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digital broadcasting

Discussion in 'Tech, Gadgets & Science Forum' started by JAYJAY, Sep 2, 2009.

  1. JAYJAY

    JAYJAY JF-Expert Member

    #1
    Sep 2, 2009
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    Kutokana na mjadala unaoendelea kuhusiana na digital broadcasting nimepata maswali machache ambayo anayefahamu anaweza kunisaidia majibu tafadhali.

    1. Katika mfumo huo, je kila redio na television zitaendelea kumiliki minara yao ya kurushia matangazo au ni hayo makampuni ambayo yataanzishwa mfano wa kampuni iliyoingia ubia na tbc?

    2. Je hakutakuwa na kikwazo cha kiteknolojia kwa vifaa (radios&tvs) vinavyotumika kwa sasa maana vimekuwa vikipokea matangazo kwa mfumo wa analogue (yaani hakutahitajika uwekaji wa vifaa kama modem)?

    3. FM Radio stations zimekuwa zikitumia frequency tofauti katika maeneo tofauti mfano 89.5MHZ DSM, 92.0MHZ Mwanza kwa station moja, kwa nini wasiruhusiwe kutumia frequency moja kwa nchi nzima? Ni suala la leseni tu au kuna kikwazo kiteknolojia?

    Anayefahamu anisaidie tafadhali, akhsante!
     
  2. Ramthods

    Ramthods JF-Expert Member

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    Sep 2, 2009
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    Ladba naweza kutoa mawazo yangu kwenye swali lako la kwanza na la pili. Sina uhakika na kipengele chako cha tatu.

    1) Kwanza, teknolojia ya digital broadcasting ni expensive - sio kama mifumo ya analogue kutokana na uhitaji wa decoder n.k. Pili, kama kila station itakuwa inasambaza decoder yake inamaanisha mtazamaji utakuwa ukimiliki decoder zaidi ya moja nyumbani kwako - kitu ambacho watu wengi hawata kipenda.

    Hata kwa broadcasting ya sasa kupitia FM n.k, radio nyingi zina outsource broadcasting firms kurusha matangazo yao. Sio radio zote zinamiliki mitambo ya kurushia matangazo bali hukodisha kutoka kwa third party companies - hivi ndivyo itakavyokuwa kwenye digital broadcasting pia.

    Hivyo, kampuni kama Star Media litakuwa halitoi content - bali linarusha content za watu wengine kama vile ilivyo Dstv na ilivyokuwa Gtv. Kupitia kampuni moja, yaani decoder moja mteja atakuwa anaweza kuona channel zaidi ya moja.

    Ushindani utakuja pale kampuni zaidi ya moja kama Star Media zitakapokuja, ambazo zitakuwa zina aggregate TV contents kwa ajili ya kuuza kwa wateja. Kama vile ilivyokua Dstv na Gtv - Ila TV moja itakuwa ina uwezo wa kurusha contents zake kupita kampuni zaidi ya moja - depending on contract terms.

    2)Probably yes, though may take sometime. Ingawa sina uhakika sana na nchi zilizoendelea (hope wenye uelewa wanaweza toa mchango zaidi), analogue broadcasting inatumika kwa kiasi kidogo sana, au haitumiki kabisa.

    Kutegemeana na hali ya kiuchumi ya nchi, na TV's government inaweza ku-ban broadcasting kutumia analogue channels - but may take a very long time to happen.
     
  3. JAYJAY

    JAYJAY JF-Expert Member

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    Sep 3, 2009
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    akhsante kwa mchango wako ndugu ,kuhusiana na antenna zitakazotumika ni hizihizi za kawaida ambazo wengi wetu tunatuma au zitalazimika nazo kubadilika?
     
  4. Ramthods

    Ramthods JF-Expert Member

    #4
    Sep 3, 2009
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    Most digital broadcasting companies wanatumia satellites which is good for last mile delivery - kama unavyowaona Dstv na zile nyungo zao. But that is not the only option, kuna njia nyingine kama cable e.t.c - Hope inategemeana na mambo mengi na kifedha pia kwa kampuni husika.

    When this thing comes up, chances are you will buy new equipments and won't use your antennae any more.

    Otherwise, don't say thanks - just click the 'Thanks' button on the bottom right when you get across a useful post.

