded with accelerated brain aging, meaning that their brains appeared older than those of their non-preterm counterparts.

Lead study author Dr. Chiara Nosarti, of the Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience at King’s College London in the United Kingdom, and colleagues recently reported their findings in the journal Neuroimage.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), around 1 in 10 infants born in the United States in 2015 were preterm, meaning that they were born before 37 weeks of pregnancy.

A baby’s brain fully develops in the final few weeks of gestation, so being born early disrupts this process. As such, babies born preterm are at greater risk of developmental disabilities including impairments in learning, language, and behavior.

But how does preterm birth affect the brain in adulthood? This is what Dr. Nosarti and colleagues sought to find out with their new study.

Scientists once thought that brain maturation ceases in adolescence. But in recent years, studies have indicated that this may not be the case, and that the brain may not fully mature until we reach our mid-20s.

According to Dr. Nosarti and team, their study is the first to investigate how preterm birth might affect this adult brain maturation process.

Using MRI, the researchers analyzed the brain structure of 328 adults who had been born before 33 weeks gestation. Subjects were assessed at two time points: adolescence (mean age 19.8 years) and adulthood (mean age 30.6 years).

The brain scans of these participants were then compared with those of 232 adults who were born full term (the controls), alongside 1,210 brain scans gathered from open-access MRI archives.

Specifically, the researchers looked at volume of gray matter in the participants’ brains, which they say can be a marker of “brain age.”
Compared with the controls, the team found that subjects born very preterm had a lower volume of gray matter in both adolescence and adulthood, particularly in brain regions associated with memory and emotional processing.
 

Shadeeya

JF-Expert Member
Mar 12, 2014
40,039
2,000
Ahsante kwa elimu.

Pia niseme ipo haja ya Wizara ya Afya kuisambaza hii elimu mpaka huko vijijini kwani si wengi wanayajua haya.
 

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