Habari zetu wana JF .... nataka kuandika makala fupi kuhusu Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) what is GERD Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition in which the stomach contents (food or liquid) leak backwards from the stomach into the esophagus . Esophagus ni tube from the mouth to the stomach . angalia hii picha hapo chini ggggggggggggggggggggggggg chakula kinarudi juu naweza nikatoa mfano wa kama kubeua (kucheua) . GERD can irritate the esophagus, causing heartburn "KIUNGULIA" and other symptoms. More common symptoms ni kama zifuatavyo - 1) Feeling that food may be left trapped behind the breastbone 2) Heartburn or a burning pain in the chest (under the breastbone) - Increased by bending, stooping, lying down, or eating - More likely or worse at night - Relieved by antacids 3) Nausea after eating Less common symptoms ni hizi 1) Cough or wheezing 2) Difficulty swallowing 3) Hiccups 4) Hoarseness or change in voice 5) Regurgitation of food 6) Sore throat Nini kinasababisha GERD ? Unapokula chakula , food passes from the throat to the stomach through the esophagus (also called the food pipe or swallowing tube). Once food is in the stomach, a ring of muscle fibers prevents food from moving backward into the esophagus. These muscle fibers are called the lower esophageal sphincter, or LES. Na hapa ndipo linapotokea tatizo if this sphincter muscle doesn't close well, food, liquid, and stomach acid can leak back into the esophagus. This is called reflux or gastroesophageal reflux. This reflux may cause symptoms, or can even damage the esophagus. The risk factors for reflux include hiatal hernia (a condition in which part of the stomach moves above the diaphragm, which is the muscle that separates the chest and abdominal cavities), pregnancy, and scleroderma. Obesity, cigarettes, and possibly alcohol also increase the chance of GERD. Heartburn and gastroesophageal reflux can be brought on or worsened by pregnancy and many different medications. Baadhi ya hizo dawa ni - Anticholinergics (e.g., for seasickness) - Beta-blockers dawa kwa ajili ya high blood pressure or heart disease - Bronchodilators for asthma - Calcium channel blockers for high blood pressure - Dopamine-active drugs for Parkinson's disease - Progestin for abnormal menstrual bleeding or birth control - Sedatives for insomnia or anxiety - Tricyclic antidepressants P.S - If you suspect that one of your medications may be causing heartburn, talk to your doctor. Never change or stop a medication you take regularly without talking to your doctor Treatments To prevent heartburn, avoid foods and beverages that may trigger your symptoms. For many people, these include: - Alcohol - Caffeine - Carbonated beverages - Chocolate - Citrus fruits and juices - Tomatoes - Tomato sauces - Spicy or fatty foods - Full-fat dairy products - Peppermint & Spearmint If other foods regularly give you heartburn, avoid those foods, too. Also, try the following changes to your eating habits and lifestyle 1) Avoid bending over or exercising just after eating 2) Avoid garments or belts that fit tightly around your waist ( dada zetu imekuwa fasion uvaaji wa aina hii ) 3) Do not lie down with a full stomach. For example, avoid eating within 2 -3 hours of bedtime. 4) Do not smoke. 5) Eat smaller meals. 6) Lose weight if you are overweight. 7) Reduce stress. 8) Sleep with your head raised about 6 inches. Do this by tilting your entire bed, or by using a wedge under your body, not just with normal pillows. Over-the-counter antacids may be used after meals and at bedtime, although they do not last very long. Common side effects of antacids include diarrhea or constipation. Other over-the-counter and prescription drugs can treat GERD. They work more slowly than antacids but give you longer relief. Your doctor or nurse can tell you how to take these drugs. Zipo za aina nyingi sana baadhi ambazo ni common ni Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) , H2 antagonists , Promotility agents Anti-reflux operations (Nissen fundoplication and others) may be an option for patients whose symptoms do not go away with lifestyle changes and drugs. Heartburn and other symptoms should improve after surgery, but you may still need to take drugs for your heartburn. Afya ni jukumu lako mwenyewe.