Discussion in 'Jamii Photos' started by KAKA A TAIFA, Jul 22, 2011.
Naambiwa hawa wadudu wana madhara makubwa hebu nianze nawe
Madhara yapi? Mmoja ni kiwavi. Hiyo ni one stage katika mchakato wa kuzaliwa kipepeo au nondo. Baadhi wana sumu fulani akikupitia mwilini unavimba au kuwashwa. Lakini siyo serious. Mwingine ni centipede (kiswahili chake sijui). Ni mdudu wa kawaida, anatisha kwa macho lakini hana hatali yoyote.
Centipede=TANDU in swahili!
swahili <> kiswahili
Kwani tandu hana madhara, mbn ananiogopesha huyu mdudu
binafsi ni mwoga wa wadudu wote tu.
Inasemekana tandu ana sumu kali kuliko ya nge. Kwa hiyo akikuuma, utaipata fresh for sure. Lazima jasho likutoke!
Utaipata Fresh!!! Una maana gani?
Scorpions are predatory arthropod animals of the order Scorpiones within the class Arachnida. They have eight legs and are easily recognized by the pair of grasping claws and the narrow, segmented tail, often carried in a characteristic forward curve over the back, ending with a venomous stinger. Scorpions range in size from 9 mm (Typhlochactas mitchelli) to 21 cm (Hadogenes troglodytes).
Scorpions are found widely distributed over all continents, except Antarctica, in a variety of terrestrial habitats except the high latitude tundra. Scorpions number about 1752 described species,with thirteen extant families recognised to date. The taxonomy has undergone changes and is likely to change further, as a number of genetic studies are bringing forth new information.
Though the scorpion has a fearsome reputation as venomous, only about 25 species have venom capable of killing a human being.Etymology
The word scorpion is thought to have originated in Middle English between 1175 and 1225 AD from Old French skorpiō, or from Italian scorpione, both derived from the Latin word scorpio, which in turn has its roots in the Greek word σκορπίος skorpíos: GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION:
Scorpions are found on all major land masses except Antarctica. Scorpions did not occur naturally in Great Britain, New Zealand and some of the islands in Oceania, but have now been accidentally introduced in some of these places by human trade and commerce.[SUP][/SUP][SUP]:249[/SUP] The greatest diversity of scorpions in the Northern Hemisphere is to be found in the subtropical areas lying between latitudes 23° N and 38° N. Above these latitudes, the diversity decreases, with the northernmost occurrence of scorpions being the northern scorpion Paruroctonus boreus at 50° N.
Scorpions are found in virtually every habitat, including high elevation mountain-tops, caves and intertidal zones, with the exception of boreal ecosystems such as the tundra, high-altitude taiga and the permanently snow-clad tops of some mountains.As regards microhabitats, scorpions may be ground-dwelling, tree-living, lithophilic (rock-loving) or psammophilic (sand-loving); some species such as Vaejovis janssi are versatile and found in every type of habitat in Baja California while others occupy specialised niches such as Euscorpius carpathicus which occupies the littoral zone of the shore.
Five colonies of scorpions (Euscorpius flavicaudis) have established themselves in Sheerness on the Isle of Sheppey in the United Kingdom. This small population has been resident since the 1860s, having probably arrived with imported fruit from Africa. This scorpion species is small and completely harmless to humans. This marks the northernmost limit in the world where scorpions live in the wild:Classification
Main article: Taxonomy of scorpions
There are thirteen families and about 1,400 described species and subspecies of scorpions. In addition, there are 111 described taxa of extinct scorpions.
This classification is based on that of Soleglad & Fet (2003),which replaced the older, unpublished classification of Stockwell. Additional taxonomic changes are from papers by Soleglad et al:Relationship with humansCertain species of scorpion are aggressive and will attack humans with little to no provocation, while others will only attack when threatened.Scorpion sting and venom.All known scorpion species possess venom and use it primarily to kill or paralyze their prey so that it can be eaten; in general it is fast-acting, allowing for effective prey capture. It is also used as a defense against predators. The venom is a mixture of compounds (neurotoxins, enzyme inhibitors, etc.) each not only causing a different effect, but possibly also targeting a specific animal. Each compound is made and stored in a pair of glandular sacs and is released in a quantity regulated by the scorpion itself. Of the 1000+ known species of scorpion, only 25 have venom that is dangerous to humans; most belong to the family Buthidae.
First aidFirst aid for scorpion stings is generally symptomatic. It includes strong analgesia, either systemic (opiates or paracetamol) or locally applied (such as a cold compress). Hypertensive crises are treated with anxiolytics and vasodilators. Medical use[/h]
The deathstalker has powerful venom.
The key ingredient of the venom is a scorpion toxin protein.
Short chain scorpion toxins constitute the largest group of potassium (K[SUP]+[/SUP]) channel blocking peptides; an important physiological role of the KCNA3 channel, also known as K[SUB]V[/SUB]1.3, is to help maintain large electrical gradients for the sustained transport of ions such as Ca[SUP]2+[/SUP] that controls T lymphocyte (T cell) proliferation. Thus K[SUB]V[/SUB]1.3 blockers could be potential immunosuppressants for the treatment of autoimmune disorders (such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease and multiple sclerosis).
The venom of Uroplectes lineatus is clinically important in dermatology.
Toxins being investigated include:
Chlorotoxin is a 36-amino acidpeptide found in the venom of the deathstalker scorpion (Leiurus quinquestriatus) which blocks small-conductance chloride channels.[SUP][/SUP] The fact that chlorotoxin binds preferentially to glioma cells has allowed the development of new methods, that still are under investigation, for the treatment and diagnosis of several types of cancer.[SUP][/SUP]
Maurotoxin from the venom of the Tunisian Scorpio maurus palmatusConsumption
Eating scorpions in Beijing, China
Scorpion and snake wine
Fried scorpion is a traditional dish from Shandong, China.
As a part of Chinese medicine, scorpion wine and snake wine are used as analgesic and antidote.
One of earliest occurrences of the scorpion in culture is its inclusion, as Scorpio, in the twelve signs of the series of constellations known as the Zodiac by Babylonian astronomers during the Chaldean period.
In North Africa and South Asia, the scorpion is a significant animal culturally which appears as a motif in art, especially in Islamic art in the Middle East.It is perceived both as an embodiment of evil as well as a protective force which counters evil, such as a dervish's powers to combat evil.In another context, the scorpion portrays human sexuality. Scorpions are used in folk medicine in South Asia especially in antidotes for scorpion stings.
In ancient Egypt the goddess Serket was often depicted as a scorpion, one of several goddesses who protected the Pharaoh.
SurrealistfilmmakerLuis Buñuel makes notable symbolic use of scorpions in his 1930 classic L'Age d'or (The Golden Age).
The first two pages of Ian Fleming's novel Diamonds Are Forever are told from the point of view of an African scorpion which kills and eats a beetle and is then casually crushed and killed itself, by one of the villains whom James Bond would later confront and eventually crush