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Mbeya na Iringa Zaongoza kwa Ukimwi (~15%)

Discussion in 'Habari na Hoja mchanganyiko' started by Sanctus Mtsimbe, Jan 3, 2009.

  1. Sanctus Mtsimbe

    Sanctus Mtsimbe Tanzanite Member

    #1
    Jan 3, 2009
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    Wazalendo, Happy New Year 2009!

    Katika Kijarida cha Habari za Ukimwi (April - June 2008) Takwimu zinaonyesha kuwa maambukizi ya Ukimwi kufuatia Kampeni ya Kitaifa ya Kupima Ukimwi kwa Hiari ni kama Ifuatavyo:

    Maambukizi ya Juu:

    - Mbeya - 15.2% (Kyela 24%, Chunya 23.7%)
    - Iringa - 14.7% (Ludewa 19.7%, Makete 16.8%)
    - Dar Es Salaam - 8.3%
    - Mwanza - 8.1 %
    - Coastal - 6.2%
    - Ruvuma - 5.6%

    Hakuna sababu zilizoainishwa ni nini vichocheo vikubwa vya maambukizi haya.

    Wazalendo, Tunaambiwa Elimu Kuhusu Ukimwi imewafikia Watanzania kwa kiwango cha kutosha ikiwa ni pamoja na jinsi ya kujikinga na maabukizi.

    - Je, ni nini vichocheo vya maambukizi makumbwa yaliyoainishwa hapo juu na ni nini kifanyike?
     
  2. M

    Mtanzania JF-Expert Member

    #2
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    Sanctus,

    Asante kwa kuleta hii habari. Ilitakiwa iwe kule kwenye siasa ingawaje najua itahamishwa haraka haraka. We are very good at burying bad news.

    Inasikitisha sana kwamba robo ya watu kwenye baadhi ya wilaya wameambukizwa ukimwi na hili ni miaka zaidi ya 20 toka ugonjwa huu wa hatari utokee.

    Hapo hakuna cha kwamba hatujui, bali tatizo kubwa ni ujinga na umaskini. Sehemu kubwa wanaume ni ujinga wakati kwa wanawake ni umaskini ambao unawafanye waingie kwenye janga japo wanaona hatari.

    Kule Kyela sishangai kuona kiwango kikubwa hivyo. Gongo siku hizi ndio kilevi cha vijana na wakitoka huko kweli watajua hata kuna condoms?

    Pesa zote za kuzuia maambukizo zinaishia mijini ukiachia matangazo machache ambayo yanafika wilayani.

    Tuna safari ndefu mno katika vita hii ya kuondoa umaskini, ujinga na maradhi.
     
  3. Kichuguu

    Kichuguu Platinum Member

    #3
    Jan 4, 2009
    Joined: Oct 11, 2006
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    (1) Naona umefanya marekebisho kabla sijamaliza kusoma post yako. Pale Mwanzoni ulikuwa umesema unaambatanisha kijarida, lakini kabla sijakiona kijarida hicho ukabadilisha hiyo statement. Vipi, unaweza kutuambatanishia hicho kijarida tena?

    (2) Kuna rafiki yangu mmoja alikuwa ana tabia ya kutania kuwa waswahili huwa hatuwezi kujifunza kwa kuona na kuambiwa tu, lazima tufanye kwa vitendo. Ukimwambia mswahili kuwa maji yaliyomo kwenye chupa yanaunguza (corrosive) atajaribu kuweka kidole chake aone kama ni kweli, akishaungua ndipo ataamaini.

    Ukimwi uliteketeza familia nyingi sana mkoani Kagera na nchini Uganda. Kampeini dhidi ya ukimwi zikaendeshwa, leo hii inafurahisha kuona kuwa Kagera walijifunza, na sasa hawaunguzwi tena na maji corrosive, ila wengine hatujifunzi mpaka yatuunguze. Nadhani takwimu zitahama mkoa mmoja mmoja hadi kila mkoa upate nafasi ya kushika nafasi ya kwanza angalau mara moja kabla hatujaanza kupunguza kasi ya ueneaji wa gonjwa hili. Njia nzuri siyo tu kuendesha kampeini za ukimwi, nadhani inabidi turudi kwenye family basics. Kwa vile vijana wetu wengi huanza kuwa active mapema, nadhani kuna haja ya kuhamasisha wafunge ndoa mara tu wakishakomaa. Halafu vile vile tuwe na mfumo wa kuwakubali wanafunzi waliiooa au kuolewa wangali mashuleni; siyo njia nzuri lakini nadhani kidogo itajenga displini dhidi ya ngono.
     
  4. Black Jesus

    Black Jesus JF-Expert Member

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    nilikuwa mwanza kuwaona marafiki nikaelewa kuna jamaa yeye kazi yake ni kukodisha condom nilipouliza inakuwa nikambiwa ukisha maliza shuhuli yako yeye huisafisha na kuitayarisha kwa mteja mwengine hilo liliniwacha hoi
     
  5. Sanctus Mtsimbe

    Sanctus Mtsimbe Tanzanite Member

    #5
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    Wazalendo;

    Bado najaribu kuki-upload kijarida cha NACP . . . . Naomba mnivumilie ni PDF ya 5 MB.
     
