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Jakaya kikwete na 48 laws of power..

Discussion in 'Jukwaa la Siasa' started by The Boss, Oct 28, 2009.

  1. The Boss

    The Boss JF-Expert Member

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    HAJAWA RAIS.......


    The 48 Laws of Power

    by Robert Greene and Joost Elffers
    Law 1
    Never Outshine the Master
    Always make those above you feel comfortably superior. In your desire to please or impress them, do not go too far in displaying your talents or you might accomplish the opposite – inspire fear and insecurity. Make your masters appear more brilliant than they are and you will attain the heights of power.
    Law 2
    Never put too Much Trust in Friends, Learn how to use Enemies
    Be wary of friends-they will betray you more quickly, for they are easily aroused to envy. They also become spoiled and tyrannical. But hire a former enemy and he will be more loyal than a friend, because he has more to prove. In fact, you have more to fear from friends than from enemies. If you have no enemies, find a way to make them.
    Law 3
    Conceal your Intentions
    Keep people off-balance and in the dark by never revealing the purpose behind your actions. If they have no clue what you are up to, they cannot prepare a defense. Guide them far enough down the wrong path, envelope them in enough smoke, and by the time they realize your intentions, it will be too late.
    Law 4
    Always Say Less than Necessary
    When you are trying to impress people with words, the more you say, the more common you appear, and the less in control. Even if you are saying something banal, it will seem original if you make it vague, open-ended, and sphinxlike. Powerful people impress and intimidate by saying less. The more you say, the more likely you are to say something foolish.
    Law 5
    So Much Depends on Reputation – Guard it with your Life
    Reputation is the cornerstone of power. Through reputation alone you can intimidate and win; once you slip, however, you are vulnerable, and will be attacked on all sides. Make your reputation unassailable. Always be alert to potential attacks and thwart them before they happen. Meanwhile, learn to destroy your enemies by opening holes in their own reputations. Then stand aside and let public opinion hang them.
    Law 6
    Court Attention at all Cost
    Everything is judged by its appearance; what is unseen counts for nothing. Never let yourself get lost in the crowd, then, or buried in oblivion. Stand out. Be conspicuous, at all cost. Make yourself a magnet of attention by appearing larger, more colorful, more mysterious, than the bland and timid masses.
    Law 7
    Get others to do the Work for you, but Always Take the Credit
    Use the wisdom, knowledge, and legwork of other people to further your own cause. Not only will such assistance save you valuable time and energy, it will give you a godlike aura of efficiency and speed. In the end your helpers will be forgotten and you will be remembered. Never do yourself what others can do for you.
    Law 8
    Make other People come to you – use Bait if Necessary
    When you force the other person to act, you are the one in control. It is always better to make your opponent come to you, abandoning his own plans in the process. Lure him with fabulous gains – then attack. You hold the cards.
    Law 9
    Win through your Actions, Never through Argument
    Any momentary triumph you think gained through argument is really a Pyrrhic victory: The resentment and ill will you stir up is stronger and lasts longer than any momentary change of opinion. It is much more powerful to get others to agree with you through your actions, without saying a word. Demonstrate, do not explicate.
    Law 10
    Infection: Avoid the Unhappy and Unlucky
    You can die from someone else’s misery – emotional states are as infectious as disease. You may feel you are helping the drowning man but you are only precipitating your own disaster. The unfortunate sometimes draw misfortune on themselves; they will also draw it on you. Associate with the happy and fortunate instead.
    Law 11
    Learn to Keep People Dependent on You
    To maintain your independence you must always be needed and wanted. The more you are relied on, the more freedom you have. Make people depend on you for their happiness and prosperity and you have nothing to fear. Never teach them enough so that they can do without you.
    Law 12
    Use Selective Honesty and Generosity to Disarm your Victim
    One sincere and honest move will cover over dozens of dishonest ones. Open-hearted gestures of honesty and generosity bring down the guard of even the most suspicious people. Once your selective honesty opens a hole in their armor, you can deceive and manipulate them at will. A timely gift – a Trojan horse – will serve the same purpose.
    Law 13
    When Asking for Help, Appeal to People’s Self-Interest,
    Never to their Mercy or Gratitude
