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Laws of Allah are a declaration of war by Allah

Discussion in 'Habari na Hoja mchanganyiko' started by MaxShimba, Jun 28, 2011.

  1. MaxShimba

    MaxShimba JF-Expert Member

    #1
    Jun 28, 2011
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    2:256. There is no compulsion in religion. Verily, the Right Path has become distinct from the wrong path. Whoever disbelieves in Taghut {idolatry} and believes in Allah, then he has grasped the most trustworthy handhold that will never break. And Allah is All-Hearer, All-Knower.

    This teaching was abolished from the Koran by Allah by teachings the Verse of The Sword 9:50 and Verse 9:29 and other teachings of Surahs 8 & 9.

    9:5. Then when the Sacred Months (the 1st, 7th, 11th, and 12th months of the Islamic calendar) have passed, then kill the Mushrikun {unbelievers} wherever you find them, and capture them and besiege them, and prepare for them each and every ambush. But if they repent and perform As-Salat (Iqamat-as-Salat {the Islamic ritual prayers}), and give Zakat {alms}, then leave their way free. Verily, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

    9:29. Fight against those who believe not in Allah, nor in the Last Day, nor forbid that which has been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger and those who acknowledge not the religion of truth (i.e. Islam) among the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians), until they pay the Jizya with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued.

    Both the above Laws of Allah are a declaration of war by Allah (the ANTI GOD) against the infidels. There is no choice. Infidels must convert to Islam, or agree to pay a submission tax or be murdered. Murder is compulsion. These are the teachings not of God but of Allah (the ANTI GOD).

    God would never use violence or a prohibitive tax to force any human being to come to Him. God is all pure love. He wants mankind to come into this love of their own free will. Allah (the ANTI GOD) is embodiment of pure hate. Convert to Islam or be murdered. Allah is bogus. Allah never existed.


     
  2. MaxShimba

    MaxShimba JF-Expert Member

    #2
    Jun 28, 2011
    Joined: Apr 11, 2008
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    9:29. Fight against those who believe not in Allah, nor in the Last Day, nor forbid that which has been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger and those who acknowledge not the religion of truth (i.e. Islam) among the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians), until they pay the Jizya with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued.
     
  3. MaxShimba

    MaxShimba JF-Expert Member

    #3
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    Allah is a problem for the society.

    What kind of deity is allah?
     
  4. njiwa

    njiwa JF-Expert Member

    #4
    Jun 28, 2011
    Joined: Apr 16, 2009
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    Makafiri wakilala wanafikiria waislamu... wakiamka wanafikiria waislamu.. wakitembea wanafikiria waislamu.... dude preach about your own religion watu waache zinaa!

    kwa kukusaidia tu! kabla hujadonsha kipande cha aya ujiulize ayat imeshuka wapi maka / madina... kipindi gani..? dhumuni lake lilikuwa nini ukienda hapa Qur'ani Tukufu wamezungumzia hivyo vitu kabla ya sura kuanza.

    get life dude ...

    contradictions ndani ya bible huzioni ama ume ignore wacha nikusaidie basi-

    hizo ayats mbili hapo juu unaweza ukanipa explanations

    unaweza ukanipa maelezo hizo ayats mbili pia



    Je unaukumbuka huu mstari
    unajuwa ni marangapi yesu ametamka hilo neno..?!

    Before hujaanza kuumiza kichwa kutafuta contradictions za quran bado unamatatizo nyumbani kwako solve your own probleams kwanza .
     
  5. Romance

    Romance JF-Expert Member

    #5
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    [h=1]Is a person certifiably crazy if they see ‘hidden' messages or connections in seemingly random coincidences? (More…)
    Is a person certifiably crazy if they see ‘hidden' messages or connections in seemingly random coincidences? (More…)[/h]
    Someone I know can easily see and interpret a slew of so-called ‘hidden' words, messages, etc. from normal everyday things, places and occurrences…this person also has an odd ability to extract seemingly endless and different combinations of words, meanings, etc. from countless juxtapositions of said words, numbers, places, etc. And from all these curious ways of deconstruction/construction, this person draws a lot of false conclusions about things to the point of pseudo-mania or the inner workings of a conspiracy theorist nut-case.

