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Christianization of human cargo to maryland

Discussion in 'Habari na Hoja mchanganyiko' started by Sonara, Jul 12, 2009.

  1. Sonara

    Sonara JF-Expert Member

    Jul 12, 2009
    Joined: Oct 2, 2008
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    CHRISTIANIZATION OF HUMAN CARGO TO MARYLAND As stated ealier, the history of Muslims in Maryland can be traced to West Africa where Islam reached in the eighth century. By the twelfth century, the Muslims had already established Islamic Empire of Mali whose king Mansa Kankan Mussa (1312-1337) performed his famous pilgrimage to Mecca in 1324. On his return, he informed Nasir Edin bin Muhammad III (1309-1340), a Muslim scholar in Cairo that his brother, Sultan Abu Bakr Kankan Mussa (1285-1312) had undertaken two important expeditions into the Atlantic Ocean. Since the Sultan did not return to Timbuktu from the second voyage of 1311, Mansa Kankan Mussa became the Sultan of the Empire of Mali Mansa Kankan Mussa. Being educated in Arabic, Mansa Kankan Mussa brought with him to Mali some Muslim scholars and famous architect, Ishaq al-Teudjin, who constructed for him several buildings, Islamic schools, palaces and mosques. Mansa Kankan Mussa started diplomatic relationship with Tunisia and Egypt for culture, economics and education. By the fifteenth century, Mali had the Islamic University of Sankore at Timbuktu, which was attended by many scholars from different parts of the world before Muslim slaves from West Africa were chained to Maryland in the sixteenth century. Some of them formed a bridge of blood across the Atlantic Ocean during the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade (1530-1863), the greatest intercontinental terrorism in the global history of human cargo from Africa to Maryland. It started when Americans took the youngest, the strongest, the best people from West Africa, among them were Muslims. They threw the sick and the weak to the sharks. Whole families were placed in separate pens and held sometimes for months until their ship arrived. Then they were loaded on board and sold into servitude in different lands. Father could go to Louisiana in the U.S., mother to Brazil or Cuba and the children to Haiti or Cuba. It was the greatest genocide in the history of humankind. In such a shipment of human cargo, we do not know precisely when the first Muslim slave was brought to Maryland. But an unnamed African baptized as Mathias de Souza, was the first African slave in Maryland. He arrived in 1634 at St. Mary's City with the ARK, the ship sent by Lord Baltimore of England. Mathias de Souza was a slave of a Jesuit priest in Maryland, the first Colony to develop capitalist economy based on wheat and tobacco plantation by sweat and toil of slaves, and among them were Muslims from West Africa. Although the African Muslim slaves provided their forced labor to American Christian wealth, Islam was their free greatest gift in the making of America from plantation to industrial revolution. Some of these West African Muslim slaves converted to Christianity to gain emancipation. After the arrival of 13 slaves from West Africa at St. Mary's City in 1642, Maryland was the first Colony to legislate that any African slave who was baptized as a Christian could be freed yet, this emancipation law was ignored in 1663, when Maryland became the first to legislate that all the African slaves and their children must be slaves forever. Since other West African slaves considered Christianity as the only reason for manumission, the Maryland Assembly declared in 1664 that baptism, should not affect a slave's status. From 1690, a large number of West African slaves were brought to Maryland and its State Assembly encouraged slaves owners to convert their African slaves into Christianity since none of them was a Christian in West Africa. Allan Austin estimated that at least ten percent of the African slaves in America were Muslims. But the exact number of the African Muslim slaves in Maryland is not known: DEMOGRAPHIC CONDIDTION AND COLOUR IN MARYLAND [1890]