THE First Lady, Janet Museveni, has said there must be full participation of African scientists in research if the discovery of an AIDS vaccine is to become a reality. She noted that there is need to continue expanding HIV research activities in Uganda and called for sustained donor financial support for the research. Uganda achieved success in reducing HIV prevalence from 18% in the early 90s to the current 6% by using the ABC strategy, which emphasises abstinence, faithfulness and condom use. Mrs. Museveni said alongside this strategy, Uganda has implemented the programmes such as voluntary counselling and testing, antiretroviral treatment and the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. But even with the countrys success in reducing the HIV prevalence, many Ugandans are still at risk due to factors such as poverty, which increase women, men and girls vulnerability to contract HIV, Mrs. Museveni said. She was speaking at the opening the 5th African AIDS Vaccine Programme Conference at Serena Hotel in Kampala on Sunday. Mrs. Museveni warned that HIV infections would continue to increase if there are no prevention methods in place, making HIV treatment unsustainable. We need to mobilise funds and create a supporting environment for the vaccine efforts. She also called for a campaign against risky behaviour that promotes HIV/AIDS in societies. This is cheap and available for anybody who wants to use it, she said.