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Kamundu Class 101: Benki ni kikwazo cha Maendeleo Tanzania. Je, tufanye nini kurekebisha?

Discussion in 'Jukwaa la Siasa' started by Kamundu, Aug 22, 2012.

  1. K

    Kamundu JF-Expert Member

    #1
    Aug 22, 2012
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    Naona badala ya kuongea siasa kila wakati tunaweza kuelimishana kwenye mammbo muhimu hapa.Hii topic nilishawahi kuituma.

    Tanzania inakabiliwa na matatizo mengi ya uchumi. Moja la tatizo kubwa linalokwamisha sana maendeleo ni hakuna utaratibu mzuri wa bank kusaidia uchumi kama ulivyo kwenye nchi zenye uchumi mkubwa. Mikopo ni migumu kupata na riba ipo juu sana kiasi kwamba ni vigumu kwa wafanyabiashara wa kawaida kupata mikopo. Bank za Tanzania hazisaidii uchumi kama inavyotegemewa tena ukizingatia pesa karibu zote zimewekewa riba na bank kuu kwa kupitia serikali. Serikali na Bank kuu zinatakiwa kufanya yafuatayo
    1. Vitambulisho: Serikali inatakiwa kuwa na vitambulisho vya uhakika ili watoa mikopo wa wapokea mikopo wajuane. Hii vilevile itasaidia kujua historia za watu za mikopo.
    2. Historia ya mikopo au (Credit Rating System): Serikali bank kuu na wizara husika zinatakiwa ziweke utaratibu wa kuwa na hifathi (database) ambayo inaonyesha historia za watu kuchukua na kulipa mikopo.
    3.Riba za T-Bills/T-Bond za serikali ziwe chini: Serikali inachukua pesa kwa wananchi na mashirika kwa njia hizi mbili. Serikali ikichukua hii mikopo inatoa vitu viwili muhimu (a) muda wa kuwalipa mikopo (b) riba ya mikopo. Riba ya hii mikopo ya serikali ambayo mara nyingi ni lazima ilipwe ni kubwa sana 7%-8% ukilinganisha na nchi nyingine ambazo zina 2%-5%. Hii ni muhimu sana kwani bank ikitoa mikopo inatoa kutokana na riba hizi. Riba za bank ni lazima ziwe juu kuliko za serikali hivyo kama riba zao ni 5% na serikali ni 7% wanakupa riba ya 12%. Hii ni kwasababu watu ambao wanatoa pesa za mikopo ya bank hawawezi kuwekeza kwenye mikopo ya bank wakati mikopo ya serikali inauhakika wa kulipwa (Risk Fee rate). Kwa bank kupata wawekezaji ni lazima waweke kiwango cha juu zaidi.
     
  2. NusuMutu

    NusuMutu JF-Expert Member

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    Aug 22, 2012
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    Mimi naamini kama benki zetu ama ingepatkana benk kama GRAMEEN inayoongozwa na Prof. Mohammed Yunus,watu maskini na hasa wa vijijini wangepata ukombozi. Mkulu aliwahi mualika huyu jamaa hapa tz,sijui ilikuwa ni upepo tu ukapita?
     
  3. K

    Kagalala JF-Expert Member

    #3
    Aug 22, 2012
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    Kweli naunga mkono hoja. Wakati wenzetu USA riba ni 5% kwetu ni 20%. Kweli kwa nini watu wasiibe kupata mtaji wa kufanya biashara Kama bank zinatoza riba hii alafu mpaka uonge kupata mkopo na unatozwa malipo mengine zaidi ya riba. Tz km tumelogwa vile!!
     
  4. Tetty

    Tetty JF-Expert Member

    #4
    Aug 22, 2012
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    Ni kweli mikopo ina riba kubwa mno.Lakini tatizo ni inflation ipo juu na inapanda kila kukicha
     
  5. N

    NasDaz JF-Expert Member

    #5
    Aug 22, 2012
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    Anyway, labda lililo la msingi zaidi ni hilo namba 3 ingawaje hayo mengine si kwamba nayapuuza! hata hivyo, labda hicho kipengele namba 3 tukiweke katika lugha nyepesi na inayoeleweka manake naona ni kama maelezo yako yanachanganya kidogo!