    If you need to turn to an ally for help, do not bother to remind him of your past assistance and good deeds. He will find a way to ignore you. Instead, uncover something in your request, or in your alliance with him, that will benefit him, and emphasize it out of all proportion. He will respond enthusiastically when he sees something to be gained for himself.
    Law 14
    Pose as a Friend, Work as a Spy
    Knowing about your rival is critical. Use spies to gather valuable information that will keep you a step ahead. Better still: Play the spy yourself. In polite social encounters, learn to probe. Ask indirect questions to get people to reveal their weaknesses and intentions. There is no occasion that is not an opportunity for artful spying.
    Law 15
    Crush your Enemy Totally
    All great leaders since Moses have known that a feared enemy must be crushed completely. (Sometimes they have learned this the hard way.) If one ember is left alight, no matter how dimly it smolders, a fire will eventually break out. More is lost through stopping halfway than through total annihilation: The enemy will recover, and will seek revenge. Crush him, not only in body but in spirit.
    Law 16
    Use Absence to Increase Respect and Honor
    Too much circulation makes the price go down: The more you are seen and heard from, the more common you appear. If you are already established in a group, temporary withdrawal from it will make you more talked about, even more admired. You must learn when to leave. Create value through scarcity.
    Law 17
    Keep Others in Suspended Terror: Cultivate an Air of Unpredictability
    Humans are creatures of habit with an insatiable need to see familiarity in other people’s actions. Your predictability gives them a sense of control. Turn the tables: Be deliberately unpredictable. Behavior that seems to have no consistency or purpose will keep them off-balance, and they will wear themselves out trying to explain your moves. Taken to an extreme, this strategy can intimidate and terrorize.
    Law 18
    Do Not Build Fortresses to Protect Yourself – Isolation is Dangerous
    The world is dangerous and enemies are everywhere – everyone has to protect themselves. A fortress seems the safest. But isolation exposes you to more dangers than it protects you from – it cuts you off from valuable information, it makes you conspicuous and an easy target. Better to circulate among people find allies, mingle. You are shielded from your enemies by the crowd.
    Law 19
    Know Who You’re Dealing with – Do Not Offend the Wrong Person
    There are many different kinds of people in the world, and you can never assume that everyone will react to your strategies in the same way. Deceive or outmaneuver some people and they will spend the rest of their lives seeking revenge. They are wolves in lambs’ clothing. Choose your victims and opponents carefully, then – never offend or deceive the wrong person.
    Law 20
    Do Not Commit to Anyone
    It is the fool who always rushes to take sides. Do not commit to any side or cause but yourself. By maintaining your independence, you become the master of others – playing people against one another, making them pursue you.
    Law 21
    Play a Sucker to Catch a Sucker – Seem Dumber than your Mark
    No one likes feeling stupider than the next persons. The trick, is to make your victims feel smart – and not just smart, but smarter than you are. Once convinced of this, they will never suspect that you may have ulterior motives.
    Law 22
    Use the Surrender Tactic: Transform Weakness into Power
    When you are weaker, never fight for honor’s sake; choose surrender instead. Surrender gives you time to recover, time to torment and irritate your conqueror, time to wait for his power to wane. Do not give him the satisfaction of fighting and defeating you – surrender first. By turning the other check you infuriate and unsettle him. Make surrender a tool of power.
    Law 23
    Concentrate Your Forces
    Conserve your forces and energies by keeping them concentrated at their strongest point. You gain more by finding a rich mine and mining it deeper, than by flitting from one shallow mine to another – intensity defeats extensity every time. When looking for sources of power to elevate you, find the one key patron, the fat cow who will give you milk for a long time to come.
    Law 24
    Play the Perfect Courtier
    The perfect courtier thrives in a world where everything revolves around power and political dexterity. He has mastered the art of indirection; he flatters, yields to superiors, and asserts power over others in the mot oblique and graceful manner. Learn and apply the laws of courtiership and there will be no limit to how far you can rise in the court.
    Law 25
    Re-Create Yourself