    Cheerz
     
  5. Albedo

    Albedo JF-Expert Member

    #5
    Sep 30, 2009
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    Ndugu yangu kutokana na Mfumo wa Leseni wa TCRA uljulikanao kama Convergence Licencing Framework ( CLF) kuna aina nne za Leseni

    1: Network Facility Licence (NFL): Aina hii ya Leseni inamuwezesha mtu au Kampuni Kujenga na Kumiliki Miundo mbinu ya Mitandao kama Towers, Transmiters etc

    2: Network Service Licence(NSL): Aina hii ya Leseni inamuwezesha mtu au Kampuni kutoa humuta ya Mtandao au Mawasiliano ( huyu anaweza kutoa huduma hii aidha kwa kukutumia Network Facility za mtu mwingine ( Leasing) au kama anamiliki Infrastracture anaweza kutumia yake, hii ina maana ni lazima awe na leseni Mbili ( NFL na NSL)

    3: Application Service Licence ( ASL): Hii inatolewa kwa watu wanaotaka kununua Network Service kutoka kwa Network Service licensee na kuziuza kwa Watumiaji wa mwisho ( buying and reselling of network services)

    4: Content Service License ( CSL): Hii inatolewa kwa Mtu anayetaka kutengeneza Content kama TV and Radio Broadcasting.

    Sasa nije kwenye Maswali yako

    Swali la kwanza

    Angalizo

    Kwanza kabisa Mfumo wa Matangazo ya TV kwa njia ya digital siyo mpya, kwa wale wanaotumia madishi ya satellite, hii ni digital broadcasting inayojulikana kama DVB_S ( Digital Video Brodacasting via Satelite)

    Sasa sisi tutaingia katika mfumo unaoitwa DVB_T ( Terestrial Digital Video Broadcasting)

    Jibu

    Katiaka mfumo wa Digital Broadcasting ( DVB_T) Vituo vya Radio vitamiliki Studio na Vitapewa hiyo aina ya NNE ( CSL) kwa hiyo havitakuwa na Minara yao ya kurushia matangazo ( Transmiter)

    Kutakuwa na Makampuni ambayo yataspecialize katika kurusha hizo content (MUX au Multiplexer), haya yatapewa aina mbili za kwanza za Leseni ( NFL na NSL), kwa hiyo hawa jamaa watakuwa na Majukumu ya kusambaza Content

    Ambapo kimsingi kutakuwa na MUX watatu, One Public MUX, One Private MUX and One Religios MUX.

    Swali la Pili

    Hakutakuwa na Kikwazo ndugu yangu kwani Kwa wale ambao watakuwa na analogue Receivers watatumia kifaa kinachoitwa Set Top Box ( STB) ambavyo gharama yake ni ndogo , its like your satellite dish at home content kutoka kwenye satellite ni digital lakini uantumia decoder na unaangalia content katika receiver ambayo na analogue ila kwa wale watakaokuwa na Digital Tv Receivers watapokea matangazo bila decoder

    Swali la Tatu:

    Radio FM zinaoperate katika band ya (87.5-108 MHz) for region one as per ITU, na hii band ni VHF band. Sasa kwa wale wanaofahamu propagation theory ni kwamba frequency inapokuwa kubwa inakuwa na loss kubwa as a results signal yake haiwezi kwenda mbali sana kama frequency za HF au chini ya hapo. So Mkuu huwezi kuachive Counrtywide Covearge kwa VHF frequency, haziendi Mbali sana

    Vile vile ni kuruhusu frequency reese as frequency is scarcy natural resource.

    Kama una maswali mengine unakaribishwa Mkuu.
     
  6. Lekanjobe Kubinika

    Lekanjobe Kubinika JF-Expert Member

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    Sep 30, 2009
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    Na je, bei za air time kwa simu za mkononi zitahuka pia????

    Leka
     
  7. BrainPower

    BrainPower Senior Member

    #7
    Sep 30, 2009
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    Asante kwa uchambuzi wako,

    Ni watu wachache wanaojua kuhushu hili. This is going to affect interested parties big time.

    Swali langu :
    Already We know the Public MUX = TVT (government)
    Religious MUX = ???
    (Btw there is big competition between the two largest religious institutions for this position in the country, its a ticking time bomb)

    One Private MUX = (Lobby Groups are on it)

    Dont you think huu mfumo wa kuwa na 3 Mux is going to bring beauracracy and lessen competition in the media sector. ?