    Ni ukweli ulio wazi kwamba Treasury Bills/Bonds zinadumaza sana commercial loans hapa nchini. Kuwapo kwa riba kubwa itolewayo na serikali kunazifanya benki zisione umuhimu mkubwa wa ku-base kwenye commercial loans kwa kuwa tayari wanapata faida kubwa kupitia dhamana zitolewazo na serikali.

    Mbaya zaidi, serikali inakopeshwa pesa ambazo ni zake yenyewe kwavile bado serikali ina mamilioni ya shilingi kwenye benki mbali mbali za biashara na hivyo, inapotokea kutangaza dhamana zake, benki inatumia pesa hizo hizo za serikali na kuikopesha serikali hiyo hiyo at higher interest rate. So, endapo serikali ingepunguza viwango vya riba inazotowa kwenye dhamana zake, then government bonds zingepunguwa kuwa attractive investments kwa commercial banks, as a results, commercial banks zingetafuta alternative way of earning interests....na hapo ndipo zingegeukia upande wa commercial loans!

    In additional, miezi kadhaa iliyopita niliwahi kuandika kitu kinachohusiana na suala hili hili ka mabenk na mikopo! For more, niliongelea hapa: http://www.jamiiforums.com/business-and-economic-forum/198560-mabenki-na-mikopo-ya-biashara-kwa-graduates.html
     
  6. K

    Kamundu JF-Expert Member

    #6
    Aug 22, 2012
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    Ngoja nielezee kwa kitalaamu kipengele cha tatu. kwenye mfumo wa kibepari na kampuni za binafsi pesa yeyote inayotumika kwa mikopo au ujenzi n.k imetoka kwa mwekezaji. Mwekezaji hivyo inategemea kupata faida kutoka kwenye pesa yake aliyotoa.Kwa kampuni zenye hisa wawekezaji ni wenye hisa. Hii hapa ni njia (formular wanayotumia wawekezaji)

    Required Rate of Retun = Risk Free Rate + Risk Premium

    Maana yake ni kwamba kama mwekezaji anataka 7% (Risk Premium) kwa mwaka na serikali inauza T-Bond zake asilimia 10% (Risk Free Rate) kwa mwaka basi Mwekezaji anahitaji asilimia 17% ili aweze kutoa mkopo. Kama serikali itaongeza T-Bond kutoka 10% mfano mpaka 15% basi mwekezaji atahitaji asilimia 22% ili aweze kuwekeza. Hii ni kwasababu huwezi kupata mwekezaji anayehitaji asilimia 15% maana anaweza kwenda kununua T-Bond ambazo hazina risk na kumvutia ni lazima utoe zaidi.

    Nitakuwa naendelea kutoa somo polepole ili nisiache watu.
     
  7. K

    Kamundu JF-Expert Member

    #7
    Sep 29, 2012
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    Wameanza kusikiliza

    [h=2]BOT launches single borrowers` databank[/h]


    BY EMMANUEL ONYANGO



    29th September 2012


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    Bank of Tanzania


    Alarmed by growing credit abuse, defaults and frauds from borrowers, the Central Bank of Tanzania (BOT) yesterday launched a credit bureau data base system, a single databank known as Credit Reference System (CRS).

    CRS would monitor and store all details of borrowers, whereby it could also be used by lenders to conduct ‘due diligence' to any new loan applicants before issuing credits.

    Following the BOT move, all banks, financial institutions, including micro-lending agencies, will now have their customers' credit records kept at a single databank system.
    The CRS system is designed to collect and provide information on payment records of all borrowers, such as those from Savings and Credit schemes in the country and other entities engaged in regular issuance of loans.

    The BOT Director of Banking Supervision, Agapiti Kobelo said during the launch that, "the establishment of CRS is a continuation of government's efforts to reform the financial sector with the enactment of the Banking and Financial Institution's Act which whose applicability started way back in 1991".
    According to one aspect within the Act, the Credit Reference System shall consist of a databank administered by the BOT and private credit bureau operating under the conditions prescribed by the Central Bank in the country.

    The Act has further opened doors for private banks in the country to enter into the market and fair trade competition. The reforms were initiated in order to create an effective and efficient financial system.
    Describing how the CSR will work, he said that basically there will be two different ways on how to coordinate the system; this is either by mandatory or voluntary sharing of information.