    Do not accept the roles that society foists on you. Re-create yourself by forging a new identity, one that commands attention and never bores the audience. Be the master of your own image rather than letting others define if for you. Incorporate dramatic devices into your public gestures and actions – your power will be enhanced and your character will seem larger than life.
    Law 26
    Keep Your Hands Clean
    You must seem a paragon of civility and efficiency: Your hands are never soiled by mistakes and nasty deeds. Maintain such a spotless appearance by using others as scapegoats and cat’s-paws to disguise your involvement.
    Law 27
    Play on People’s Need to Believe to Create a Cultlike Following
    People have an overwhelming desire to believe in something. Become the focal point of such desire by offering them a cause, a new faith to follow. Keep your words vague but full of promise; emphasize enthusiasm over rationality and clear thinking. Give your new disciples rituals to perform, ask them to make sacrifices on your behalf. In the absence of organized religion and grand causes, your new belief system will bring you untold power.
    Law 28
    Enter Action with Boldness
    If you are unsure of a course of action, do not attempt it. Your doubts and hesitations will infect your execution. Timidity is dangerous: Better to enter with boldness. Any mistakes you commit through audacity are easily corrected with more audacity. Everyone admires the bold; no one honors the timid.​
    Law 29
    Plan All the Way to the End
    The ending is everything. Plan all the way to it, taking into account all the possible consequences, obstacles, and twists of fortune that might reverse your hard work and give the glory to others. By planning to the end you will not be overwhelmed by circumstances and you will know when to stop. Gently guide fortune and help determine the future by thinking far ahead.
    Law 30
    Make your Accomplishments Seem Effortless
    Your actions must seem natural and executed with ease. All the toil and practice that go into them, and also all the clever tricks, must be concealed. When you act, act effortlessly, as if you could do much more. Avoid the temptation of revealing how hard you work – it only raises questions. Teach no one your tricks or they will be used against you.
    Law 31
    Control the Options: Get Others to Play with the Cards you Deal
    The best deceptions are the ones that seem to give the other person a choice: Your victims feel they are in control, but are actually your puppets. Give people options that come out in your favor whichever one they choose. Force them to make choices between the lesser of two evils, both of which serve your purpose. Put them on the horns of a dilemma: They are gored wherever they turn.
    Law 32
    Play to People’s Fantasies
    The truth is often avoided because it is ugly and unpleasant. Never appeal to truth and reality unless you are prepared for the anger that comes for disenchantment. Life is so harsh and distressing that people who can manufacture romance or conjure up fantasy are like oases in the desert: Everyone flocks to them. There is great power in tapping into the fantasies of the masses.
    Law 33
    Discover Each Man’s Thumbscrew
    Everyone has a weakness, a gap in the castle wall. That weakness is usual y an insecurity, an uncontrollable emotion or need; it can also be a small secret pleasure. Either way, once found, it is a thumbscrew you can turn to your advantage.
    Law 34
    Be Royal in your Own Fashion: Act like a King to be treated like one
    The way you carry yourself will often determine how you are treated; In the long run, appearing vulgar or common will make people disrespect you. For a king respects himself and inspires the same sentiment in others. By acting regally and confident of your powers, you make yourself seem destined to wear a crown.
    Law 35
    Master the Art of Timing
    Never seem to be in a hurry – hurrying betrays a lack of control over yourself, and over time. Always seem patient, as if you know that everything will come to you eventually. Become a detective of the right moment; sniff out the spirit of the times, the trends that will carry you to power. Learn to stand back when the time is not yet ripe, and to strike fiercely when it has reached fruition.
    Law 36
    Disdain Things you cannot have: Ignoring them is the best Revenge
    By acknowledging a petty problem you give it existence and credibility. The more attention you pay an enemy, the stronger you make him; and a small mistake is often made worse and more visible when you try to fix it. It is sometimes best to leave things alone. If there is something you want but cannot have, show contempt for it. The less interest you reveal, the more superior you seem.
    Law 37
    Create Compelling Spectacles
    Striking imagery and grand symbolic gestures create the aura of power – everyone responds to them. Stage spectacles for those around you, then full of arresting visuals and radiant symbols that heighten your presence. Dazzled by appearances, no one will notice what you are really doing.