    Won't it affect the freedom of speech / Media . What are the views from MOAT on this ?

    B.P
     
  8. Albedo

    Albedo JF-Expert Member

    #8
    Sep 30, 2009
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    Mkuu B.P Badiliko lolote katika jamii, kama halitatolewa maelezo ya kueleweka huwa linapata Upinzani mkubwa sana, but kwangu mimi Digital Migration Ni Muhimu sana Mkuu, kama nchi isipoenda huko mkuu wangu itafikia stage ukienda kuomba leseni ya TV utaambiwa Frequency zimeisha

    Angalia Mfano wa FM radios mkuu ( In digital broadcasting ( both T_DAB and DVB_T)Frequency Channel moja inaweza kutumiwa hata na TV au Radio zaidi nne kwa wakati mmoja ( Hii ina maana kama Band ya FM inauwezo kwa Kuacomodate Station 40 kwa mfano ukiingia kwenye Mfumo wa Digital the same band can accommodate 160 Stations).

    Katika Suala la Urasimu Mkuu wangu hilo suala litakuwepo tu kama hakutakuwa na Transparency katika Michakato ya Utoaji wa Leseni Mbalimbali

    All in all Mkuu Lets hope kwamba The Referee ( TCRA) ataweka Kanuni na Sera nzuri ambazo zitakuwa transparency.

    Katika hilo la Religious MUX ukisoma hii link http: www.tcra.go.tz/consultative_docs/digitalSwitchOverMultiplexOperator.pdf nadhani hutaona kama kuna mahali ambapo kuna Religious MUX ( ingawa niliitaja katika maelezo yangu ya Msingi), kuna just TWO PRIVATE MUX, kwa hiyo hapo huwezi kumshika uchawi TCRA.

    [FONT=&quot]Labda tusubiri huo Mchakato wa Kuwapata hao MUX ukikamilika [/FONT]
     
  9. Albedo

    Albedo JF-Expert Member

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  10. Sinkala

    Sinkala JF-Expert Member

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    Sep 30, 2009
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    Asante Ndege ya Rais, ooops, sorry, I mean Ndege ya Uchumi. Lakini mimi narejea swali la tatu la JJ. Kwanza naelewa kwamba Frequency Modulated (FM) signals huwa hazifiki mbali sana kutokana na ukubwa wake. Lakini ninachojiuliza, kwa nini TCRA wasitoe the same frequency kwa a given radio station throughout the country? Kwa mfano, Radio Sinkala FM ina broadcast katika FM 88.8MHz Dar es Salaam. Najua haitafika mbali, na nina taka kubroadcast Tunduma pale mpakani na Zambia, natumia satellite kutoa matangazo hayo hayo ya watu wa Dar, lakini ninapewa frequency nyingine, let's say 99.9 MHz. Kwa nini nisipewe ile ile 88.8 MHz ili nisiwachanganye raia wanaosafiri safiri na wanaotaka kusikiliza Sinkala FM?
     
  11. Albedo

    Albedo JF-Expert Member

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    Ha ha haa, umenichekesha na Radio Sinkala FM

    Mkuu Kwa Uelewa wangu mdogo ni kwamba Masafa huwa yanapangwa na ITU ( Allocation, Allotation ) nadhani kama sijakokosea Member sate wao huwa wanaasign tu masafa kwa station zinazoomba leseni ( I stand to be corrected).

    Sasa ndugu yangu Sinkala 88.8 inawezekana kabisa imekuwa allotted to be used in Dar Es salaam and Zambia in Nakonde , sasa unaona kwamba wewe Sinkala ukipewa 88.8 ukatumie Tunduma huoni kutakuwa na Ugomvi na Ndugu zake Kaunda? Sijui kama umenisoma mkuu wangu.

    Nakupa another scenario mkuu, hivi mimi nikijikusanya nataka niombe kufungua Radio Tanga nikapewa 88.4 hivi eti mtu mwingine wa Morogoro asipewe 88.4 eti kwa sababu tunadhani Sinkala atafungua Radio morogoro, hii inaitwa Spectrun Hoarding Mkuu, taratibu za ITU haziruhusu mtu kuhodhi masafa
     
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