    For instance, here are a few examples, with this person's conclusions about them:

    1) I used to work with someone last year with the last name ‘Castle'. There is a house in my neighborhood about a block away that looks like a miniature castle. Conclusion: I have some sort of bond/connection to this ‘Castle' person, even though I've said probably less than 50 words to them.

    2) Myspace shenanigans…someone in my friends list leaves a comment typed backwards (!ahahaH !!llew gniod er'uoy epoh ,nam yeH), seemingly for comedic effect. Months later, another friend leaves a religious oriented comment, quoting John 3:16. I happened to update my profile at a time/date that is some sort of backwards variation of "3:16", say at 6:13 PM or 9:13 AM, or on June 13th or Sept. 13th . Conclusion: because my profile was updated at that particular moment in time, there is a sort of secret, unspoken communication of some nature going on between myself and friend #2, who left the "John 3:16" comment – based solely on the fact that the backwards message from friend #1 relates to the updated profile time/date being backwards, which in turn relates to the number "3:16" message. STILL WITH ME SO FAR?

    3) Myspace shenanigans, part II…another person on my friends list has a woman in their top 5 who happens to share the same name and is of the same ethnicity of someone I had a relationship with about 3 years ago. Conclusion: I am still holding a candle for this woman I was involved with, even 3 years after our relationship ended.

    4) I'm watching a movie/DVD with this particular person (the conspiracy theorist), and there's a part on-screen where a band performs a song that uses the same name of the person I had the relationship with in the song title (see #3 above). The song is of an overtly sexual nature. I am not familiar with the song, but my friend has known it for years. Coincidentally, the pet cat does something nearby that makes me chuckle, right at the same time this band starts playing the song. Conclusion: I am REALLY holding a candle for the woman in example #3.

    5) Two of my former addresses where I had once lived have the same street names as the towns/states that this person (the conspiracy theorist) lived in, say, Ohio St. and Houston Dr. Conclusion: Because they once lived in the state of Ohio and in the city of Houston, TX, there is a connection/link between us.

    6) Fun with numbers…the beginning and end of my phone number supposedly sounds like ‘Two for sex' and ‘I want sex', respectively. Plus my area code has a ‘6' and ‘9' in it, a.k.a. ‘69'. Conclusion: I am a sex fiend.

    7) Fun with words and letters…this happens a lot, but suffice to say, any word this person sees can have multiple meanings and contain numerous messages – simply by rearranging a letter or two, turning an ‘M' upright to make the letter ‘E' or number ‘3', etc. and so on. And it just so happens that those hidden words/messages coincide with every goddamn other random coincidence. Conclusion: Everything, and I mean EVERYTHING is connected. And everything is that way on purpose.........


    There are lots more instances of this that I've chosen to forget. On purpose.

    So, the ultimate, final conclusion that this person gives me is that I'm stupid and ignorant because I don't see these things, connections - whatever you want to call them - without them being pointed out to me. They are right – I don't look at things this particular way, nor do I draw any sort of conclusion from such things….they are merely random coincidences to me! This person says they are bombarded constantly by these messages/coincidences and admits that it drives them insane. Frankly, I think it does.
     
  6. Romance

    Romance JF-Expert Member

    #6
    Jun 28, 2011
    Joined: Jun 15, 2011
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    [h=1]How to Fall Asleep[/h][​IMG]



    Sleep is a habit and falling asleep is easily impacted by the routines you have set in place (or not), as well as by physiological elements resulting from stress, anxiety, or depression. [SUP][1][/SUP] Most of us experience a period when falling asleep is a challenge, for one reason or another, but it is possible to improve your chances of falling asleep with methods that range from improving your routine and eating well, to using relaxation and imagination techniques. This article will help you to learn what helps you to fall asleep, as well as offering particular techniques that you can try when you find it impossible to fall asleep on occasion.
    If you are lying in bed and unable to fall asleep due to too many things on your mind, do what the myth says. Count sheep in your head, either sheep jumping over a fence or sheep in a field, the method is NOT scientifically proven but it does work. Also staring at one particular area and having your eyes water helps to get sleepy. Try these two methods and you should be on your way to night night land.
    Note that this article is focused on helping you to fall asleep now and again. If you are routinely unable to fall asleep over a long period of time, it is possible that you are suffering from a sleep disorder, and this should be diagnosed and treated by your doctor or other qualified health professional.
     