  6. Balantanda

    Balantanda JF-Expert Member

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    Dah........hali ni mbaya mno jamani,binafsi nimeishi karibu wilaya zote za mkoa wa Mbeya,nimeishi Chunya,Kyela,Rungwe,Ileje na pia Tunduma(mbozi),kimsingi hatua zisipochukuliwa haraka hali itazidi kuwa mbaya sana mkoani Mbeya,wilaya ya Chunya kuna shughuli za uchimbaji wa madini ya dhahabu na uvuvi katika ziwa Rukwa,shughuli ambazo zimepelekea kuwepo na mchangnyiko/mwingiliano wa watu kutoka maeneo mbalimbali ya Tanzania,nimeshakaa na jamii zote hizi za wachimbaji na wavuvi wa wilayani Chunya na kushuhudia jinsi watu wakipata hela katika uvuvi na dhahabu shughuli yao kubwa huwa ni pombe na wanawake(wengi wa wachimbaji na wavuvi ni wanaume) na wanawake wanachukuliwa wengi huwa si wenyeji wa wilaya ya Chunya bali ni wale ambao hufika wilayani kwa lengo la kufanya biashara ya ukahaba,matokeo haya huwa ni maambukizi ya UKIMWI,kila wakati nikiwasiliana na watu wa Mbeya naambiwa fulani kafariki(kwa ukimwi),inasikitisha kwa kweli.....Wilaya ya Kyela hali ni mbaya zaidi maana nayo pia shughuli za kiuchumi zinaifanya iingiliwe na watu kutoka maendeleo mbalimbali ya ndani na nje ya Tanzania,kwanza wilaya hii ina mpaka wa Tanzania na Malawi katika eneo la Kasumulu ambapo watu wengi(hasa madereva wa magari makubwa hulala hapo(Kasumulu) ama Kyela mjini na mara nyingi madereva hawa hufanya mapenzi na wanawake waiopo Kyela mjini ama Kasumulu na (pengine) kuwaachia Ukimwi,pia Kyela ni mji unaokuwa sana kibiashara hasa biashara ya mazao ya kakao,mpunga/mchele,mafuta ya mawese na sukari toka malawi bila kusahau shughuli za uvuvi katika ziwa Nyasa,shughuli hizi zimepelekea kuwepo kwa mkusanyiko mkubwa wa watu katika wilaya ya Kyela na ile ya jirani ya Rungwe hivyo kwa kiasi kikubwa kuchangia maambukizi ya UKIMWI wilayani Kyela.Pia wilaya ya Kyela imeingiliwa na watu wengi kutoka Makete(ambayo imeathiriwa mno na ukimwi) huingia wilayani Kyela kwa lengo la kufanya biashara na mabinti kufanya kazi za ndani na zile za uhudumu wa baa na wengine hufanya biashara ya ukahaba(ni rahisi mno kuingia Kyela kutoka Makete kupitia milimani)...So ni wakati sasa kwa serikali kuongeza nguvvu aktika kutoa elimu ya kujikinga na maambukizi ya UKIMWI katika mkoa wa Mbeya kutokana na ongezeko kubwa la idadi ya watu mkoani ambao huja mkoani kujishughulisha na shughuli mbalimbali za kiuchumi...Pia ikumbukwe kwamba mkoa wa Mbeya unapakana na nchi za jirani za Zambia(TUNDUMA),Malawi(Kyela na Ileje) na pia baadhi ya watu hupita Mbeya kwenda DRC kupitia Kasanga Rukwa hivyo suala la muungano wa idadi kubwa ya watu haliepukiki...Mbarikiwe sana
     
  7. Balantanda

    Balantanda JF-Expert Member

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    Mkulu bado tu??????????
     
  8. Sanctus Mtsimbe

    Sanctus Mtsimbe Tanzanite Member

    #8
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    Balantanda;

    Nadhani nahitaji msaada, toka jana nahangaika sana niweze ku-upload lakini ina-fail, sijui kwa nini.

    Mods: PainKiller; Robot; can you assist plz? It is 5 MB PDF file na nikijarida kizuri sana wandugu . . .
     
  9. Balantanda

    Balantanda JF-Expert Member

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    Pole sana mkuu,hope mods wamekusikia na watalifanyia kazi tatizo hili...Be blessed
     
  10. Mganga wa Jadi

    Mganga wa Jadi JF-Expert Member

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    Hiyo inatisha jamani. Elimu zaidi inahitajika lakini pia mabadiliko ya mtu binafsi pia ni muhimu. Nadhani mikoa hiyo imeathirika sana kwa sababu ni gateway ya kwenda nchi za kusini kama zambia, botswana na sauzi ambazo zinamaambukizo makubwa. Long journey drivers wanavituo vyao ktk miji hiyo na dada zetu wanatumia mwanya huo na wao kujipatia rizki zao through vijisenti.
     
  11. M

    Mwanjelwa JF-Expert Member

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    Hii 'kupima kwa hiari" sidhani kama imekaa sawa sawa. Inawezekana watu wengi zaidi walijitokeza maeneo hayo kuliko kwingine!? Sijajua hii Hiari percentage yake in terms of relative population ukifananisha na mikoa kama vile Lindi, Mtwara, Pwani mingineyo. Napata wasi wasi na data kwa remote areas za mikao mingine ya Tz!

    Ila kimisingi nakubaliana kuwa maambukizi ni makubwa sana na hali ni ya hatari hasa.
     
