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maumivu ya mishpa kat ya korodan na Kinena

Discussion in 'JF Doctor' started by mbasajohn, Jul 5, 2011.

  1. mbasajohn

    mbasajohn JF-Expert Member

    Jul 5, 2011
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    naomba msaada wa ushauri nifanye nn ktbu maumuv ya misuri katikat ya korodan na kinena.
    Maumuv haya hutokea kila nnaposmamisha uume kwa mda halafu nsfanye mapenz.
  2. FaizaFoxy

    FaizaFoxy JF-Expert Member

    Jul 5, 2011
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    Huyo waswahili huuita ngiri na wadhungu husema ni hernia.

    1) Nenda Hospitali.

    2) Usismamishe.
  3. Inkoskaz

    Inkoskaz JF-Expert Member

    Jul 5, 2011
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    Advice number two is difficult to exercise as is caused by natural emotions
  4. Fisadi Mkuu

    Fisadi Mkuu Member

    Jul 5, 2011
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    Eh!Asimamishe?Utazuiaje kusimamisha?
  5. Katavi

    Katavi Platinum Member

    Jul 5, 2011
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    Nenda hospitali...
  6. Katavi

    Katavi Platinum Member

    Jul 5, 2011
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    Hiyo avatar....dah!!!!
  7. mbasajohn

    mbasajohn JF-Expert Member

    Jul 5, 2011
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    mh nisisimamishe that is imposble. N chanzo cha ngr na nn madhara yake tofaut na maumivu?
  8. njiwa

    njiwa JF-Expert Member

    Jul 6, 2011
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    kama maumivi wayapata alfajiri.. ni kawaida kama wayapata muda wowote unaposimamisha dude go & seek some medical advice
  9. Makoye Matale

    Makoye Matale JF-Expert Member

    Jul 6, 2011
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    Shauri jinsi gani anaweza kutekeleza ushauri huu!

    KAKA A TAIFA JF-Expert Member

    Jul 6, 2011
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    [h=3]Testicular Pain Overview[/h]
    Men become very concerned and anxious when they feel pain in their testicles. To better understand the various causes of this symptom, an understanding of basic anatomy and the development of the testicles is necessary.
    • Before birth, the testicles are located in the abdomen (belly). Eventually, the testicles migrate down through the abdomen into the scrotum (the outside pouch that contains the testicles). However, they remain connected to the abdomen by the spermatic cord, which contains vital blood vessels, nerves, lymphatic vessels, and the vas deferens. The spermatic cord also functions to suspend the testicles within the scrotum.
    • On the upper, outer, back position of the testicle lies a connected but separate structure called the epididymis, which serves to store and transport sperm. Normally, the epididymis has a direct connection to the wall of the scrotum.
    Picture of the Male Urinary and Reproductive Structures

    [h=3]Testicular Pain Causes[/h]Testicular pain has many causes, some of which constitute surgical emergencies that require immediate medical attention in order to salvage the affected testicle.
    Trauma: Trauma to the testicles often produces extreme pain. A direct blow to the scrotum, while very painful, usually causes only temporary pain. Most cases of testicular injuries (85%) are caused by blunt trauma (sports injuries, a direct kick or punch, car accidents, or straddle injuries).

    • It may result in a bruise or swelling of the scrotum and testicles.
    • Occasionally, trauma to the testicles may cause a more significant injury that may require emergency surgery.

    • Because blood contains oxygen, and testicles require oxygen to remain functional and viable, the twisting may result in the "death" of a testicle.
    • Torsion may occur at any age, but it is most common in the first few months of life (newborns) and in boys between the ages of 12-18 years.
    • Torsion often occurs in men who have an anomaly affecting the normal attachment of the testicle to the wall of the scrotum (referred to as the bell-clapper deformity). Many of these men have the same abnormality present in both testicles.
    Epididymitis: Epididymitis (inflammation of the epididymis) is most often due to an infection. It is the most common cause of testicular pain in men older than 18 years of age, though it can also occur in prepubertal individuals and the elderly.