    Law 38
    Think as you like but Behave like others
    If you make a show of going against the times, flaunting your unconventional ideas and unorthodox ways, people will think that you only want attention and that you look down upon them. They will find a way to punish you for making them feel inferior. It is far safer to blend in and nurture the common touch. Share your originality only with tolerant friends and those who are sure to appreciate your uniqueness.
    Law 39
    Stir up Waters to Catch Fish
    Anger and emotion are strategically counterproductive. You must always stay calm and objective. But if you can make your enemies angry while staying calm yourself, you gain a decided advantage. Put your enemies off-balance: Find the chink in their vanity through which you can rattle them and you hold the strings.
    Law 40
    Despise the Free Lunch
    What is offered for free is dangerous – it usually involves either a trick or a hidden obligation. What has worth is worth paying for. By paying your own way you stay clear of gratitude, guilt, and deceit. It is also often wise to pay the full price – there is no cutting corners with excellence. Be lavish with your money and keep it circulating, for generosity is a sign and a magnet for power.
    Law 41
    Avoid Stepping into a Great Man’s Shoes
    What happens first always appears better and more original than what comes after. If you succeed a great man or have a famous parent, you will have to accomplish double their achievements to outshine them. Do not get lost in their shadow, or stuck in a past not of your own making: Establish your own name and identity by changing course. Slay the overbearing father, disparage his legacy, and gain power by shining in your own way.
    Law 42
    Strike the Shepherd and the Sheep will Scatter
    Trouble can often be traced to a single strong individual – the stirrer, the arrogant underling, the poisoned of goodwill. If you allow such people room to operate, others will succumb to their influence. Do not wait for the troubles they cause to multiply, do not try to negotiate with them – they are irredeemable. Neutralize their influence by isolating or banishing them. Strike at the source of the trouble and the sheep will scatter.
    Law 43
    Work on the Hearts and Minds of Others
    Coercion creates a reaction that will eventually work against you. You must seduce others into wanting to move in your direction. A person you have seduced becomes your loyal pawn. And the way to seduce others is to operate on their individual psychologies and weaknesses. Soften up the resistant by working on their emotions, playing on what they hold dear and what they fear. Ignore the hearts and minds of others and they will grow to hate you.
    Law 44
    Disarm and Infuriate with the Mirror Effect
    The mirror reflects reality, but it is also the perfect tool for deception: When you mirror your enemies, doing exactly as they do, they cannot figure out your strategy. The Mirror Effect mocks and humiliates them, making them overreact. By holding up a mirror to their psyches, you seduce them with the illusion that you share their values; by holding up a mirror to their actions, you teach them a lesson. Few can resist the power of Mirror Effect.
    Law 45
    Preach the Need for Change, but Never Reform too much at Once
    Everyone understands the need for change in the abstract, but on the day-to-day level people are creatures of habit. Too much innovation is traumatic, and will lead to revolt. If you are new to a position of power, or an outsider trying to build a power base, make a show of respecting the old way of doing things. If change is necessary, make it feel like a gentle improvement on the past.
    Law 46
    Never appear too Perfect
    Appearing better than others is always dangerous, but most dangerous of all is to appear to have no faults or weaknesses. Envy creates silent enemies. It is smart to occasionally display defects, and admit to harmless vices, in order to deflect envy and appear more human and approachable. Only gods and the dead can seem perfect with impunity.
    Law 47
    Do not go Past the Mark you Aimed for; In Victory, Learn when to Stop
    The moment of victory is often the moment of greatest peril. In the heat of victory, arrogance and overconfidence can push you past the goal you had aimed for, and by going too far, you make more enemies than you defeat. Do not allow success to go to your head. There is no substitute for strategy and careful planning. Set a goal, and when you reach it, stop.
    Law 48
    Assume Formlessness
    By taking a shape, by having a visible plan, you open yourself to attack. Instead of taking a form for your enemy to grasp, keep yourself adaptable and on the move. Accept the fact that nothing is certain and no law is fixed. The best way to protect yourself is to be as fluid and formless as water; never bet on stability or lasting order. Everything changes.

