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A Failed Attempt to Prove Darwinism

Discussion in 'Habari na Hoja mchanganyiko' started by MaxShimba, Nov 23, 2009.

  1. MaxShimba

    MaxShimba JF-Expert Member

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    Human-Ape Hybridization: A Failed Attempt to Prove Darwinism
    Share this Articleby Jerry Bergman, Ph.D. *
    Ilya Ivanov (1870-1932) was an eminent biologist who achieved considerable success in the field of artificial insemination of horses and other animals. Called “one of the greatest authorities on artificial fecundation,”1 he graduated from Kharkov University in 1896 and became a professor of zoology in 1907. His artificial insemination techniques were so successful that he was able to fertilize as many as 500 mares with the semen of a single stallion.

    Ivanov also pioneered the use of artificial insemination to produce various hybrids, including that of a zebra and a donkey, a rat and a mouse, a mouse and a guinea pig, and an antelope and a cow. His most radical experiment, though, was his attempt to produce a human-ape hybrid.2 He felt that this feat was clearly possible in view of how successful he had been in his animal experiments--and how close evolutionary biologists then regarded apes and humans. The experiments were supported by some of the most respected biologists of the day, including Professor Hermann Klaatsch3 and Dr. F. G. Crookshank.4 The main opposition was from "two or three religious publications."5

    His Project Begins

    In the mid 1920s, Professor Ilya Ivanov began his project, funded by the Soviet government, to hybridize humans and apes by artificial insemination.6 The funds for his project equaled over one million in today's dollars. Ivanov presented his human-ape hybrid experiment idea to the World Congress of Zoologists in Graz, and in 1924 he completed his first experiment in French Guinea. He first attempted to produce human male/chimpanzee female hybrids, and all three attempts failed. Ivanov also attempted to use ape males and human females to produce hybrids but was unable to complete the experiment because at least five of the women died.

    Because Ivanov was then an internationally respected scientist, he was able to obtain prominent sponsors for his project, including the polymath Otto Schmidt, editor of the Great Soviet Encyclopedia, and Nikolai Gorbunov, a chemical engineer and close friend of Lenin.7

    After Professor Ivanov detailed the rationale behind his idea, the British government, home of Darwin, promised to help raise money for the project. The Russian government contributed the first 10,000 USD, and a number of prominent American patrons of science were also very supportive of the project.

    Efforts to Support Evolution

    Charles Lee Smith wrote that the objective of Ivanov's experiments was to achieve "artificial insemination of the human and anthropoid species, to support the doctrine of evolution, by establishing close kinship between man and the higher apes."5 The project was supported by The American Association for the Advancement of Atheism because it was seen as "proof of human evolution and therefore of atheism."8 When applying to the Soviet government for funds, Ivanov emphasized the importance of his research for anti-religious propaganda.7

    Attorney Howell S. England wrote that the scientists involved in advising the project "are confident that hybrids can be produced, and, in the event we are successful, the question of the evolution of man will be established to the satisfaction of the most dogmatic anti-evolutionists," concluding that the "original idea was that only hybrids from the gorilla would prove fertile."5

    However, the scientist advisors wanted the field researchers to use orangutans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and possibly gibbons in the experiments. The researchers accepted the polygenetic theory of human evolution, concluding that orangutans should be crossed with humans of the "yellow race," gorillas with humans of the "black race," chimpanzees with the "white race," and gibbons with "the more brachycephalic peoples of Europe" (he probably meant Jews). The purpose was "to try to demonstrate the close relationship of human and ape stocks."9

    The scientists concluded that these matches would ensure that the hybrids were fertile because it was believed that the "yellow race" evolved from orangutans, the "black race" from gorillas, the "white race" from chimpanzees, and the "brachycephalic peoples" from gibbons. They even concluded that "it would be possible to produce the complete chain of specimens from the perfect anthropoid to the perfect man."7 Howell England wrote that Dr. Crookshank of London, who "has made a minute anatomical study of the three larger anthropoids," is convinced from his research that if the "orang" can successfully be "hybridized with the yellow race, the gorilla with the black race, and the chimpanzee with the white race, all three hybrids will reproduce themselves."