  7. Romance

    Romance JF-Expert Member

    #7
    Jun 28, 2011
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    Busta Rhymes began rapping at the age of 12, when he moved from Brooklyn to Long Island. He then started to get involved with rapping, he started going to contests and eventually met what he wanted to be.​
    [​IMG][​IMG]Busta Rhymes became the toast of the American hip-hop community with the release of his Elektra Records debut, "The Coming," in 1996. Although offering nothing outstanding in its lyrics, album tracks such as "Everything Remains Raw" and "It's A Party" highlighted his compelling ragga-influenced delivery to good effect, and the catchy single "Woo-Hah!! Got You All In Check" broke into the US Top 10.​
    Busta Rhymes had originally rapped as part of the highly praised Leaders Of The New School, with MC Charlie Brown, Dinco D and Milo In De Dance, releasing the acclaimed "A Future Without A Past" in 1991. He has also worked with a stellar cast of singers, including Boyz II Men, Mary J. Blige, TLC and A Tribe Called Quest, and appeared in the movies "Who's The Man?" and "Higher Learning."​
    Attempts to promote "The Coming" in the UK ended in disaster. His planned performance at the Kentish Town Forum in May ended in calamity when delays in securing a work permit prevented him from appearing. Outraged fans caused damage after they rioted in protest. ​
    [​IMG]Busta Rhymes released the ambitious US Top 5 album "When Disaster Strikes" in September 1997, exploring pre-millennial fears and the future of rap. The album included a powerful duet with Erykah Badu on "One" and "Turn It Up/Fire It Up," with a remix of the latter entering the US Top 10. The track also provided Rhymes with his highest UK chart placing the following April when it debuted at number 2.​
    The same year he released "The Imperial Album" as part of the Flipmode Squad, a collaborative project with rappers Rampage, Lord Have Mercy, Spliff Star, Rah Digga and Baby Sham. Rhymes' fascination with film helped form the same year's "Extinction Level Event: The Final World Front," which took its title from the disaster movie "Deep Impact."​
    The frenetic "Gimme Some More" reached number 5 in the UK singles chart in January 1999. Busta Rhymes enjoyed further transatlantic success in April when the highly catchy "What's It Gonna Be?!," featuring Janet Jackson, reached the US and UK Top 10. ​
    Rhymes has kept up his frantic work rate, juggling his music career with his acting roles. In 2000 he worked on several movie projects, including the remake of "Shaft," and released his final album for Elektra, "Anarchy."​
    Hit songs include --

    • Dangerous
    • Turn It Up
    • What's It Gonna Be
    • Woo-Ha!! Got You All in Check
    • I Know What You Want
    • Touch It
    • Pass The Courvoisier
    • Break Ya Neck
    • As I Come Back
    • It's A Party
    • I Love My B****
    • Light Your A** on Fire
    • Make It Clap
    • Fire
    • In The Ghetto
    • Gimme Some More
    • Get Out!
    • What It Is
    • Shorty (Put It On The Floor)
    • Do The Bus a Bus
    Busta Rhymes may be available for your next special event!
     
  8. Romance

    Romance JF-Expert Member

    #8
    Jun 28, 2011
    Joined: Jun 15, 2011
    Messages: 587
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    [​IMG]
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    [TD="width: 48%"] [SIZE=-2] T. Sibona. F.A.O[/SIZE]
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    [TD="width: 200"] [SIZE=+2]Plants[/SIZE]
    [SIZE=+2]Animals[/SIZE]
    [SIZE=+2]Climate[/SIZE]
    [SIZE=+2]Southeast Asian Rainforests[/SIZE]




