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What's the difference btn global warming and ozone layer depletion?

Discussion in 'Jukwaa la Elimu (Education Forum)' started by Manda, Feb 11, 2008.

  1. Manda

    Manda JF-Expert Member

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    Kwa wana JF wote, wasalaam!,
    Kwa mda sasa nimekuwa natatizwa na hizi terms mbili i.e ozone layer depletion na global warming, je hizi terms mbili ni tofauti? na utofauti wake ni upi?[ i mean basing on how does they happen, the effects of each one and may the causes of it]. Nauliza hivi kutokana na ukweli kwamba concepts hizi ni mpya kwa kiasi fulani na hivyo basi kumekuwa na maelezezo ya kujichanganya juu yake kutoka kwa watu wanao elezea, what i know ni vitu viwili tofauti [causes&effects] na lecture wangu alinifundisha hivyo,sasa majuzi nimekutana na mtu anafanya masters ya environmental mgt she was telling me vinafanana pia my young sister she was telling me kuwa wamefundishwa na mwalimu wao kua they are are terms basing on what i have stipulated above[yupo form six],natatizika kwa hayo waungwana!mnisaidie.....!thanx in advance.
     
  2. Idimi

    Idimi JF-Expert Member

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    Kwa kuanza,ni kweli kwamba nadharia hizi zinafana na huwa zinatokea kwa pamoja. Kwamba, uwepo wa kimojawapo husabisha kutokea kwa kingine.

    1. Ozone Layer (O3) ni kitu gani?
    Ni hewa iliyo angani (atmosphere) ambayo kazi yake ni kuchuja mionzi yenye madhara (ultra violet rays) kwa mwanadamu na kuifanya ifike ikiwa salama. Mionzi hii yenye madhara kimsingi huakisiwa na kurudishwa angani hivyo kutufanya tuwe salama. Hewa hii iko katika wastani wa umbali kilometa ishirini tu kutoka ardhini hadi angani. Kwa miaka ya hivi karibuni, kutokana na maendeleo ya viwanda, hewa hii imeendelea kupungua ubora na wingi wake kutokana na kuchafuliwa na hewa za viwandani kama vile kaboni dayoksaidi, naitrojeni oksaidi na kadhalika. Hivyo basi, ile mionzi yenye madhara niliyoitaja hapo juu hutufikia moja kwa moja bila kuchujwa na hiyo ozone, kwa sababu hili anga linakuwa limetobolewa na kuharibiwa na hewa hizi chafu ambazo zinakuwa zimeweka ukungu angani. Kutobolewa huku husababisha hiyo mionzi kufika bila kuchujwa.

    2. Ongezeko la Joto Hutokeaje?
    Kutoka na utando (ukungu) huo niliotaja hapo juu, hii mionzi ya jua ikishatua katika anga , badala ya kuakisiwa na kurudishwa angani kwa kiasi fulani, inasharabiwa na kusababisha joto duniani. Kwa ufafanuzi zaidi ni kwamba, iwapo anga (kabla ya kuwa na utando) lilikuwa na uwezo wa kuakisi 70% ya mionzi yenye madhara na kutufikishia 30%, sasa anga hilo hilo huakisi 40% ya mionzi na kutuachia 60%. Sasa basi hii mionzi (60%) kwa kuwa imeshindwa kuakisiwa, kutokana na tabia ya usharabu ya hewa chafu, husababisha joto kuongezeka katika uso wa dunia, kwa sababu ile mionzi hairudi angani tena baada ya kutufikia. Kadhia yote ndio huanzia hapa, ikiwemo kuyeyuka kwa barafu, ongezeko la magonjwa na kuisha kwa viumbe hai.
    Nadhani nimejaribu kutofautisha na kufafanua kuhusu nadharia za ongezeko la joto na kuisha kwa hewa ya ozone, naamini hapa JF kuna wataalamu wengine wanaweza kufafanua zaidi.
    Tuzidi kuelimishana.
     
  3. M

    MzalendoHalisi JF-Expert Member

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    In a nut shell-
    Depletion of Ozone layer for many years has increased the rate of global warming for reasons given by Idimi above! Our Globe is becoming warmer than before and this is effect of depletion of Ozone layer. Much of this extra warming is attributed to human activities which emit Cloro-Floro-Carbons (CFCs) in the atmosphere!

    One consequence of global warming is increase in water levels in seas and Oceans of which some islands such as Maldives are in a danger of rapidly subsiding!
     