    In his opinion each species of anthropoid is more closely related to its corresponding human type than it is to either of the other anthropoids. In other words…the chimpanzee has a closer relationship to the white race than to the gorilla or the orang. The gibbon…has its corresponding human type in the more brachycephalic peoples of Europe.10

    England noted that the research team would proceed along these lines because the scientists involved were all in complete accord with Dr. Crookshank's views. To achieve their research goals, the scientists used deception. For example, Ivanov attempted to "inseminate black females with ape sperm without their consent, under the pretext of medical examination in the local hospital."

    The French governor, however, forbade him from carrying out this part of the project. But Ivanov saw no moral problem here. He angrily reported to his sponsors in the Kremlin about the primitive fears of the blacks and the bourgeois prejudices of the French.7

    Time magazine opined that if this experiment failed, evolution would still not be invalidated because this "test of evolution would be decisive only in the event that pregnancy, whether productive of healthy offspring or not, could be induced." Conversely, if the experiment succeeded, "fresh and final evidence would be established that humans and anthropoids belong to a common genus of animal life." Furthermore, to more confidently establish human-from-ape evolution as fact, the "hybrid fertilization would have to be attempted upon females of both species, human and ape."

    Fully formed, healthy offspring, if they resulted, would not be regarded as "missing links," but as living proof that apes and men are species as closely allied as horses and asses which can be hybridized to produce mules or hinnies. If an ape-man or man-ape hybrid should prove fecund, the relationship of the two parent species would be proved even closer than is now supposed. If no offspring resulted, evolution would by no means fail; the distance of apes and men from a parent stock would merely be demonstrated to be as great or greater than it is now estimated.10

    In the end, the research failed and has not been attempted again, at least publicly. Today we know it will not be successful for many reasons, and Professor Ivanov's attempts are, for this reason, a major embarrassment to science. One problem is humans have 46 chromosomes--apes 48--and for this reason the chromosomes will not pair up properly even if a zygote is formed. Another problem is a conservatively estimated 40 million base pair differences exist between humans and our putative closest evolutionary relatives, the chimps. These experiments are the result of evolutionary thinking and they failed because their basic premise is false.11

    References

    1.Russian Admits Ape Experiments. The New York Times, June 19, 1926, 2.
    2.Pain, S. 2008. The Forgotten Scandal of the Soviet Ape-Man. New Scientist. 2670: 48-49.
    3.Klaatsch, H. 1923. The Evolution and Progress of Mankind. Ed. Adolf Heilborn, trans. Joseph McCabe. New York: Frederick A. Stokes Company Publishers.
    4.Crookshank, F. G. 1924. The Mongol in Our Midst: A Study of Man and His Three Faces. New York: E. P. Dutton & Co. Revised (3rd) edition, 1931. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co.
    5.Soviet Backs Plan to Test Evolution. The New York Times, June 17, 1926, 2.
    6.Etkind, A. 2008. Beyond Eugenics: The Forgotten Scandal of Hybridizing Humans and Apes. Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences. 39 (2): 205.
    7.Ibid, 206.
    8.Ibid, 209.
    9.Ape-Child? Time. 8 (7), August 16, 1926.
    10.Men and Apes. Time. 7 (26), June 28, 1926.
    11.Richards, M. 2008. Artificial Insemination and Eugenics: Celibate Motherhood, Eutelegenesis and Germinal Choice. Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences. 39 (2): 211-221.
    * Dr. Bergman is an Adjunct Associate Professor at the University of Toledo Medical School in Ohio.

    Cite this article: Bergman, J. 2009. Human-Ape Hybridization: A Failed Attempt to Prove Darwinism. Acts & Facts. 38 (5): 12.
     
  2. MaxShimba

    MaxShimba JF-Expert Member

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    What are you thinking? Ooooopssssss


    Human-Ape Hybridization? H a ahaha hehe ehehe ehehe e e e e e e
     
  3. MaxShimba

    MaxShimba JF-Expert Member

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    Moral Behaviors of Evangelicals vs. AtheistsSin

    ***************Evangelicals ************************AtheistsViewing

    pornography *****12% ********************************50%P
    rofanity in public **16********************************** 60
    Gambling *********2*********************************** 7
    Gossiping *********4********************************** 34
    Sex with non-spouse 2 ***********************************7
    Retaliation ********7************************************ 11
    Drunkenness *******0.5 **********************************33
    Lying ************1*********************************** 9
     
  4. MaxShimba

    MaxShimba JF-Expert Member

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    Mkuu, eti what? human ape what? hybridization?!!!!!!!
     