  2. M

    Mkandara Verified User

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    It all sound like Gangster law!
  3. The Boss

    The Boss JF-Expert Member

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    jaribu kukisoma hiki kitabu kwanza..
    kinahusu zaidi utawala kuliko u gangster....
  4. M

    Mkandara Verified User

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    Nitakisoma, it's interesting though!..Lakini haya machache niliyoyaona hapa nadhani picha yake ni U gangster zaidi ya Utawala wa Demokrasia, imekaa zaidi kama ile sinema ya Al Pacino - Scarface.. kwani hizi ni laws za Ki gangsters, Kimafia au Udikteta maanake naona mbinu nyingi ni za kumshinda ADUI au mshindani to gain POWER,
  5. The Boss

    The Boss JF-Expert Member

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    asikudanganye mtu...
    politics its all about power...
    weather its kikwete or obama...
    hizi law zinatumika kabisa kwenye demokrasia na utawala wa sheria..
    ku destroy mtu kisiasa na sio kumuua phisically.
  6. M

    Mkandara Verified User

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    True, lakini ukitazama viongozi wengi waliofanikiwa ktk Demokrasia wamefanya tofauti sana na hizi laws.. Kwa mfano huwezi jifanya mjinga hata siku moja na kumwacha mpinzani awe juu yako..maswala ya Takrima, never outshine Your master (who is the master!).. Takrima, not to trust friends, sijui kama kweli yanaweza fanya kazi ktk Demokrasia..Kumbuka tu ktk demokrasia watu humchagua kiongozi BORA na sii mwenye POWER..Lakini ktk U gangster na Udikteta haya maswala ni lazima ufanye hivyo..
    Sijasema yote ni mabaya ila yapo mengine sidhani kama ni ushauri mzuri mahala penye demokrasia.
  7. MwanaFalsafa1

    MwanaFalsafa1 JF-Expert Member

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    Power is power whether you are seeking it in politics, business or what you refer to as "ugangster". I think the book tries to explain the way one gains power and it's not exclusive to politics only. By the way wakuu mnafuatilia politics za nchi zote? Gaining power in politics does require some maneuvering which can be seen as "Ugangster". These laws whether one likes it or not does portray the reality of things. Kama unaona the tactics are wrong then the best way is to never seek power.
  8. MwanaFalsafa1

    MwanaFalsafa1 JF-Expert Member

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    Hapa anapo sema never outshine the master ni kwa mfano mtu ni waziri. Ina maana hapa waziri asijaribu kum outshine raisi wake mpaka raisi atishike laa sivyo unaweza kupoteza uwaziri hivi hivi. Na hiyo ya kutrust marafiki wewe muangalie tu Kikwete na utaona jinsi marafiki walivyo mponza iwe kwa maksudi au la.
  9. M

    Mkandara Verified User

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    Yes kweli kabisa POWER is POWER but power isn't Leadership!
  10. The Boss

    The Boss JF-Expert Member

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    umeongea cha maana sana.....
    mkandara anafikiri hizo demokrasia
    zinazoonekana kwenye tv ndio reality...
    the thruth kuna behind the scene maneuvering..ambazo
    ukizifuatilia unakuta it is the same game.
  11. The Boss

    The Boss JF-Expert Member

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    kabla ya leadership kwanza lazima upate hiyo power..

    leadership without power is not leadrship at all.
    hata mahatma gandhi alikuwa na power ya aina fulani.
  12. MwanaFalsafa1

    MwanaFalsafa1 JF-Expert Member

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    I agree with you mkuu, power is not leadership but the title is "48 Laws of Power" not "48 Laws of Leadership". And also before you can gain leadership you must gain power and a leader with no power can not get anything done. You can't separate power from leadership.
  13. Bluray

    Bluray JF-Expert Member

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    Nimekisoma hiki kitabu. At first I thought it was tacky, but came to find out that it was full of realism.Greene ame master the classics.Kuna kingine kaandika kuhusu seduction halafu kingine ameandika na 50 Cent

    Kikwete hakutumia "Never outshine the master" (hana uwezo hata wa kum outshine secretary wake) so much kama alivyotumia vizuri kabla ya kuwa rais Laws 24, 26, 32 na 35 halafu in no particular order 3, 4, 6, 7

    Sasa hivi anatumia sana 12 na 48.

    Rais yuko formless, no wonder twafwa!
  14. MwanaFalsafa1

    MwanaFalsafa1 JF-Expert Member

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    Na hicho ndiyo kikuu mkuu. Watu wanaona tu kinacho onyeshwa kwenye t.v but hawajui what goes on behind back doors. Mfano mzuri ni ushindi wa George W. Bush kwenye uchaguzi wa 2000. Pamoja na "demokrasia" iliyo komaa ya Marekani pale kuli tokea mambo mengi ya maneuvering mpaka mkuu aka ukwaa uraisi.
  15. The Boss