  12. M

    Mkodoleaji JF-Expert Member

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    Kimsingi hata mimi nakubaliana na wewe kabisa. Pamoja na kwamba maambukizi huku kwetu ni makubwa sana na hatua zinatakiwa kuchukuliwa ni vigumu kuweka takwimu sahihi kuwa mikoa/miji au maeneo yapi yameathirika zaidi kama upimaji wenyewe ndiyo huu unaoendelea. Nakumbuka mwaka jana Kenya walizindua ripoti yao ya Ukimwi na ikaonekana zaidi ya 80% hawajapimwa na takwimu zao hazijaingizwa kwenye ripoti. Madhara ya mtiririko wa takwimu hizi ni kwamba tunaweza kupeleka misaada sehemu ambazo siyo zenye tatizo kubwa na kujikuta baadaye tena tunaanza upya.
     
  13. Njowepo

    Njowepo JF-Expert Member

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    Prevalence of HIV Infection:
    HIV prevalence in male blood donors was 8.7% and in female blood donors the prevalence was 12.6. This difference is statistically significant. Extrapolating these rates to the Tanzania mainland adult population, 1,259,539 persons aged 15-49 years (1,745,320 adults aged 15 and above) were infected with the AIDS virus as at December 1999. In general the prevalence of HIV infection of both men and women has been continuously increasing for the past eight years. Prevalence, among female blood donors in Dar es Salaam has been remarkably high from 1997-1999, largely
    Because the HIV prevalence reported from Ocean Road Hospital is very high (for 1999, 56.1% for female and 35.7% for males).

    Prevalence of HIV infection among blood donors shows some specific difference with regard to age and sex. In 1999, as in previous years, higher prevalence of HIV infection was seen among females than in males of the same age group. The prevalence across the age groups for male ranges between 7.9% and 14.9% for the age groups 50-54 and 35-39 years respectively


    Since AIDS is a late consequence of HIV infection, the long incubation period of between 5 and 10 years and the absence of significant symptoms at the early stages of infection, make it impossible to know the exact number of HIV infections in the country. The only reliable data available is that from blood donors and the few sero-prevalence studies in selected regions. In 1986, 6.8% of adult male donors and 8.2% females were HIV positive (average from population studies 7%). Extrapolation from these figures in an estimated population of 15,500,000 adults in mainland Tanzania results in at least 1,350,000 HIV positives which is 8.7% of the adult population. At least 5% of the infected population could develop to full-blown AIDS, giving approximately 68,00 AIDS cases per year.

    According to the blood donor data of 1996, HIV prevalence was high among young adults in the age groups 20 - 24, 25 - 29 and 30 - 34. Infection rates in these groups ranged from 5.9% to 7.9% among males, and from 9.3% to 10.1% among females, the latter being affected at earlier ages than the former.

    Although it is estimated that the prevalence of HIV infection among adult’s blood donors is 8.7%, the range varies from 5% to 20%. Regions mostly affected are Kagera, Iringa and Mbeya with a prevalence range of 15% to 20%, Dar es Salaam, Rukwa, Shinyanga and Mwanza with a prevalence range of 10% to 15% while Ruvuma, Kilimanjaro and Mtwara are in the prevalence range of 5% to 10%.

    Vertical transmission of HIV from mother to child is also considerable in Tanzania. In 1996 this accounted for about 4% of all reported AIDS cases. The problem seems to be on the rise as more women continue to become infected and pregnant. Data from sentinel surveys in antenatal clinics show sero-prevalence rates of 5.5% to 23%, and assuming a 30% prenatal transmission rate, the proportion of new-borns expected to be infected could reach 7 per cent.

    HIV/AIDS is increasingly becoming the major underlying factor for hospital admissions and deaths. Many diseases, which seemed to have been controlled ten years ago, have returned to previous levels due to HIV/AIDS. For example the prevalence of HIV infection among 128 newly detected tuberculosis patients in Mbeya in 1995 was 52%, whereas that proportion in Bukoba hospital in 1992 was 57.4%. Studies conducted in Dar es Salaam, Hai and Morogoro showed that HIV/AIDS is the leading cause of adult mortality especially among women.
    SOURCE:TACAIDS
     
  14. Njowepo

    Njowepo JF-Expert Member

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    Impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic
    Given that the HIV/AIDS epidemic has progressed with different rates in various population groups in Tanzania, the impact has varied from being minor to being profound depending on the time the infection was introduced in the area, rate of spread and the proportion of the population affected.

    Experiences from several parts of the country indicate that HIV infected persons, on average, die about 4 to 12 months after falling ill with one or more of the major manifestations of AIDS. During this period a member of the family often has to stay at home or hospital with the patient to provide care especially during the terminal stages of the disease. The medical, emotional and social costs on the patient and indeed the family are frequently high. More socio-economic difficulties arise when the patient is the main bread earner. When death finally comes the traditional family structures, already stressed by poor health, increased burden of care and poverty, are in many cases at breaking points. Funeral costs have been estimated to exceed US $100 for every adult death in Kagera. Available data from severely affected communities show that AIDS often leads to social and economic disruption of affected individuals, families and communities. The poorest households are least able to cope with the impact of adult deaths due to AIDS and are frequently unable to obtain even the most basic needs in the short term. Child nutrition, education, health and living standards for the survivors may be severely affected.

    Hospital based data indicate that up to 50% of beds are occupied by patients with HIV/AIDS related illness. Consequently the demand for care and hospital supplies is enormous and by-and-large government health facilities are facing inadequate funding and manpower. It is estimated that in Tanzania the ideal lifetime and nursing-care costs for HIV/AIDS is US $ 290 for adults and US$ 195 for children. Gains made during 1980's in TB control have been lost due to HIV/AIDS. TB case rates had been declining steadily up to 1982 but since then there has been a sharp increase the number of reported TB cases and in most urban areas these have more than doubled.