    [/TD]
    [TD="width: 450"] The tropical rain forest is a forest of tall trees in a region of year-round warmth. An average of 50 to 260 inches (125 to 660 cm.) of rain falls yearly.
    Rain forests belong to the tropical wet climate group. The temperature in a rain forest rarely gets higher than 93 °F (34 °C) or drops below 68 °F (20 °C); average humidity is between 77 and 88%; rainfall is often more than 100 inches a year. There is usually a brief season of less rain. In monsoonal areas, there is a real dry season. Almost all rain forests lie near the equator.
    Rainforests now cover less than 6% of Earth's land surface. Scientists estimate that more than half of all the world's plant and animal species live in tropical rain forests. Tropical rainforests produce 40% of Earth's oxygen.
    A tropical rain forest has more kinds of trees than any other area in the world. Scientists have counted about 100 to 300 species in one 2 1/2-acre (1-hectare) area in South America. Seventy percent of the plants in the rainforest are trees.
    About 1/4 of all the medicines we use come from rainforest plants. Curare comes from a tropical vine, and is used as an anesthetic and to relax muscles during surgery. Quinine, from the cinchona tree, is used to treat malaria. A person with lymphocytic leukemia has a 99% chance that the disease will go into remission because of the rosy periwinkle. More than 1,400 varieties of tropical plants are thought to be potential cures for cancer.
    All tropical rain forests resemble one another in some ways. Many of the trees have straight trunks that don't branch out for 100 feet or more. There is no sense in growing branches below the canopy where there is little light. The majority of the trees have smooth, thin bark because there is no need to protect the them from water loss and freezing temperatures. It also makes it difficult for epiphytes and plant parasites to get a hold on the trunks. The bark of different species is so similar that it is difficult to identify a tree by its bark. Many trees can only be identified by their flowers.
    Despite these differences, each of the three largest rainforests--the American, the African, and the Asian--has a different group of animal and plant species. Each rain forest has many species of monkeys, all of which differ from the species of the other two rain forests. In addition, different areas of the same rain forest may have different species. Many kinds of trees that grow in the mountains of the Amazon rain forest do not grow in the lowlands of that same forest.
    [HR][/HR]
    [SIZE=+3]Layers of the Rainforest[/SIZE]
    There are four very distinct layers of trees in a tropical rain forest. These layers have been identified as the emergent, upper canopy, understory, and forest floor.

    • Emergent trees are spaced wide apart, and are 100 to 240 feet tall with umbrella-shaped canopies that grow above the forest. Because emergent trees are exposed to drying winds, they tend to have small, pointed leaves. Some species lose their leaves during the brief dry season in monsoon rainforests. These giant trees have straight, smooth trunks with few branches. Their root system is very shallow, and to support their size they grow buttresses that can spread out to a distance of 30 feet.
    • The upper canopy of 60 to 130 foot trees allows light to be easily available at the top of this layer, but greatly reduced any light below it. Most of the rainforest's animals live in the upper canopy. There is so much food available at this level that some animals never go down to the forest floor. The leaves have "drip spouts" that allows rain to run off. This keeps them dry and prevents mold and mildew from forming in the humid environment.
    • The understory, or lower canopy, consists of 60 foot trees. This layer is made up of the trunks of canopy trees, shrubs, plants and small trees. There is little air movement. As a result the humidity is constantly high. This level is in constant shade.
    • The forest floor is usually completely shaded, except where a canopy tree has fallen and created an opening. Most areas of the forest floor receive so little light that few bushes or herbs can grow there. As a result, a person can easily walk through most parts of a tropical rain forest. Less than 1 % of the light that strikes the top of the forest penetrates to the forest floor. The top soil is very thin and of poor quality. A lot of litter falls to the ground where it is quickly broken down by decomposers like termites, earthworms and fungi. The heat and humidity further help to break down the litter. This organic matter is then just as quickly absorbed by the trees' shallow roots.

    [HR][/HR]
    [SIZE=+3]Plant Life[/SIZE]
    Besides these four layers, a shrub/sapling layer receives about 3 % of the light that filters in through the canopies. These stunted trees are capable of a sudden growth surge when a gap in the canopy opens above them.
    The air beneath the lower canopy is almost always humid. The trees themselves give off water through the pores (stomata) of their leaves. This process, called transpiration, can account for as much as half of the precipitation in the rain forest.
    Rainforest plants have made many adaptations to their environment. With over 80 inches of rain per year, plants have made adaptations that helps them shed water off their leaves quickly so the branches don't get weighed down and break. Many plants have drip tips and grooved leaves, and some leaves have oily coatings to shed water. To absorb as much sunlight as possible on the dark understory, leaves are very large. Some trees have leaf stalks that turn with the movement of the sun so they always absorb the maximum amount of light. Leaves in the upper canopy are dark green, small and leathery to reduce water loss in the strong sunlight. Some trees will grow large leaves at the lower canopy level and small leaves in the upper canopy. Other plants grow in the upper canopy on larger trees to get sunlight. These are the epiphytes such as orchids and bromeliads. Many trees have buttress and stilt roots for extra support in the shallow, wet soil of the rainforests.
    Over 2,500 species of vines grow in the rainforest. Lianas start off as small shrubs that grow on the forest floor. To reach the sunlight in the upper canopy it sends out tendrils to grab sapling trees. The liana and the tree grow towards the canopy together. The vines grow from one tree to another and make up 40% of the canopy leaves. The rattan vine has spikes on the underside of its leaves that point backwards to grab onto sapling trees. Other "strangler" vines will use trees as support and grow thicker and thicker as they reach the canopy, strangling its host tree. They look like trees whose centers have been hollowed out.
    Dominant species do not exist in tropical rainforests. Lowland dipterocarp forest can consist of many different species of Dipterocarpaceae, but not all of the same species. Trees of the same species are very seldom found growing close together. This bio diversity and separation of the species prevents mass contamination and die-off from disease or insect infestation. Bio diversity also insures that there will be enough pollinators to take care of each species' needs. Animals depend on the staggered blooming and fruiting of rainforest plants to supply them with a year-round source of food.