  4. Masanilo

    Masanilo JF-Expert Member

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    Majibu yote uloambiwa hapo juu ni sahihi depletion of ozone layer ndo hupelekea global warming, angalia movie ya An Inconvinient Truth ya Al Gore (2006) naweza iweka hapa kama wana JF wataipenda, sijui namna ya kuweka file kubwa kwenye postings ama mwenye kujua anipe shavu
     
  5. Idimi

    Idimi JF-Expert Member

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    Niliiangalia hii movie ya Al Gore, kusema kweli inaelimisha na kusikitisha sana. Imejaa maandiko ya kisayansi na tafiti zenye mantiki sana ambayo wanasiasa wanakuwa wagumu sana kuyakubali, hadi waone tukizama katika bahari inayoongezeka kina. Ile movie nadhani ina 700 MB or so, kwa hiyo sina uhakika kama itakuwa rahisi kuiweka hapa kama ambavyo unashauri, ila ingepaswa kila mtu aione.
     
  6. N

    Nsololi JF-Expert Member

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    Pamoja na majibu mazuri yaliyotolewa hapo juu, naomba kuongezea kidogo maelezo ya ziada.

    Kwanza kabisa hivi vitu viwili unaweza ukasema vinaendana (ni kitu kilekile) au tofauti. Kwa maelezo ya kitalaam ni vitu tofauti kiasi:

    Global warming ni ....kuongezeka kwa joto kwenye dunia (earth's near surface air and oceans) kunakotokea kwa karne za hivi karibuni kuliko sababishwa na uwingi wa hewa ya carbondioxide na hewa nyinginezo zichafuazo dunia, hii hujikusanya angani na kuwa kama blanket nene inayokusanya (sun's trapping heat) joto la jua na kusababisha uso wa dunia kuongezeka joto.

    Chanzo kikubwa cha hewa hii ya carbondioxide ni matumizi ya makaa ya mawe kwenye viwanda na uzalishaji wa umeme, matumizi ya magari yasiyo na viwango vuzuri, na kadharika.



    Ozone layer depletion...kupungua kwa hewa nene iitwayo ozone (oxygen yenye atom tatu) inayopatikana katika umbali wa kilometa 15 -30 kutoka usawa wa dunia. Upungufu huu husababishwa na chemical compounds za aina ya CFCs (Chlorofluorocarbons) ambazo zinatumika kwenye air conditionings/cooling units, na kusafishia delicate electronic equipment. Hivi sasa zimepigwa vita sana kwa nchi zilizo endelea. Sisi bado tunazitumia kwa kutumia used refregirators, etc. Hizi chemical compounds zinatoa hewa za aina ya chlorines na bromines ambazo huenda kwenye ozone layer na kureact (chemical reactions) na breakdown lots of ozone molecules na hapa ndipo kupungua kwa ozone layer.

    Faida za ozone layer ni kama zilivyoelezwa na wengine hapo juu, yaani mionzi hatari inapata nafasi ya kupenya kutoka kwenye jua na kuifikia dunia na kuathili viumbe mbalimbali vilivyopo duniani. Magonjwa ya ngozi inaaminika yameongezeka zaidi kwa sababu ya uwingi wa vionzi hiyo hatari ambayo haiwezi tena kuishia kwenye ozone layer.
     
  7. Manda

    Manda JF-Expert Member

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    Thanx to IDIMI na wachangiaji wengine,kiasi flani nimepata mwanga zaidi. By the way naomba nitoe uelewa wangu mdogo juu ya hizi concept mbili halafu labda mtapata pa kunisahihisha/kuniongezea.

    Global warming; hii husababishwa kwa kiasi kikubwa na burning of fossils, hapo nina maana vitu kama uchomaji wa makaa ya mawe na mafuta[esp. frm magari] husababisha mrundikano wa gesi angani ambayo hio gas sasa huweka ukungu[blanket] ambayo huzuia heat radiation kutoku-radiate away from the earth,here the point its like this;heat rays frm the sun towards the earth ni kwamba zikisha gonga the earth they must be radiated away from the earth si kubakia hapa duniani kwani kama zingekuwa zabaki hapa basi duniani pangekua na joto sana. Kwa hivo basi at the end of the day joto la dunia linapanda year after year and baaadhi ya effects zake ni kama zile Mzalendohalisi alizoainisha.
    OZONE LAYER DEPLETIONOzone layer kazi yake kuu ni kuzuia dangerous rays frm the sun kifikia dunia, the fact is si kila rays from the sun ni frndly kwa dunia[viumbe hai], CFCs ni chanzo kikuu cha kutoboka kwa hii O3,kwaio at end of the day tunakuwa tunapata rays ambazo zinakuwa na madhara kwa binadamu na viumbe hai wengine, some of those effects its like stunted growth,cancer(skin)etc.
    So basically from the above explanations utagundua they are two things which despite the fact that they relate in one way to another but zinatofautiana(i mean kwa uelewa wangu). thanx again in advance and be blessed!
     