    The number of adult HIV infection in Tanzania in 1999 was estimated to be 1,745,320 (NACP). Given the fatality of the illness, and with 1.7 million infected adults, HIV/AIDS can no longer be viewed as just a health problem it has to be cognised as a development problem. The impact of the epidemic is serious given its widespread; it is now the major cause of adult mortality in many parts of Tanzania.

    The health sector in particular is experiencing an increased demand for its services, as AIDS patients occupy an ever-increasing number of beds in hospitals. And given illness episodes per AIDS patient, the public expenditure on AIDS treatment is high. In the education sector we find children pulled out of school either due to a lack of money or needed to help at home. The social welfare sector is experiencing a large increase of AIDS orphans.

    Industries experiencing the loss of skilled workers are facing high costs of recruitment and training of the new personnel. As the labour force in agriculture declines, agricultural production will decline. Agriculture takes place on family farms where agricultural production is labour intensive, and seasonal labour constraints are common.

    Since agriculture is the backbone of the Tanzanian economy, and most agricultural workers are in the age group 15-45 who are mostly affected by the epidemic, the impact of HIV/AIDS is gradually becoming noticeable as the epidemic spreads to rural communities. Production of food and cash crops is bound to suffer as the labour force gets sick and dies from AIDS.

    The World Bank estimates that because of the AIDS epidemic, life expectancy by 2010 will revert to 47 years instead of the projected 56 years in the absence of AIDS. The Bank further predicts that the mean age of the working population (labour force) will decline from 31.5 to 29 years between 1992 and 2010. The overall younger work force will have less education, less training and less experience. In addition the number of children orphaned by AIDS was estimated to be increasing from between 260,000 to 360,000 in 1995 to between 490,000 and 680,000 by the year 2000. Families, communities and the government will be required to generate resources to cater for the needs of these children. The Bank further estimates that, AIDS will reduce average real GDP growth rate in the period 1985-2010 from 3.9% without AIDS to between 2.8 and 3.3% with AIDS. These factors will certainly have a negative impact on the overall economic performance of the country and its living standards.
     
  15. Njowepo

    Njowepo JF-Expert Member

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    Determinants of the Epidemic
    The main determinants are societal, behavioural and biological. These singly or in combination provide opportunities for HIV infection to occur to an individual.

    Social determinants
    Commercial sex workers form a group that potentially increases the sexual transmission rate of HIV infection. Studies by AMREF along the major truck stops and towns have shown this group to have a high HIV prevalence of up to 60%. A study conducted by MUTAN in the Moshi municipality showed that bar workers had HIV infection prevalence rate of 32%, while a study in Dar es Salaam showed that 50% of the bar workers were HIV positive.

    Stigma and discrimination against people living with HIV/AIDS are quite common in Tanzania. Studies done in communities in Magu, Mwanza by TANESA showed the level of stigma and denial for AIDS and HIV to be very high. Many people would not admit that their sick relative could be suffering from HIV/AIDS but believe instead in witchcraft as the cause of their sickness. This situation makes it difficult to convince people with wife-inheritance traditions not to marry women whose husbands may have died from AIDS.

    A large proportion of the population with very low and/or irregular income is an important social determinant. Over 50% of Tanzanians live below the poverty line and females are worse than males. In addition, low and or irregular income creates an environment that encourages labour migration. Women in such situations may be easily tempted to exchange sex for money and this puts them and their spouses at risk for HIV. People with low income have less access to medical care including that for STDs and HIV/AIDS.

    Social isolation for long periods and peer pressures for high-risk behaviour among the military form other social determinants. In Tanzania when one is enrolled in the army, one is confined in a camp and barred from getting married for six years. This makes one vulnerable to high-risk behaviour and hence to HIV infection especially when the army has no proper programs for HIV/AIDS prevention like the promotion of condom use and provision of IEC for HIV prevention.

    Cultural norms, beliefs and practices that subjugate/subordinate women are important determinants these include cultural practices like wife inheritance, polygamy and female circumcision, which are common among many tribes in Tanzania. Obligatory sex in marital situations is condoned even by religion, and women cannot divorce in some faiths. Furthermore, in some cultures multiple sex partners for men is tolerated and may even be encouraged.

    Young people leave home and school environments to become independent without a source of income. In Tanzania every year about 300,000 pupils leave primary education quite early (age 13 - 17yrs) and a significant proportion migrates to large towns like Dar es Salaam in search of employment. These youth and especially the female, become very vulnerable because they end up getting employment, which is poorly paid and in turn have to supplement their meagre income through unsafe sexual practices. Although there have been attempts to introduce sex education in schools, these have not adequately prepared those leaving school to confront sexual issues.

    Illiteracy and lack of formal education is on the rise in Tanzania. In the eighties the level of literacy in the country was around 80%. At that time many people could read and understand messages meant for their well being. Today, the literacy rate has gone down to less than 60%; this means less people can understand written messages. This has been contributed by the fact that many young people are not being enrolled into schools and these are unfortunate because it has been shown that the prevalence of HIV infection in educated women is lower than in those who were not educated. The other contributing factor to the declining literacy rate is that the post-independence adult education campaigns are currently so poorly managed for lack of resources that there is little or no output.