    Torsion of a testicular appendage: This is a common cause of testicular pain in younger boys, with most cases occurring between the ages of 7 and 14 years.

    • The testicular appendage and the epididymal appendage are basically functionless tissue remaining from human embryonic development. As in testicular torsion, the twisting of these structures can lead to an interruption of blood flow, leading to varying amounts of testicular pain.
    Other, less common causes of testicular pain include the following:

    • Inguinal hernia: This condition occurs when part of the intestine protrudes through a muscular defect in the groin area and slides into the scrotum. This may cause scrotal swelling and testicular discomfort.
    • Orchitis (inflammation of the testicle): This inflammatory condition of the testicle generally occurs because of an infectious process. It is sometimes found along with epididymitis (epididymo-orchitis), especially when epididymitis has gone untreated for several days. Most cases of orchitis are caused by a viral mumps infection, though other viruses and bacterial organisms can also cause it.
    • Testicular torsion is a surgical emergency. It occurs when the testicle twists inside the scrotum, either spontaneously or less commonly, as a result of direct trauma. When the testicle twists, the blood vessels contained within the spermatic cord also twist leading to an interruption of blood flow to the affected testicle.
      [h=3]Testicular Pain Symptoms[/h]With testicular pain, the health care practitioner's first goal is to determine whether or not the pain is caused by testicular torsion, because this is a surgical emergency requiring prompt medical attention. Though the following information may be used to help differentiate the symptoms of testicular torsion and epididymitis, any individual with testicular pain should not delay seeking medical evaluation, as distinguishing between the two can often be difficult.
      • Pain from testicular torsion usually comes on suddenly.
      • Pain from epididymitis usually begins gradually. Early on, the pain due to epididymitis is frequently localized to the area of the epididymis itself.
      • With testicular pain from any source, the affected individual may experience any of the following symptoms:
        • swelling, tenderness, or redness of the testicles and scrotum;
        • nausea and vomiting;
        • fever;
        • painful urination or penile discharge; and
        • pain with sexual intercourse, pain with ejaculation, or blood in the urine or semen.
        • [h=3]Testicular Pain Diagnosis[/h]In order to diagnose the underlying cause of testicular pain, the health care practitioner will conduct a complete history and physical exam on the patient. The physical exam will focus on examining the following areas:
          • abdomen/groin,
          • penis,
          • testicles, and
          • scrotum.
          Laboratory tests that may be useful in helping make the diagnosis include:
          • blood tests
          • urinalysis
          • a urethral swab to check for sexually transmitted diseases if the patient has penile discharge
          In many cases, in order to help determine the cause of the testicular pain, an imaging study also may be ordered at the discretion of the health care practitioner.