  8. Idimi

    Idimi JF-Expert Member

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    Nashukuru kama tuko pamoja. Lengo ni kuelimishana. Kama ulivyokuwa umesema mwanzo, 'Global Warming' na 'Ozone Layer Depletion' ni vitu viwili tofauti ila vina uhusiano wa karibu mno kiasi cha kuleta mkanganyiko.

    Changamoto
    1. Tushaelewa chanzo cha kuongezeka joto duniani, nini mchango wako katika kupunguza madhara haya?
    2. Ni utatuzi upi unaouona ni mwafaka katika kupunguza madhara haya?
    3. Unadhani inawezekana kupunguza madhara haya kwa dunia?
    4. Je kuna dalili zozote za mafanikio?

    Tuendelee na mjadala!
    Nawasilisha
    Idimi.
     
  9. N

    Nsololi JF-Expert Member

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    Kupambana na changamoto hii si kazi ndogo kwani wanasiasa wameshika kisu kwenye mpini na watalaam wameshika kwenye makali.
    Kumbuka kulikuwa protocol ya Kyoto lakini mataifa makubwa hayapo tayari kualign na makubaliano hayo.

    Mwaka jana wameenda Indonessia kutengeneza/kurekebisha makubaliano lakini bado nchi kubwa hasa USA wanaendeleza kiburi. Bahati nzuri Mtanzania mwenzetu, Prof. Mwandosya ni miongoni mwa wajumbe wa secretariate inayojishughulisha na protocol hizi, lakini kazi wanayofanya ni bure.

    CO2 kutokana na ma magari inashika nafasi ya pili lakini nchi zetu za dunia ya tatu (India, Africa, America Kusini, China) bado ni watumiaji wa used automobiles whose gas emmision std hazipo kabisa au hazifuatwi.

    Kama ni Ozone layer depletion bado wengi hatuna uwezo wa kununua refregirators of new versions ambazo gas rafiki na mazingira kama R11 zinatumika. Kwa hiyo tutaendelea kuchangia katika uharibifu wa mazingia ya anga kwa kaisi kikubwa sana.
     
  10. Manda

    Manda JF-Expert Member

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    Asante wachangiaji wote!!
    Inshu ya ku curb global warming na ozone layer depletion ni so tricky kuweza kui achive kirahisi.Kama alivyo ainishia nsololi kuwa inahitaji joint efforts kwa nchi zote i.e zilizoendelea na sisi akina yakhe, ugumu umekuwepo kwa mataifa tajiri esp. nchi kama Marekani kwa kukataa kwake kusign protokali kama za kioto, lakini sisi kama TZ there is no way kwamba tuanaweza kuwalazimisha hawa jamaaa wasign, hivyo basi mi nadhani the way forward should be like this;
    1; afforestation as a policy should be encouraged na be implemented kwa nguvu zote, by the time nilipokuwa mbeya niliona kuna effoets za kutia matumaini sana, miti ilikuwa inagawiwa nyumba kwa nyumba, na mwenyekiti wa mtaa alikuwa anhakikisha mti unautunza wewe na ukifa tu you were responsible to kulipa fine, such a policy should be adopted country wide, last december i was there na honestly nilipenda mandhari ya mji/jiji kwani miti ilikuwa kila mahali.
    2; kwa nchi kama ya kwetu, tumeongelea juu ya ongezeko la magari hususani ya daraja la 2 an tatu kama nayo pia yanachangia kwa kiasi kikubwa kuongeza CO2 angani,suluishi linaweza kuwa pengine ni udhibiti wa magari mabovu kuingizwa nchini, lakini swali la msingi je policy kama hiyo inaweza kuwa endelevu kiasi gani? manake inabidi iendelezwe hadi kwa magari yaliyo barabarani, kwa kuwa gari as much linavyotembea ndivyo linavyo kuwa polutant je udhibiti huo utafikia hatua hiyo?, pamoja ya hayo still tukijipanga tuanweza kufanya kitu flani flani.
    3;idimi, kupunguza madhara haya inawezeakana kabisa ikiwepo nia dhabiti kabisa ya nchi zote kupunguza emmision ya toxic gases, kama nilivyo ainisha toka awali kuwa inahitajika strategy na sisi wote kwa pamoja na kwa nia moja, jitihada zetu zinaweza kuwa meaningless if and onlf if wachina nayo wataendelea na ku produce toxix gases kwa kiasi kikubwa, kama nchi kama marekani itaendelea na msimamo wake wa kukataa kusign the KIOTO agreements.
    4;dalili za mafanikio mi nadhani zipo ktk kufanya kufanya watu wawe aware na global warming na ozone layer depletion, watu wengi siku hizi wanajua s'thing kuhusu maingira yao na njia za kuyatunza, ingawa ukweli unabakia pale pale kuwa still joto la dunia liongezeka mwaka hadi mwaka.
    NB; sijapa bahati ya kusikia maoni ya obama na bi. hillary juu ya hili, i wish nipate kusikia juu ya mtizamo wao juu ya hii inshu na msimamo wao pindi mmoja wao atapokuwa presient!
     