    Under the mandatory scheme, the Central Bank will collect all relevant information from licensed banks and financial institutions and makes it available to licensed private micro finance institutions (credit bureaus).

    This is done in countries where awareness of the benefits of credit bureaux is not very high, where lenders may be reluctant to share information, a model which Tanzania has adopted.
    In other countries where consumer credit is developed and knowledge is well spread, a credit report is a good tool to get more customers at lower price, thus the sharing of information is generally voluntary and a lender gives the information on reciprocity basis.

    He also noted that apart from borrowers' information, the CSR will also source data from other entities such as utility providers, phone companies, debt collection agencies, public institutions such as Business Registration and Licensing Authority (BRELA) and the courts.

    Detailing how this would be transacted, he said the bureaus will prepare credit reports that will then be sold on request to users. A typical user will be a lender who will be approached by a potential borrower for a loan and before the loan is granted, the lender will request for a credit report on the applicant from a private credit bureau to assist in analyzing and evaluating the loan request.

    It is worth noting that credit information might be of useful interest to other users, including bank supervisors, other units with the bank, government agencies, employers, insurers and real estate agents. Borrowers will be allowed to have free access to their credit reports once per year upon request and shall have a right to challenge information contained in a report.

    "The benefits of giving borrowers access is to build trust and ensure transparency and assessment of the accuracy of the information maintained in the system", he said.

    Describing the disadvantages of the absence of the CRS before its introduction, the Deputy Governor of the BOT, Juma Reli noted that the system in Tanzania has been one of the major factors limiting access to credit. Small firms and individuals borrow at high rates because of the high risks involved as lenders do not have information on their credit behaviors.

    However, he noted that, in view of this there is usually disparity of knowledge (information asymmetry) between the lender and the borrowers about the past payment behavior and the current level of debt a result of which makes banks fail to make informed decisions on their lending operations.

    Experience has shown that problems related to data accuracy are the subject of numerous complaints and litigation around the world and, as a result, have had significant impact on the development of credit reference systems.

    In view of the need to have a State-of-the-Art credit reference system in Tanzania, the BOT has engaged M/s Creditinfo International to assist in setting up a credit reference databank, the vendor started work in October 2011. Pilot testing of the system began in June 2012 and so far about 26 banks have already joined the testing environment out of which 9 banks have successfully uploaded data into the system.



    SOURCE: THE GUARDIAN


     
  8. K

    Kamundu JF-Expert Member

    #8
    Jan 24, 2014
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    my clasic
     
  9. The Spit

    The Spit JF-Expert Member

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    Jan 24, 2014
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    Mkuu mi binafsi nashukuru sana kwa hili darasa, na pia naomba unieleweshe kidogo, Hivi Hizi T-Bonds zina masharti ghani kununuliwa,namaanisha kununua T-Bond moja kwa moja toka serikalini kwa mtu binafsi, Au ni mabenki tu na those big investors ndo wanasifa za kuzinunua?Say nina 50mil nataka niuzie serikali for a certain maturity period bonds,inawezekana?
     
  10. Danp36

    Danp36 JF-Expert Member

    #10
    May 19, 2015
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    hii imenionesha kitu
     
  11. K

    Kamundu JF-Expert Member

    #11
    May 19, 2015
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    Bank ni sehemu nzuri ya kuuliza
     
  12. B

    Bocho JF-Expert Member

    #12
    May 19, 2015
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    Serikali inapaswa kuiangalia sector ya benk kwa ukaribu sana ili kupunguza dhulma wanazofanyiwa watu wa hali ya chini.

    Central Bank ya Zambia baada ya kuona utitiri wa Microfinances ambazo pia zilikuwa zikicharge reckless interest rates, ilikuja na sheria ya kuweka upper limit ya interest rates. Na hapa kwetu given interest rates wanazo charge hizi micro finances na banks kwa Micro lenders, ipo haja kwa serikali kufanya kile ambacho serikali ya Zambia ilikifanya.

    Yaani kuweka kiwango cha riba ambacho mkopeshaji yeyote hawezi kukipita ili kuisaidia pia jamii. Yaani Interest rates zimeshafika mpaka 75% p.a Tanzania. i.e ukikopa 1M unalipa 1.75M!!
     
  13. K

    Kamundu JF-Expert Member

    #13
    Nov 18, 2016
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    Elimu bado ni palepale na post ya miaka minne
     
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