    Behavioural determinants:
    Unprotected sexual behaviour among mobile population groups with multiple partners makes them vulnerable to HIV infection. The groups include long distance truck drivers who have been found to unprotect sexual intercourse with HIV sero-positivity of up to 50%. This is because they have multiple sexual partners available in all major truck stops. Migrant or seasonal workers are also vulnerable. It has been found that farm and plantation workers in Iringa and Morogoro for example, have HIV prevalence of about 30%, which is very high compared to the general population.

    Reduced Social discipline for making good decisions about social and sexual behaviour. Long before the eighties when the AIDS epidemic became apparent Tanzanians were a disciplined society where traditional values and norms were cherished. But recently, social discipline has been eroded. This is so because of several factors such as failure of parents to institute traditional values and discipline to their children for lack of time. Sudden mushrooming of television programmes and other mass media have also contributed negatively to social discipline.

    Biological determinants
    STDs Infections (especially gonorrhoea and other genital discharges) are among the top-ten causes of disease in mainland Tanzania. Studies have found that patients with STDs are 2 to 9 times more likely to be infected with HIV. However because HIV and other STDs are both highly associated with high-risk sexual behaviour it is difficult to show the extent to which STD alone enhance infection of HIV. Nevertheless, studies in Mwanza have shown that STD management within the existing PHC system can reduce the incidence of HIV infection by about 40%.

    Unsafe blood transfusion is a major determinant of HIV transmission. The HIV transmission rate through transfusion of contaminated blood is almost 100%. For this reason, in Tanzania all centres rendering this service are equipped with facilities to ensure safe blood transfusion. However, due to lack of regular supplies of reagents and equipment as well as lack of reliable power supply in some centres there is some risk of transfusing contaminated blood. This situation therefore calls for improved blood transfusion services in the whole country.

    Aka kaugonjwa lazima tukavalie njuga kuepukana nako hasa kwa mostly affected group wanawake na vijana jamani tubadilike ngoma sooo.
     
  16. M

    Mwanjelwa JF-Expert Member

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    Umesahau moja, au sijaiona humo juu. Kutahiriwa! Sasa sijui kama kunahitajika campaign kama ile ya kule Kisumu kwa wenzangu kule Mbeya ili kupunguza infection rate? Tatizo sijajua mpaka leo circumcision inasaidiaje kupunguza maambukizi? Ukitwanga peku peku au ukiwa na nyavu? Sijapata kusoma hiyo doc ya WHO kuhusu hii habari.
     
  17. mwakatojofu

    mwakatojofu JF-Expert Member

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    naamin wanaume kibao kyela hawajatahiriwa. sorry kama nimekosea. wakaaz wengi waasili wa kule ni wanyakyusa. traditionally hawana kawaida ya kufanya circumcision kwa vijana/watoto wao - wa kike au kiume.
    watu wanapojamiiana maambukiz yanatoka kwa mmoja kwenda kwa mwingine kunapotokea michubuko - kwa mmoja au wote.
    angalia kichwa cha uume cha mwanaume mwenye miaka 30 ambaye hajatahiriwa. then angalia kichwa cha uume cha mwanaume mwenye miaka 30 ambaye ametahiriwa. ukilinganisha, naamini kile cha yule ambaye hajatahiriwa kitaonekena softer. kwasababu most of the time kimefunikwa na ngozi. hakipati msuguano wa mara kwa mara na nguo ulizovaa. kinakuwa teketeke.
    sasa wakat wa kukutana kimwili na mwanamke huyo mwanamme kuchubuka inakuwa rahis naamin.
    hivyo ndivyo ninavyoamini. sijasoma mahali. you can think on yourself
     
  18. M

    MzalendoHalisi JF-Expert Member

    #18
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    1. Kuna data za population based HIV\AIDS malaria indicator survey 2007/8...ambapo watu 16,000 walikuwa tested.. bado Iringa na Mbeya wanaonyesha kuwa na maambukizi ya juu!
    National Prevalence ni 5.7% ..naona serikali imechukuwa hii data kama official govt position kwa sasa!

    2. See the attachment!
     

    Attached Files:

  19. M

    Mtanzania JF-Expert Member

    #19
    Jan 7, 2009
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    Mzalendohalisi,

    Hawa ndugu zangu wa Mbeya wanafanya kile ambacho Watanzania tunakijua sana, kukataa ukweli.

    Suala la AIDS Kyela linaeleweka na ukipita huko utaona wazi kwamba kuna tatizo kubwa.

    Bwana anakufa kwa AIDS baada ya mwezi utakuta wanaume kibao wanamfuata mke wake. Hata matumizi ya Condoms yako chini sana hasa kwa vijijini.

    Mimi naona kama ni kwa watu wazima na hasa umri wa miaka 15 mpaka 50, huenda hata hiyo 25% ni namba ndogo.

    Njia pekee ni kukubali ukweli huu na kuamua kuufanyia kazi. AIDS Kyela ni tatizo sana, hata mnaoenda huko na kuzengea watoto labda mna roho ya wale wanyama wa kule ngorongoro ambao kila siku wananaswa na Mamba lakini kesho wanaenda tena bila tahadhari yoyote.
     
  20. mwakatojofu

    mwakatojofu JF-Expert Member

    #20
    Jan 10, 2009
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    hebu msome huyu jamaa.

    hii habari imepatikana: Does HIV cause AIDS?

    John Curtis Hunter (Las Vegas)
    Does HIV cause AIDS?

