Stress Management

Mtoto wa Mkulima

JF-Expert Member
Apr 12, 2007
How To Manage Stress At Work?

 Create A Plesant Work Environment
 Manage Your Time
 Avoid Feeling Guilty
 Don’t Think That Your Are A Perfectionist
 Drive Your Own Vehicle
 Be Selective About What You Have Taken
 Plan And Prioritise
 Develop A Support System For Yourself
 Look After Your Body,life And Soul
 Accept Stress As A Part Of Your Life

How To Reduce Stress

 Be Reasonable In Your Expectations
 Be Decisive
 Create A Supportive Work Environment
 Be Alert To The Value Of Self-esteem
 Plan Ahead And Respect Your Time
 Involve Employees In The Decision-making Process
 Communicate With Each Member Of Staff Members
 Provide Adequate Resources

Signs Of Stress

 Physical
 Emotional
 Mental
 Judgemental
 Behavioural

Causes Of Stress

 Excessive Work Load
 Uncertain Job Security
 Poor Work Environment
 Continual Crisis Management
 Personal Factors
Financial Pressure
Marital Relationship

Job Related Stress

 Job Has Forced To Deviate From Normal Route
 Due To Psychological And Physio-social Disorders
 Stress Causes Work Related Diseases Such As:-
Mental Illness
Coronary Heart Diseases
Accidents At Work
Panic, Heart Attacks
Poor Concentration
Lost Memory

t is impractical for the supervisor to handle all of the work of the department directly. In order to meet the organization's goals, focus on objectives, and ensure that all work is accomplished, supervisors must delegate authority. Authority is the legitimate power of a supervisor to direct subordinates to take action within the scope of the supervisor's position. By extension, this power, or a part thereof, is delegated and used in the name of a supervisor.

Delegation is the downward transfer of formal authority from superior to subordinate. The employee is empowered to act for the supervisor, while the supervisor remains accountable for the outcome. Delegation of authority is a person-to-person relationship requiring trust, commitment, and contracting between the supervisor and the employee.
The supervisor assists in developing employees in order to strengthen the organization. He or she gives up the authority to make decisions that are best made by subordinates. This means that the supervisor allows subordinates the freedom to make mistakes and learn from them. He or she does not supervise subordinates' decision-making, but allows them the opportunity to develop their own skills. The supervisor lets subordinates know that he or she is willing to help, but not willing to do their jobs for them. The supervisor is not convinced that the best way for employees to learn is by telling them how to solve a problem. This results in those subordinates becoming dependent on the supervisor. The supervisor allows employees the opportunity to achieve and be credited for it.

An organization's most valuable resource is its people. By empowering employees who perform delegated jobs with the authority to manage those jobs, supervisors free themselves to manage more effectively. Successfully training future supervisors means delegating authority. This gives employees the concrete skills, experience, and the resulting confidence to develop themselves for higher positions. Delegation provides better managers and a higher degree of efficiency. Thus, collective effort, resulting in the organization's growth, is dependent on delegation of authority.

Responsibility and Accountability
Equally important to authority is the idea that when an employee is given responsibility for a job, he or she must also be given the degree of authority necessary to carry it out. Thus, for effective delegation, the authority granted to an employee must equal the assigned responsibility. Upon accepting the delegated task, the employee has incurred an obligation to perform the assigned work and to properly utilize the granted authority.
Responsibility is the obligation to do assigned tasks. The individual employee is responsible for being proficient at his or her job. The supervisor is responsible for what employees do or fail to do, as well as for the resources under their control. Thus, responsibility is an integral part of a supervisor's authority.
Responsibilities fall into two categories: individual and organizational. Employees have individual responsibilities to be proficient in their job. They are responsible for their actions. Nobody gives or delegates individual responsibilities. Employees assume them when they accept a position in the organization. Organizational responsibilities refer to collective organizational accountability and include how well departments perform their work. For example, the supervisor is responsible for all the tasks assigned to his or her department, as directed by the manager.
When someone is responsible for something, he or she is liable, or accountable to a superior, for the outcome. Thus, accountability flows upward in the organization. All are held accountable for their personal, individual conduct.
Accountability is answering for the result of one's actions or omissions. It is the reckoning, wherein one answers for his or her actions and accepts the consequences, good or bad. Accountability establishes reasons, motives and importance for actions in the eyes of managers and employees alike. Accountability is the final act in the establishment of one's credibility. It is important to remember that accountability results in rewards for good performance, as well as discipline for poor performance.
The Delegation Process
The delegation process has five phases:
1. preparing,
2. planning,
3. discussing,
4. auditing, and
5. appreciating.
The first step in delegating is to identify what should and should not be delegated. The supervisor should delegate any task that a subordinate performs better. Tasks least critical to the performance of the supervisor's job can be delegated. Any task that provides valuable experience for subordinates should be delegated. Also, the supervisor can delegate the tasks that he or she dislikes the most. But, the supervisor should not delegate any task that would violate a confidence.
• Preparing includes establishing the objectives of the delegation, specifying the task that needs to be accomplished, and deciding who should accomplish it.
• Planning is meeting with the chosen subordinate to describe the task and to ask the subordinate to devise a plan of action. As Andrew Carnegie once said, "The secret of success is not in doing your own work but in recognizing the right man to do it." Trust between the supervisor and employee - that both will fulfill the commitment - is most important.
• Discussing includes reviewing the objectives of the task as well as the subordinate's plan of action, any potential obstacles, and ways to avoid or deal with these obstacles. The supervisor should clarify and solicit feedback as to the employee's understanding. Clarifications needed for delegation include the desired results (what not how), guidelines, resources available, and consequences (good and bad). Delegation is similar to contracting between the supervisor and employee regarding how and when employee should know exactly what is expected and how the task will be evaluated.
• Auditing is monitoring the progress of the delegation and making adjustments in response to unforeseen problems.
• Appreciating is accepting the completed task and acknowledging the subordinate's efforts.
the work will be completed. The standards and time frames are discussed and agreed upon. The
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