Introduction The SHARE research consortium is offering two PhD fellowships for research at the LSHTM in the field of sanitation and hygiene in Sub-Saharan Africa or South Asia. The SHARE research consortium was established in January 2010 with support of a grant from the Department for International Development (DFID). The consortium comprises 5 partners: the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR-B), the International Institute for Environment & Development (IIED), Shack/Slum Dwellers International (SDI), WaterAid and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM). The consortium is led by the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine (LSHTM). Over 5 years SHARE will synthesise and communicate research in the neglected areas of sanitation and hygiene with the aim of increasing the priority for and performance of these sectors Focus Areas In order to provide structure SHARE has identified four areas or pillars of knowledge: Health; Equity and Gender; Urban Sanitation; and Sanitation Markets. All of these themes interact and many of the challenging questions in the field of hygiene and sanitation cut across them. Health There are few who would dispute the health benefits of sanitation, but much of the evidence is surprisingly lacking in rigour. There is a need to explain to the epidemiological layman the strength of the evidence for each of the assumptions made in formulating policy and planning programmes. Since health considerations underlie the categories in the sanitation ladder used by the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme, these considerations are also an important area for research. Equity and Gender The equity dilemma is well illustrated by the contrast between India and Bangladesh in equitable progress. In India, increases in access are largely confined to the higher wealth quintiles with little progress seen in the bottom two quintiles. Bangladesh by contrast has seen similar levels of progress across all five quintiles. To what extent is the transaction cost of targeting the poorest justified by greater potential benefit (such as higher child mortality) among them? There is also a strong gender dimension to SHAREs focus, with women as custodians of a households hygiene and major beneficiaries of sanitation, while men usually control the resources needed for sanitation improvements. Urban Sanitation Simple on-site sanitation technology is a safe and sustainable solution in most rural areas: full pits can more easily be replaced and/or their contents used for compost. These options are not always available in urban settings. Urban sanitation needs to be seen as an entire system, including pit emptying and waste management. The health risks of poor sanitation are greater, as high urban population density means more inevitable exposure to other peoples excreta. Where there is not even space for one toilet per household, communal toilets offer an alternative; but there is evidence suggesting that these do not fully meet the needs of everyone, especially women. Sanitation Markets Recent interest in sanitation marketing and CLTS has focussed attention on the need to stimulate demand; less well understood are the constraints in supply. Why are most producers in developing countries small-scale enterprises, and are there economies of scale? What financial mechanisms are there to stimulate production without introducing undesirable market distortions? Such questions apply not only to toilet construction but to other related services, such as pit emptying. Terms of the award Two, three-year fellowships will be offered which will cover (a) a stipend for spending up to 24 months with the LSHTM in London (b) an (appropriate) stipend for spending at least 12 months conducting research at a Southern study site (c) PhD tuition fees - for both the LSHTM and National University of your choice, (d) up to £20,000 to cover the costs of research undertaken as the basis of the PhD thesis. The PhD thesis must adhere to the following criteria: 1. Relate to at least one of the four SHARE research areas described above and have demonstrable relevance to barrier(s) to sector progress 2. The research must be conducted in a Sub-Saharan African or South Asian country, with preference given to the SHARE focus countries . Candidates will be registered for their PhD at the LSHTM, but will be encouraged to co-register for their degree with a national university. Strong supervisory support will be provided by the LSHTM and the fellowships will cover the costs of up to two year of residence at the LSHTM, if this is necessary for project development, analysis or writing up. Eligibility criteria Candidates for these fellowships must meet the following eligibility criteria: 1. Sub-Saharan African or South Asian National 2. Shown work experience in the hygiene and/or sanitation sector 3. At least one of the following entrance qualifications for registration: a. Second-class Honours degree from a UK university, or an overseas qualification of an equivalent standard, in a subject appropriate to the course of study to be followed b. A registerable qualification appropriate to the course of study to be followed, in medicine, dentistry or veterinary studies c. Masters degree in a subject appropriate to the course of study to be followed d. Candidates who do not meet the minimum entry requirement above but who have relevant professional experience may still be eligible for admission 4. Proven proficiency in English; one of the following: a. TOEFL Paper Based Test - a minimum overall score of at 600 including a minimum score of 5.0 in the test of written English. Computer Based Test- a minimum overall score of at least 250 including a minimum score of 5.0 in the test of written English. Internet Based Test - a minimum overall score of at least 100 including a minimum score of 24 in the test of written English b. IELTS (The LSHTM accepts a minimum score of 7.0 overall (including a minimum score of 7.0 in the written component) c. Pearson Test of English - PTE Academic (a minimum score of 68 overall and a minimum score of 68 in the written component) Applications from women, and from staff of organizations which are members of the SHARE and SNOWS Consortia, will be particularly welcome. Application procedure Interested candidates should provide the following: 1. A motivational letter (max 800 words) indicating why you wish to undertake a PhD and how this will fit into your career objectives. Please include details of your experience of working in relevant areas or fields, of your research experience and how you hope your experience at the LSHTM will contribute to your career plans. 2. A detailed CV (maximum 4 pages), indicating past qualifications, employment, job descriptions, work experience, publications etc. 3. A short (max 1,500 words) research proposal on a hygiene or sanitation subject covered by one of the 4 SHARE research pillars. This will indicate the area in which the applicant wishes to specialise, enabling the application to be directed to appropriate potential supervisors. The research proposal is also an important way of indicating the extent to which the applicant already understands the background to their proposed research, and the range of methods which may be employed. This also helps the School to decide whether extensive coursework may be required in the first year. 4. Two named referees with contact details (If you have studied in the last 5 years you must include a reference from an academic familiar with your work. If you are, or have been employed, the second reference should be from your employer) Selection procedure Applications will be reviewed by the SHARE research director and the capacity building manager and send for approval by the Consortium Advisory Board. Criteria on which selections will be based will include; past educational experience (an MSc or related degree will be an advantage), evidence of a commitment to research, referees reports, the relevance of the proposed research to SHARE, the quality and originality of the proposed research project and collaboration with SHARE partners and/ or ongoing SHARE research projects, or other organizations working in the field of hygiene and sanitation. Timeline Full applications for the PhD positions should be less than 10 pages, single spaced at 12pt. All proposals should be submitted as e-mail attachments to Jeroen.Ensink@lshtm.ac.uk and be received by 17:00 GMT on 29th of April. Incomplete or late applications will not be considered. Applicants will be informed by 21st of June whether their application has been successful. As a result of the expected large number of applications the review board will be unable to provide applicants with detailed feed-back, or comments on their research proposals and/or applications. The LSHTM will provide assistance with the registration process at the LSHTM and successful applicants are expected to start their degree in October 2011.  The four SHARE focus countries are Bangladesh, India, Malawi and Tanzania.