    JohnHunter2@wow.member.org

    Abbreviations used: HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus, HTLV: Human T-cell Leukemia (renamed Lymphotropic, 1985) Virus, LAV: Lymphadenopathy-Associated Virus, NCI: National Cancer Institute, CDC: Centers for Disease Control, AIDS: Acquired immune deficiency syndrome, T-helper cells, or CD4 cells, or T4 cells: the specific white blood cells lost by AIDS patients; a complete HIV-AIDS glossary.

    One of today's most pervasive beliefs is the utter certainty most people attach to the notion that AIDS is a condition caused by a virus called HIV. I used to accept this idea; I've taken the HIV antibody test whenever I did something risky sexually. My first clue that HIV-AIDS was a false connection was a book review in the Laissez Faire Books catalog. ( Review text ). The book is Inventing the AIDS Virus, by Peter Duesberg. (Regnery Publishing, Washington, DC, 722 pages in hardcover, $29.95)

    Kary Mullis (Nobel prize in Chemistry, 1993) had been writing a progress report on AIDS research. In it, he wrote the line, "HIV is the probable cause of AIDS". But Mullis is a scientist, and has the academic habit of wanting to footnote factual statements. The scientific proof was not to be found; finally Mullis heard a radio broadcast with Duesberg(a molecular biologist at Berkeley) explaining that proof had never been demonstrated, ending the search. Later, Mullis would write, "We know that to err is human, but the HIV/AIDS hypothesis is one hell of a mistake." (From Mullis's Forward to Inventing the AIDS Virus). Duesberg and the CDC agree that HIV is a retrovirus, a virus that has RNA as its genetic material rather than DNA. The official position of the U.S. Dept of Health and Human Services, that HIV kills cells in the human immune system, runs counter to the established nature of a retrovirus, which does not kill its host cell.

    The HIV-AIDS connection leads to what I call "definitional medicine". If a person dies from some infectious disease (or one of the non-infectious diseases named by the CDC as AIDS-related; various cancers, dementia, wasting disease...) and tests HIV positive, the death certificate will list cause of death as AIDS. If the same person had tested HIV negative, cause of death would be the disease. Of course, if death occured somewhere where post-mortem blood tests are not done, cause of death would be the disease(!)

    A brainy friend responded, "Everyone I know who died from AIDS was HIV positive!" Of course; see above. This is an example of the Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc fallacy in philosophy (After this, because of this). It does not follow that what came second was caused by what happened first, unless proof exists. If AIDS can be defined as a collapse of the body's immune system, what causes the collapse, if not HIV?

    (Before exploring Duesberg's hypothesis, this note: no hypothesis is adequate that merely accounts for the dramatic loss in T-cells characteristic of people with AIDS (PWA). Too many of the AIDS diseases are non-infectious. Speculation that HIV *somehow* causes dementia or cancer is just that: speculation.)

    Duesberg's (unproven but reasonable) hypothesis is that long term drug use will undermine the immune system. He covers other risk groups: many gay men tend to be drug users(esp. nitrite inhalants, or "poppers", as aphrodisiacs) ( Documentation here), babies dying from AIDS got drugs via their pregnant drug-using mothers, blood transfusion recipients are often already sick and die from the pre-existing illness(50% die within one year regardless of HIV status), hemophiliacs taking (toxic) Factor VIII get their clotting ability but lose their immune system. He also defines a new risk group: people who take AZT, ddI, or ddC (all highly toxic products of cancer chemotherapy research) to stop HIV, end up with AIDS anyway. (SF HEAL adds D4T and 3TC to the list of toxic anti-retrovirals.) In an interview for SPIN magazine , Duesberg complains that the same government which finances HIV-AIDS research will not finance drug-AIDS research. (Kary Mullis's hypothesis is that AIDS is caused not by HIV but by other retroviruses. Mullis, Charles Thomas Jr., and Phillip Johnson ask "What Causes AIDS?", but their answer is, basically, "something other than HIV".) A pathologist and toxicologist, Dr. Mohammed Al-Bayati argues that AIDS is caused by various toxins .

    The CDC has admitted that people get "AIDS" even though they are HIV-negative. To deal with this, the CDC made up a new disease: if someone gets "HIV-negative AIDS";, its called "idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia"(ICL). Duesberg's comments are in the first link in the "Furthur documentation" paragraph. In addition, the CDC is dealing with HIV-positives who don't get AIDS by increasing HIV's "latent period". Currently, an HIV+ gets 10 years of normal life before getting AIDS. (That assumes the HIV+'s doctor withholds AZT "therapy".)

    Alternatives to toxic, immune suppressing therapies do exist. In particular, "Coenzyme Q10 is a vitamin-like substance that resembles Vitamin E....It plays a crucial role in the effectivness of the immune system." (so says the label on the bottle...I hope it is effective.) An article about Q10 says that Q10 is useful in treating immune deficiency. Two prominent AIDS doctors, Shari Lieberman and Joan Priestly , insist that their patients give up drinking, smoking, AZT(or other anti-HIV drugs), unhealthy dietary practices, recreational drugs, and embark on a physical fitness program. Heavy emphasis is placed on nutrition; here are Priestly's nutritional recommendations.

    "There is great disparity between the political and the scientific strength of the HIV-AIDS hypothesis. Politically it is all-powerful, and many forms of censorship and coercion keep it this way. Scientifically, it was refuted decisively by molecular biologist Peter Duesberg years ago. A rapidly growing number of scientists are not only convinced that the HIV-AIDS hypothesis is wrong, but that it was bizarre and foolish from the very beginning." -John Lauritsen, The AIDS War.