          Testicular ultrasound: This non-invasive test can evaluate the blood flow to the testicle (if testicular torsion is suspected), in addition to helping diagnose other anatomical abnormalities within the scrotum that can cause testicular pain, including the following:
          • testicular rupture,
          • hematocele (a collection of blood),
          • abscess (a collection of pus)
          • testicular tumor, and
          • inguinal hernia.
          In cases of epididymitis, testicular ultrasound may reveal an inflamed epididymis with increased blood flow to this structure.
          Nuclear scan: Some hospitals may perform this test to help evaluate the cause of testicular pain. It is non-invasive, although it does require the injection of radioactive dye through an IV line.
          • A nuclear scan will diagnose testicular torsion by showing decreased accumulation of dye in the affected testicle compared to the normal testicle.
          • In many hospitals, the time required to prepare the materials and perform a nuclear scan is so lengthy that it is not practical when testicular torsion is suspected.
          • Finally, in some cases after examining the patient, the health care practitioner may have such a high degree of suspicion that testicular torsion is present, that no imaging tests will be ordered and the individual will be taken straight to the operating room.
          [h=3]Testicular Pain Medical Treatment[/h]
          The medical treatment and surgical for testicular pain depends entirely upon the cause of the underlying cause: Trauma: After careful evaluation, if no serious underlying testicular injury have been identified, most cases of testicular trauma can be managed and treated at home. Treatment consists of the following measures:
          • pain medications, including anti-inflammatory agents;
          • scrotal support and elevation;
          • ice packs; and
          • rest.
          More severe cases of testicular trauma involve testicular rupture, blunt trauma with an associated hematocele (a collection of blood) and penetrating traumatic injuries requiring surgical intervention.
          Testicular torsion: This condition requires immediate surgery by a urologist (specialist in genital and urinary organs). Prior to surgery, a doctor may attempt to untwist the testicle manually to relieve the problem temporarily, though definitive surgery will ultimately still be required. Surgery will consist of untwisting the affected testicle, assessing its viability, and finally securing the testicle to the scrotal wall (orchiopexy) to prevent subsequent episodes of torsion.
          Epididymitis: The treatment for this condition is generally managed on an outpatient basis, although patients with severe cases of epididymitis accompanied by complications may require hospitalization. Generally speaking, treatment consists of the following:
          • antibiotics for 10 to 14 days with the choice of antibiotic prescribed varying depending on the age and sexual history of the individual;
          • pain medications, including anti-inflammatory drugs;
          • scrotal support and elevation;
          • ice packs; and
          • rest.
          Rarely, individuals with epididymitis may develop a complication requiring surgical management, such as a scrotal abscess. Also, some cases of chronic epididymitis refractory to the above measures may require the administration of nerve blocks for pain control, or rarely surgical removal of the epididymis (epididymectomy). Patient's should work with their urologists in regard to their particular medical situation.
          Torsion of a testicular appendage: The treatment for this self-limiting condition primarily consists of pain control with anti-inflammatory drugs, scrotal support and elevation, and ice packs. The pain should generally go away within about one week.
          Inguinal hernia: The definitive treatment for inguinal hernias requires surgery, which is generally accomplished electively as an outpatient. However, individuals with inguinal hernias that cannot be pushed back in (incarcerated hernia) require emergent surgical management.
          • Individuals with hernias should be instructed to avoid straining and to avoid lifting heavy objects. Also there are various medical devices used to provide support for those individuals with hernias. Consult with your health care practitioner for more information.
          Orchitis: The treatment measures for orchitis include pain medication, ice packs, scrotal support and rest. Antibiotics are reserved only for those cases of bacterial orchitis (not viral orchitis). Rarely, a complication from orchitis (such as an abscess) may require surgical drainage.
          Testicular tumor: A testicular mass requires prompt evaluation by a urologist in order to establish a definitive diagnosis. If the patient has testicular cancer, he will be referred to a specialist for further treatment options.
          Kidney stone: The treatment for an uncomplicated kidney stone generally involves pain medication, anti-nausea medication, and medication that facilitates the passage of the kidney stone (for example, tamsulosin [Flomax]). If the kidney stone is complicated by an infection, emergent urologic consultation is required.
          [h=3]Testicular Pain Prevention[/h]
          Many causes of testicular pain are not entirely preventable; however, some measures may be taken to decrease the risk:
          • When engaging in sporting activities, make sure to wear the appropriate protective equipment to prevent testicular trauma.
          • For those cases of epididymitis caused by sexually transmitted diseases, safe sexual behavior using condoms greatly reduces the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted diseases.
          • The mumps vaccination can reduce the incidence of viral orchitis.
          • Though testicular tumors cannot be prevented, regular self-examinations of the testicles can improve the chance of early detection.
  11. m

    mtimbaru Member

    Jul 6, 2011
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    lugha unayotumia ni kali sana
  12. FaizaFoxy

    FaizaFoxy JF-Expert Member

    Jul 7, 2011
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    Jamani advice ilikuwa namba 1, ile namba mbili I was just kidding. Hee, mnanini nyie? Hamtaki kucheka hata kidogo? kutwa kucha muwe serious tu!