Dodoma SOME 176 primary and secondary school heads have been demoted for their role in examinations cheating, the Minister for Education and Vocational Training, Dr Shukuru Kawambwa, has told Parliament. Dr Kawambwa said a record 422 headmasters, 250 invigilators and private school owners were found to have played a role in the cheating. "Some 246 headteachers and 213 invigilators who were found to have taken part in cheating were given stern warnings and barred from taking part in examinations for between three to five years," said Dr Kawambwa. He further noted that 33 private school managers and owners have also been issued with stern warnings while 33 teachers have been formally charged by the Tanzania Teachers' Commission. Dr Kawambwa said 140 teachers were involved in cheating Certificate Secondary Education Examinations (CSEE) including 48 headmasters and 92 invigilators. "Owners of 13 private secondary schools involved in examination cheating were given letters on the intention of the government to stop them from registering Form One students next year," the minister said. He said several measures have been taken to address examination leakages by National Examinations Council of Tanzania (NECTA). "I would like to commend Dr Joyce Ndalichako for a job well done in taming examinations leakage," he added. A record 9,736 primary school pupils and 3,303 students in secondary schools had their results nullified last year.