    "People who claim to be absolutely convinced that their stand is the only right one are dangerous. Such conviction is the essence not only of dogmatism, but of its more destructive cousin, fanaticism. It blocks off the user from learning new truth, and it is a dead giveaway of unconscious doubt." -Rollo May, MD

    Furthur documentation: a speech by Duesberg; lots of other stuff, on both sides of the HIV-AIDS question, is at the AIDS section of the Sumeria site; another review of Inventing the AIDS Virus by a reviewer with a different starting point. The mother lode is | HIV & AIDS - VirusMyth, including a link to "The Group...", led by PhD's, MD's, etc., calling "...for the Scientific Reappraisal of the HIV-AIDS Hypothesis"*; also an article by John Lauritsen about the false hope of "protease inhibitors" (a new type of anti-HIV chemicals) , (lots more on the toxicity and uselessness of protease inhibitors), plus a review of Lauritsen's book Poison by Prescription; The AZT story.
    *The "Group"'s newsletter is Reappraising AIDS . A lenghty document, which both details and tries to refute Duesberg, is here. Duesberg expounds his drug-AIDS hypothesis in his article, The Role of Drugs in the Origin of AIDS, and at his own website. This group, HEAL(Health Education AIDS Liason), has information and IRC Chat instructions . The LA chapter of HEAL has an "AIDS test" worth taking. Finally, this organization, AIDS Authority (their slogan: "AIDS science hasn't failed because it hasn't found a cure, AIDS science has failed because it never found the c a u s e.") (Note: AIDS Authority is apparently permanently down, too bad, it was the best AIDS site I have ever seen; I did get permission from one of the founders of AIDS Authority to reprint those links that I had copies of, so not all of the following is "dead links";)includes mother lode II here, the "rethink-HIV channel" here, an assortment of alternative treatments here, John Lauritsen's risk-AIDS hypothesis, the "Top ten reasons HIV is not the cause of AIDS";, Donna Shalala's argument that HIV does cause AIDS, and an abstract of Duesberg's "HIV and AIDS: Correlation but not causation" (the whole article is at another site here); or try my Unauthorized Index to AIDS Authority. One of the founders of AIDS Authority has a page with (many) articles he has written about AIDS, its alledged treatments, and its politics. AIDS Authority did return briefly in late 1997; among the articles published was "Dismantling Dreams", part 1, and part 2.

    A Short History of HIV

    The retrovirus now called HIV was first isolated by Luc Montagnier at the Pasteur Institute in Paris in 1982; he named it LAV. Word of this discovery reached Robert Gallo at the NCI; Gallo had been pushing his own discovery, HTLV-1, as a possible cause of AIDS. Interested, Gallo spent the time necessary to "discover" LAV, which he did in 1984, calling it HTLV-3. Montagnier assisted in the process by sending samples of LAV to Gallo's lab.

    On April 23, 1984, Gallo and Margaret Heckler, the Secretary of Health and Human Services, held a press conference to announce that the cause of AIDS had been found. A vaccine was promised in two years. Heckler predicted, "There will be a vaccine in a very few years and a cure for AIDS before 1990". (This quote can be found here.) The scientific papers were later published in Science, after Gallo had filed for a patent on the HTLV-3 antibody test.

    Montagnier sued. After a three year legal battle, an agreement was reached naming Gallo and Montagnier co-discoverers of the "AIDS virus", which was renamed HIV in 1987. US President Ronald Reagan and French Prime Minister Jacques Chirac met to sign the agreement. Later, agreement was made to split the royalties from the HIV antibody test; while a federal employee Gallo reportedly received the limit of $100,000 per year; now head of the non-federal Institute of Human Virology, he has become a multi-millionaire. The story of the ensuing investigations is here(more here). A technical and very critical look at Gallo's "discovery" of HIV is here.

    1987 also brought the first open scientific challenge to the HIV-AIDS hypothesis. Published in the March '87 issue of Cancer Research, Peter Duesberg questioned the idea that a retrovirus, which he and many others had theorized might be a cause of uncontrolled cell growth (as cancer), was now a cell killer (as AIDS). If interested, read either an abstract of this article, in which Duesberg doubts that a retrovirus would cause either cancer or AIDS, or the whole article, the first 3/4s of which deals with cancer. (Note: many of the early retrovirus experts were part of a failed attempt in the '70s - early '80s to find a viral cause for cancer.)

    I am told that there were a few other dissents from the HIV-AIDS hypothesis that predated Duesberg's. One of note is by Eleni Papadopulos-Eleopulos, a medical scientist whose article was published in 1988 after being rejected by Nature in 1986-87. It is long and technical and worth reading, Reappraisal of AIDS; Is the oxidation induced by risk factors the primary cause?
    Papadopulos-Eleopulos has gone on to lead a group of Australian scientists who do not think that HIV was ever properly isolated. For more go to Sumeria - The Immune System, and scroll down to The Perth Team: "Real" science on "AIDS" from "Oz". Of particular interest is this groups' paper Kaposi's Sarcoma and HIV. KS is an AIDS disease seen almost exclusively in gay men; the Perth group sees it as being caused by nitrites and semen exposure. Still more is at virusmyth.com's section on The Perth Group; particularly good is Where Have We Gone Wrong?
    (Summary of the views of the Perth Group.)

    Even more radical than the Perth Group is Stefan Lanka's arguement that retroviruses as a whole do not exist. See Zenger's Interview With Stefan Lanka. Lanka also argues,here, that the published photos of HIV are not photos of a virus.