    [HR][/HR]
    [SIZE=+3]Animal Life[/SIZE]
    Many species of animal life can be found in the rain forest. Common characteristics found among mammals and birds (and reptiles and amphibians, too) include adaptations to a life in the trees, such as the prehensile tails of New World monkeys. Other characteristics are bright colors and sharp patterns, loud vocalizations, and diets heavy on fruits.
    Insects make up the largest single group of animals that live in tropical forests. They include brightly colored butterflies, mosquitoes, camouflaged stick insects, and huge colonies of ants.
    The Amazon river basin rainforest contains a wider variety of plant and animal life than any other biome in the world. The second largest population of plant and animal life can be found in scattered locations and islands of Southeast Asia. The lowest variety can be found in Africa. There may be 40 to 100 different species in 2.5 acres ( 1 hectare) of a tropical rain forest.

    [HR][/HR]
    When early explorers first discovered the rainforests of Africa, Southeast Asia and South America, they They were amazed by the dense growth, trees with giant buttresses, vines and epiphytes . The tropical vegetation grew so dense that it was difficult to cut one's way through it. It was thought at the time that the soil of a rainforest must be very fertile, filled with nutrients, enabling it to support the immense trees and other vegetation they found.
    Today we know that the soil of the tropical rainforests is shallow, very poor in nutrients and almost without soluble minerals. Thousands of years of heavy rains have washed away the nutrients in the soil obtained from weathered rocks. The rainforest has a very short nutrient cycle. Nutrients generally stay in an ecosystem by being recycled and in a rainforest are mainly found in the living plants and the layers of decomposing leaf litter. Various species of decomposers like insects, bacteria, and fungi make quick work of turning dead plant and animal matter into nutrients. Plants take up these nutrients the moment they are released.
    A study in the Amazon rainforest found that 99% of nutrients are held in root mats. When a rainforest is burned or cut down the nutrients are removed from the ecosystem. The soil can only be used for a very short time before it becomes completely depleted of all nutrients.

    [HR][/HR]
    [SIZE=+3]Where the Rainforests Are Found[/SIZE]
    The tropical rain forest can be found in three major geographical areas around the world.