    The Boss JF-Expert Member

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    mkuu kama unakumbuka wakati wa kugombea urais
    mkapa ndie alikuwa na nguvu ya kumzuia kikwete
    lakini utakumbuka kikwete alivyokuwa anamwita
    mkapa "rais wetu mpendwa" na jinsi mapema
    alivyosema kuchimbua chimbua ya zamani,hatafanya.

    am not sure kama yuko formless but
    kuna mistake kubwa aliyoifanya ni kutokuwa na reputation
    inayomsaidia.....badala yake reputation yake inamuangamiza.
    watu hawamchukulii serious.
  16. The Boss

    The Boss JF-Expert Member

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    kabisa kabisa..
    hata obama kuna mengi kayafanya ya behind
    the scene mpaka kawa rais..
    mfano alivyokuwa anatumia pesa kwenye matangazo
    more than any candidate in the history of us election,
    au jinsi alivyokuwa anaungwa mkono na american jews
    kwa makubaliano ambayo hayapo clear sana.
  17. Bluray

    Bluray JF-Expert Member

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    Hiyo mpendwa rais ni tabia ya ki-courtesan, wala si kutotaka kum outshine Mkapa.Kikwete akiwekwa na Mkapa hawezi kumu outshine hata kama akidhamiria kufanya hivyo.

    Huko kukosa reputation kunatokana na nini? Kunatokana na kwamba alikuwa too careful not to cross people and make mistakes (aspect ya courtesans) kiasi kwamba hakujenga reputation yoyote, ndiyo maana mpaka leo hawezi kutoa maamuzi mazito, yuko formless, anasikiliza sikiliza tu washauri wanampeleka peleka, si mtu mwenye uamuzi firm kama Nyerere au Mkapa, watu ambao ukubaliane nao au usikubaliane nao, unajua wanasimama wapi.Kikwete mpaka leo hajulikani anafikiri nini, hence formless.
  18. M

    Mkandara Verified User

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    Wakuu zangu, Naona tutabishana hadi kunakucha kwa sababu tunazungumza vitu viwili tofauti..
    Sii kweli kabisa kwamba huwezi kuwa Leader kabla kujawa na power.. Ila ktk demokrasia ya kweli unapokuwa Kiongozi ndipo hukabidhiwa POWER kuongoza..Hivyo ni kweli hakuna Leadership bila power lakini sii kweli lazima uwe na Power kwanza ili uweze kuwa Kiongozi..nitarudia tena, Kiongozi hukabisdhdhiwa Power kumwezesha kuongoza..

    Hii ndio tofauti kati ya leadership ktk serikali yenye Demokrasia na ile ya Udikteta. Udikteta wanaamini kwanza upate Power kisha ndio unaweza kuongoza unavyotaka wewe, ndio maana nikatumia sinema ya Scarface na Mafia mob tactics of gaining power which leads to gaining ground..U can be very Powerful person na bado sii kiongozi na wapo viongozi kibao wasiokuwa na power kuliko senate.

    Pili, Obama hakutafuta POWER kwanza, ili kumwezesha kuingia IKULU ya Marekani ingawaje kuna baadhi ya hatua kazifanya zinakubalika ktk Gangster laws..Na Kikwete tunayemzungumzia hapa ni LEADER, yet mazungumzo yote yanaonyesha hana POWER...ndio maana umeweka udhaifu wake. kweli au sii kweli?

    Wakuu zangu sababu kubwa ya dunia hii kutangaza demokrasia ni kuweka tofauti ya Leadership kati yake na Udikteta.. tactics zinaweza fanana lakini tofauti kubwa ni kwamba Udikteta unatanguliza kutafuta POWER ukitumia sheria zake ambazo ndizo tunaziona hapa juu.. after gaining power unapochukua leadership na kuunda katiba yako kivyako kama unavyopenda wewe...You became the lawmaker..Wakati ktk Demokrasia wewe ulochaguliwa ndiye unakabidhiwa Power na wananchi (katiba) na kuitumia..
    Nadhani ninmeeleweka kama sivyo basi tuyaache kama yalivyo!
  19. M

    Magehema JF-Expert Member

    Oct 28, 2009
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    Remember what happened to R. Ouko!
  20. Iza

    Iza JF-Expert Member

    Oct 28, 2009
    Joined: Jan 8, 2009
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    power without control its "pure crystal no.s.ns." ivo ndo Mkulu anavyotembea,kuna madude mwenyewe anayagwaya,so the rules are great for seeking control