    If you have time to wait for it to load, Colman's AIDS Page has lots of info and pictures of most of the people I have mentioned.

    Positive closing notes: In Reappraising AIDS, Vol. 2, No. 1, this quote appears, "Even Gallo and Montagnier now admit that most HIV-antibody-positive individuals will not get sick."

    Both Gallo and Montagnier have seperately arrived at the conclusion that HIV is not itself sufficient to cause AIDS. Co-factors must be present; Gallo favors HTLV-1 or the herpes virus HHV-6, Montagnier favors mycoplasma . This is very important! The discoverers of the "AIDS virus" say themselves that the "AIDS virus" does not cause AIDS by itself!

    A PhD who says he cured himself of AIDS presents his story and his toxins-cause-AIDS hypothesis.

    President Clinton, in 5/97, has promised a massive federal effort to have a vaccine against AIDS by 2007. OK, lets say they succeed and the "plague of HIV" is eradicated; this could be a great advance in winning the war on AIDS. Once it becomes obvious that stopping HIV does not equal stopping AIDS, then the search for the actual cause will begin. Here is an article about progress toward an HIV vaccine, plus a whole website on the subject- International AIDS Vaccine Initiative.

    For readers who are HIV positive and are convinced they will get AIDS; check out the characteristics of long term survivors.

    Viewers of Geraldo Rivera's "AIDS assassins" programs, about an HIV positive guy passing HIV to his (many) sex partners, should know that ordinary, unprotected vaginal intercourse is an almost impossible way to transmit HIV; maybe one chance in a thousand. Please see study results. Besides, the only real health risk of being HIV positive is that your doctor might prescribe some highly toxic, immune suppressing, anti-HIV drug, and you might take it!

    Disclaimer: Nothing above should be taken as an endorsement of unsafe sex. There are plenty of real STDs out there, plus there is evidence that repeated antibiotic use to stop them is itself immune suppressing. "It is the high incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), hepatitis, and the use of increasingly stronger antibiotics among gay men that factor into the breakdown of the immune system." -from What If Everything We Have Been Told About HIV and AIDS is a Lie?.

    It has come to my attention that some readers of this page may think that the author is in one of the AIDS risk groups, or is HIV positive. I'm neither.

    New: By far the best layman's presentation of the case against HIV causing AIDS is AIDSgate. Another brilliant presentation is made by NYC HEAL. Toronto HEAL has a nice page, too: HIV101: 10 Scientific Reasons Why HIV Cannot Cause AIDS. An extensive collection of AIDS-dissident material (some in German, you can tell which by the titles) is here. From this collection, especially good is Fred Cline's The Fear of Losing HIV. At his site Duesberg has an excellant HIV FAQ.

    Something to think about: This definition is from 1994 March BETA 20 - Glossary: "CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTE (CTL; also called a CD8 cell): a white blood cell in the immune system that targets and kills cells infected with viruses, bacteria, parasites or other microorganisms." If CD8 cells work this way, wouldn't it be logical to expect them to kill the very CD4 cells infected with HIV or any other lymphotropic microorganism?

    The scariest aspect of the HIV hypothesis is that some people have an enormous financial gain if it remains accepted, never mind that the antiretrovirals prescribed to eradicate HIV may be killing people. Is it reasonable to expect, say, Dr. Gallo to turn his back on the proceeds of the HIV antibody test and step up to a microphone someday with, "I was wrong in 1984. Actually, AIDS is caused by........"?
    Even scarier: "I think that people like Peter Duesberg belong in jail." - Mark Wainberg, Canadian AIDS researcher. I heard this in Robin Scovill's 2004 film "The Other Side of AIDS". Wainberg, I assume, thinks that all people who publically question the HIV-AIDS hypothesis belong in jail. I have had this page up on the Web for over ten years. Is Wainberg going to send me to jail, too? (I'm hoping this is an attitude particular to Wainberg. I can't imagine Robert Gallo wanting to imprison someone who disagrees with him.)
    "Much madness is divinest Sense
    To a discerning Eye
    Much sensethe starkest Madness
    'Tis the Majority In this, as All, prevail
    Assentand you are sane
    Demuryou're straightway dangerous
    And handled with a Chain"
    -Emily Dickenson

    "Remember, science is something tested and retested, not just something a bunch of people agree to." -M. K. Bernhard

    And now for the other side:

    I used to laugh at the official US government HIV-AIDS stuff, but no more. The National Institutes of Health, and its National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases are taking Duesberg, et al seriously and have put up some decent HIV causes AIDS stuff. Make up your own mind: There is The Relationship Between HIV and AIDS and NIAID Fact Sheet.

    Note: Rebuttal to "The Evidence That HIV Causes AIDS", NIAID Fact Sheet, from Toronto HEAL.

    Footnote: I was talking to a nurse whose sister died from AIDS. Trying to put my position intelligently, I realized that the definition of an antibody is not consistent with the HIV-AIDS hypothesis. I have in my blood antibodies to the polio virus, which I got from being immunized against the polio virus as a child. Having antibodies against the polio virus does not mean I am going to get polio: quite the reverse...the antibodies keep me from getting polio. In the same sense, antibodies against HIV do not mean I will get any disease caused by HIV, rather that I will not get any disease caused by HIV (if any).

    STATS: first published on CompuServe 9/19/96, pub. on Sprynet 2/3/97, pub. on WBS 2/7/97, pub. on Prodigy 5/17/97, pub on ICQ1/31/00, last update 3/27/07.
     
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