    • Central America in the the Amazon river basin.
    • Africa - Zaire basin, with a small area in West Africa; also eastern Madagascar.
    • Indo-Malaysia - west coast of India, Assam, Southeast Asia, New Guinea and Queensland, Australia.
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    [SIZE=+3]Rainforests[/SIZE] [SIZE=+1]by Michael G. 2001[/SIZE]
    In an average year the climate in a tropical rain forest is very humid because of all the rainfall. A tropical rainforest gets about 150 cm of rain per year. It gets lots of rain because it is very hot and wet in rain forests. The hotter the air, the more water vapor it can hold. It rains usually about 1/8 of an inch per day.
    This climate is found near the equator. That means that there is more direct sunlight hitting the land and sea there than anywhere else. The sun warms the land and sea and the water evaporates into the air. The warm air can hold a lot of water vapor. As the air rises, it cools. That means it can hold less water vapor. Then as warm meets cold, condensation takes place and the vapor forms droplets and clouds form. The clouds then produce rain. It rains more than ninety days a year and the strong sun usually shines between the storms. The water cycle repeats often along the equator.
    The main plants in this biome are trees. This is important because in the rain forest, some rain never gets past the trees and to the smaller plants and ground below. Trees in this climate reach a height of more than 164 feet. They form a canopy. The forest floor is called understory. The canopy also keeps sunlight from reaching the plants in the understory. Between the canopy and understory is a lower canopy made up of smaller trees. These plants do receive some filtered sunlight.
    The tropical rain forest is classified under the Köppen Classification system as Af, meaning tropical forest. The A is given to tropical climates that are moist for all months and which have average temperatures above 18 degrees Celsius. The f stands for sufficient precipitation for all months. The latitude range for my climate is 15° to 25° North and South of the equator.
    The annual precipitation of a rain forest is greater than 150 cm. In a rain forest there is a short dry season. In only a month the rainforest receives 4 inches of rain. The rain forest climate is different from a lot of other climates. In other climates, the evaporation is carried away to fall as rain in far off areas, but in the rain forests, 50 percent of the precipitation comes from its own evaporation. A lot of the rain that falls on the rain forest never reaches the ground, instead it stays on the trees because the leaves act as a shield.
    The average temperature of a rain forest is about 77° Fahrenheit. The rain forest is about the same temperature year round. The temperature never drops below 64° Fahrenheit. Rain forests are so hot because they are found near the equator. The closer to the equator you are, the more solar radiation there is. The more solar radiation there is, the hotter it is. Rain forest are never found in climates which have temperatures 32° Fahrenheit and below because the plant life will not be able to live in the frost. All the plants will die out if the rain forest is cooler.
    The plants that make up the understory of a rain forest have adapted to the small amount of sunlight that they receive. Ferns and mosses do well, along with epiphytes. These are plants that grow on other plants. They can be found growing on branches of tall trees. There are many different plant species found in the rain forest.
    by Michael G. 2001
    [HR][/HR]
    bibliography:
    "Introduction", http://www.hqlist.demon.nl/gvg/ctkoppen.htm (Nov 2000)
    "Köppen Biomes", http://www.tesarta.com/www/resources/library/biomes.html (Dec 2000)
    "Rainfall", http://encarta.msn.com/find/print.asp?&pg=8&ti=00531000&sc=29&pt=1 (Dec.2000)
    "Temperature", http://encarta.msn.com/find/print.asp?&pg=8&ti=00531000&sc=29&pt=1 (Dec.2000)
    Allaby, Michael, Biomes of the world volume 7 Oxford: Anndromedia Limited1999
    Kellert, Stephen R. Macmillion Encyclopedia of the Environment. Simon and Schuster and Prentice Hall International. 1997
    "Rainforest Climate", http://passporttoknowledge.com/rainforest/GEOsystem/Rainforests/climate.html (March 2001)
    Stralhler, Arthur N. Strahler, Alan H. Elements of Physical Geography . John Wiley & Sons. 1997.
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    [TD="width: 80"] [SIZE=+2]Our Planet[/SIZE] [/TD]
    [TD="width: 120"] [SIZE=+2]World Biomes[/SIZE] [/TD]
    [TD="width: 66"] [SIZE=+2]Plants[/SIZE] [/TD]
    [TD="width: 86"] [SIZE=+2]Animals[/SIZE] [/TD]
    [TD="width: 86, align: center"] [SIZE=+2]Climate[/SIZE]
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    [TD="width: 100, align: center"] [SIZE=+2]Index[/SIZE]
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  9. Romance

    Romance JF-Expert Member

    #9
    Jun 28, 2011
    Joined: Jun 15, 2011
    Messages: 587
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    [TD="width: 48%"] [SIZE=-2] T. Sibona. F.A.O[/SIZE]
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    [TD="width: 200"] [SIZE=+2]Plants[/SIZE]
    [SIZE=+2]Animals[/SIZE]
    [SIZE=+2]Climate[/SIZE]
    [SIZE=+2]Southeast Asian Rainforests[/SIZE]