  5. Juma Contena

    Juma Contena JF-Expert Member

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    mbona article yenyewe ya zamani sana na ushahidi wa zamani, since then much as been discovered to support the theory of evolution embu acheni kuleta hadithi
     
  6. MaxShimba

    MaxShimba JF-Expert Member

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    Kwahiyo, mmesha tengeneza watu sokwe!!!!!

    Nifahamishe tu, wapi, ninaweza kwenda kuwaona hao watu sokwe,
     
  7. Juma Contena

    Juma Contena JF-Expert Member

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    Are you on planet earth ndugu.

    mbona kuna wanyama wengi tu wameshatengenezwa laboratories, amini awashindwi these days kuunda kiumbe its only a matter of ethical boundaries. But that is not to say they havent done that. Who knows what goes on in the secret world of scientists.
     
  8. T

    Tiger JF-Expert Member

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    Kutengeneza mnyama ni habri moja na kuumba ni habari nyingine watu wasije zungumzia cell cloning kama walizofanya kina Prof. Ian Wilmut halafu waseme eti wanasayansi wameumba mnyama.

    Kuumba mziki mnene na hauchezeki.
     
  9. Juma Contena

    Juma Contena JF-Expert Member

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    Cha msingi hapo ni kwamba wameanza weza tengeneza/umba kiumbe without the need of a womb. Since science evolves over time who knows may be in the future watajua what really happened.

    Ni maendeleo hayo unlike some ideologies, which remain uchanged over time, faced with the fact to alter its image to fit the modern human. Or else they would've been extint and be part of history today.
     
  10. T

    Tiger JF-Expert Member

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    I appreciate the idea but one thing is not clear to me.
    What specifically is unchanged over time?
     
  11. Juma Contena

    Juma Contena JF-Expert Member

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    the idea ya kwamba tumeumbwa na udongo without evidence.
     
  12. T

    Tiger JF-Expert Member

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    It's not easy to prove that because the only udongo which was used was the same udongo which died as a man.
    Kitu ambacho sayansi inaweza kutusaidia(kama sio sasa basi badae au ikashindwa kabisa) ni kupata mabaki ya informations kama DNA au kitu kingine ambacho kinaweza kuwa deep & with more details than the DNA(who knows) science bado inakuwa, mfano mmoja wapo ni kuwa enzi za kina marehemu Darwin vitu kama hivyo(DNA things) havikuwapo kwenye taaluma.

    Pia kuna watu wanaamini kuwa the more advanced the science becomes the more towards God(Creation) it approaches we unasemaje?
     
  13. Juma Contena

    Juma Contena JF-Expert Member

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    Si unaona that is where that explanation of udongo ends, udongo huo aupatikani tena ulichoacha ni kwamba all those ideologies that emphasize on this myth do not permit questioning.

    Science aim to prove without a doubt, and if there is a doubt humans still try to find the definite expalantion. Unfortunately some expanations have proven to be tricky and elusive, but its the role of science to get to the core of things. Hizo zote scientific revolutions ulizo zitaja hapo zimeweza kutufikisha mpaka tulipo in understanding humanbeings, science ya leo wanaweza mpaka ku-clone.

    Therefore if anything science is very close in proving that theory of the above mighty, is just or was just a myth, that was made up to serve up its purpose on that era.

    But that myth faces alot of challenges in modern societies.
     
  14. T

    Tiger JF-Expert Member

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    Challenge gani mkuu? Labda ungezitaja ingekuwa vizuri(ili nisi-assume).
    Na kwa swala udongo, nilichokuwa namaanisha ni kwamba badala ya kupata huo udongo tunaweza kuitumia science hiyo hiyo tukagundua vitu ambavyo vina-relate(match) na uumbaji(ADAM) mpaka watu waka kubali lakini hatuwezi jua ni lini? Yaweza kuwa hata millennium ya 4 au hata ya 5. Unadhani hiyo possibility ni zero(0) kabisa?
    Hautakuwa fair.
     