  11. Idimi

    Idimi JF-Expert Member

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    Nsololi na Manda mmeonyesha mwelekeo mzuri katika kujadili suluhisho la masuala haya ya uchafuzi wa hali ya hewa. Sina uhakika sana na hatua zilizochukuliwa na sirikali kukabili uchafuzi wa hewa, ila kuna mambo machache ambayo nikiyaangalia naona yanaashiria kabisa kwamba angalau kuna juhudi zinafanyika kukabili hali hiyo. Nayo ni:-

    1. Kumeongezwa kodi kwa magari yenye umri unaozidi miaka 10.
    2. Mifuko laini ya plastiki (rambo) imepigwa marufuku
    3. Dampo la taka la Mtoni Dar Es Salaam limesajiliwa kuwa moja ya miradi ya CDM iliyo chini ya UNFCCC ili gesi inayotokana ta taka zile izalishe umeme.

    Taarifa zake zaidi zinapatikana katika kiungo hiki,
    http://www.cdm.or.tz/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=5&Itemid=2

    Tuendelee kuelimishana
     
  12. Nzokanhyilu

    Nzokanhyilu JF-Expert Member

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    IDIMI,
    Nimependa ulivyoelezea kwa kiswahili fasaha. Hapo kuna misamiati mingine sikuijuwa kwa kiswahili. Wote mmeelezea vizuri. Ila kuna pointi moja muhimu sijaiona.

    The earth receives energy from the sun, mainly through short-wave radiation, and this penetrates the greenhouse gases, ozone layer etc. In return the earth re-radiates energy towards the atmosphere at long-wave. In theory there should be energy conservation. But because of the ozone layer and greenhouse gases, some of the long-wave radiation is trapped (or reflected back to earth) wihtout passing through the layers.......therefore gradual rise in temperatures.

    So cha muhimu hapa ni tofauti ya short-wave na long-wave radiation.
     
  13. Bin Maryam

    Bin Maryam JF-Expert Member

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    Nashukuru kuona michango yanu. Vilevile ningependa kuongezea kuwa kuna wanazuoni wanaopinga global warming kwa kusema kuwa recording data kuhusiana na mambo ya hali ya hewa yameanza si miaka ya zamani sana. Hivyo kusema uunguzaji wa fossil fuel kuwa unasababisha global warming ni inconclusive.

    Kwa mfano viking walipotawala Greenland miaka ya zamani walikuta nchi ya kijani (joto lilikuwepo) lakini baadaye hali ya hewa ilibadilika na kuwa baridi na wao kushindwa kuishi huko.

    Vile vile inaonyesha kuwa wahindi wekundu walitumia landbridge iliyounganisha Asia na North America kupitia Siberia.

    Na wasema kuwa Earth Magnetic field uwa inabadilika. South inakuwa North na vinginevyo. Na katika mabadiliko hayo, hali ya hewa uwa inabadilika na kuna uwezekano mkubwa kuwa joto linalotokea sasa linatokana na mabadiliko hayo na sio uchomaji wa viwese. Na wanaonyesha mabadiliko haya kwa kuonyesha kuwa matabaka ya udongo kwa vipindi mbalimbali yanaonyesha zina tofauti wa mwelekeo wa magnet fields.

    Hivyo Al Gore na An Inconvenient Truth yake ni HOAX na kwa upande fulani nakubaliana nao.
     
  14. Idimi

    Idimi JF-Expert Member

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    Sitashangaa sana kusikia kwamba wanaosema hii ni hoax ni wale wenye viwanda ambavyo vimekuwa vikilalamikiwa kuwa vinachafua anga. Ndio hawa wasiotaka mabadiliko, kwa kuhosia kupoteza faida itokanayo na kuunguza makaa na mfuta.
    Hata hivyo huenda lisemwalo lipo, tuendelee kuelimishana.
     
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