  15. Juma Contena

    Juma Contena JF-Expert Member

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    Hiyo biashara ya udongo bwana mkumbwa mi nazani niachane nayo kama nilivyokuambia awali those are pure speculations and id rather not indulge myself in them, that is a fantasy has the man you have mentioned.

    Hivyo realistically kaa jiulize posibilities zake hili swala la udongo in your own mind kama kweli ni possible. Tip if your going to follow the evidence gathered in the world of science today swala la udongo utajijibu, and if your going to go for unproven sources and speculation na pia utajijibu (be it only a belief in itself, rather than a fact).

    And this where the challenges of the mighty begins, based on the way ur going to go about in seeking the truth in your question of udongo. I gave you to options science and speculations.

    Sasa basi hawa wenzetu wako kwenye stage ya science na ambao hata hawakuisoma hiyo science shule still approach life realistically. reastically is what you give what you get, in most cases. Hivyo basi thats a science in itself because it deals with facts of survival in modern environment. Sasa basi humans everyday try to find solutions in improving their chances in lives. Along the way discovering themselves and the make up of their thoughts. And how they were acquired utakuja kugundua binadamu anajua kila alichojifunza tu mara nyingi. If that is the case poeple who are narrow minded are subjects of manipulations.

    Sasa hawa wenzetu theyre not as simple as us (im talking in a majority). Hivyo as they discover their behaviour and attitude they question in the aim of improving their life chances realistically.

    Thats where the challenge begins, if the mighty is to be believed i think he needs to prove to these people quickly. because to most right now he is interpreted as just a fantasy which was imposed to guide them morally. With all the laws that human have made, they impose the same actions into humans with or without him, this raises the question where does he fit in modern societies.?
     
  16. T

    Tiger JF-Expert Member

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    Hukuzungumza lolote kuhusu ile possibility niliyo kuuliza, lakini hamna neno.
    Kuhusu swala la Mungu kujidhihirisha kwa watu kunategemea mtazamo wa watu wenyewe wanavyomchukulia Mungu.
    Mfano "the attempt to prove darwinisim" na kushindwa inaweza kuwa mojawapo,lakini kwa wale wanaoamini katika Mungu nafikiri wanaushahidi wa kutosha tu mfano wakristo wanaitwa hivyo kwakuwa ni wafuasi wa Kristo(hamna shaka) lakini upo ushahidi wa kimazingira na maandishi yanayokubalika kuwa Yesu allishi na alikuwa anahubiri nini,hata wale wasioamini ukristo wapo wanaokubali kuwa Yesu aliishi ila alikuwa mtu wa kawaida na alifundisha ila alifundisha mambo ya akawaida(ethics).
    Kwa wakristo hii inawapa uhakika kuwa kweli Yesu alikuwepo na yu hai hata leo. this thing is spiritual so the believers have got no problem with that.
    Usisahau pia maandishi(bible) inaonesha Yesu alitabiriwa mapema sana na ikawa hivyo.
    They believe when the pray before Him He answers the prayers and such things. Remember to Christians Jesus is the son of God and God as well so i can say by proving that Jesus lived on earth it's enough to prove that The Almighty God is there.
     
  17. Juma Contena

    Juma Contena JF-Expert Member

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    Let me begin by saying religious arguments are sensitive issues and i always try to avoid them whenever possible. I find it going into details they might provoke unwanted attention and also invite unwanted guests into the thread for non educative purposes. I've learnt that early on when I was a naive member of the forum trying to bring peace upon religious arguments.

    That said if I were to go into details in these debates im gonna scrutinize you or anyone with historical facts that may be offensive if yo're a dedicated christian. From early christian to modern christianity trust me the're not the same. And how christianity got to other parts of the world and the real motive behind the spread. Oh yes sir the're historical facts too and modern evidence to support the arguments, unlike any religious book that speculates. Some of the issues other have already hinted in other aethist arguments and i've seen how they've provoked anger.

    And if im honest your last posts suggest your a dedicated one (Christian). So with great respects to you has a man and your religion I think we should end here. Dont you think? Its one thing to question science and religion as whole, but its not right to single out one religion and scrutinize it. Thats my opinion.
     
  18. T

    Tiger JF-Expert Member

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    YOU ARE GREAT MY FRIEND.
    I think you are so different from the rest.
    Be good man.
     
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