    [/TD]
    [TD="width: 450"] The tropical rain forest is a forest of tall trees in a region of year-round warmth. An average of 50 to 260 inches (125 to 660 cm.) of rain falls yearly.
    Rain forests belong to the tropical wet climate group. The temperature in a rain forest rarely gets higher than 93 °F (34 °C) or drops below 68 °F (20 °C); average humidity is between 77 and 88%; rainfall is often more than 100 inches a year. There is usually a brief season of less rain. In monsoonal areas, there is a real dry season. Almost all rain forests lie near the equator.
    Rainforests now cover less than 6% of Earth's land surface. Scientists estimate that more than half of all the world's plant and animal species live in tropical rain forests. Tropical rainforests produce 40% of Earth's oxygen.
    A tropical rain forest has more kinds of trees than any other area in the world. Scientists have counted about 100 to 300 species in one 2 1/2-acre (1-hectare) area in South America. Seventy percent of the plants in the rainforest are trees.
    About 1/4 of all the medicines we use come from rainforest plants. Curare comes from a tropical vine, and is used as an anesthetic and to relax muscles during surgery. Quinine, from the cinchona tree, is used to treat malaria. A person with lymphocytic leukemia has a 99% chance that the disease will go into remission because of the rosy periwinkle. More than 1,400 varieties of tropical plants are thought to be potential cures for cancer.
    All tropical rain forests resemble one another in some ways. Many of the trees have straight trunks that don't branch out for 100 feet or more. There is no sense in growing branches below the canopy where there is little light. The majority of the trees have smooth, thin bark because there is no need to protect the them from water loss and freezing temperatures. It also makes it difficult for epiphytes and plant parasites to get a hold on the trunks. The bark of different species is so similar that it is difficult to identify a tree by its bark. Many trees can only be identified by their flowers.
    Despite these differences, each of the three largest rainforests--the American, the African, and the Asian--has a different group of animal and plant species. Each rain forest has many species of monkeys, all of which differ from the species of the other two rain forests. In addition, different areas of the same rain forest may have different species. Many kinds of trees that grow in the mountains of the Amazon rain forest do not grow in the lowlands of that same forest.
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    [SIZE=+3]Layers of the Rainforest[/SIZE]
    There are four very distinct layers of trees in a tropical rain forest. These layers have been identified as the emergent, upper canopy, understory, and forest floor.

    • Emergent trees are spaced wide apart, and are 100 to 240 feet tall with umbrella-shaped canopies that grow above the forest. Because emergent trees are exposed to drying winds, they tend to have small, pointed leaves. Some species lose their leaves during the brief dry season in monsoon rainforests. These giant trees have straight, smooth trunks with few branches. Their root system is very shallow, and to support their size they grow buttresses that can spread out to a distance of 30 feet.
    • The upper canopy of 60 to 130 foot trees allows light to be easily available at the top of this layer, but greatly reduced any light below it. Most of the rainforest's animals live in the upper canopy. There is so much food available at this level that some animals never go down to the forest floor. The leaves have "drip spouts" that allows rain to run off. This keeps them dry and prevents mold and mildew from forming in the humid environment.
    • The understory, or lower canopy, consists of 60 foot trees. This layer is made up of the trunks of canopy trees, shrubs, plants and small trees. There is little air movement. As a result the humidity is constantly high. This level is in constant shade.
    • The forest floor is usually completely shaded, except where a canopy tree has fallen and created an opening. Most areas of the forest floor receive so little light that few bushes or herbs can grow there. As a result, a person can easily walk through most parts of a tropical rain forest. Less than 1 % of the light that strikes the top of the forest penetrates to the forest floor. The top soil is very thin and of poor quality. A lot of litter falls to the ground where it is quickly broken down by decomposers like termites, earthworms and fungi. The heat and humidity further help to break down the litter. This organic matter is then just as quickly absorbed by the trees' shallow roots.

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    [SIZE=+3]Plant Life[/SIZE]
    Besides these four layers, a shrub/sapling layer receives about 3 % of the light that filters in through the canopies. These stunted trees are capable of a sudden growth surge when a gap in the canopy opens above them.
    The air beneath the lower canopy is almost always humid. The trees themselves give off water through the pores (stomata) of their leaves. This process, called transpiration, can account for as much as half of the precipitation in the rain forest.
    Rainforest plants have made many adaptations to their environment. With over 80 inches of rain per year, plants have made adaptations that helps them shed water off their leaves quickly so the branches don't get weighed down and break. Many plants have drip tips and grooved leaves, and some leaves have oily coatings to shed water. To absorb as much sunlight as possible on the dark understory, leaves are very large. Some trees have leaf stalks that turn with the movement of the sun so they always absorb the maximum amount of light. Leaves in the upper canopy are dark green, small and leathery to reduce water loss in the strong sunlight. Some trees will grow large leaves at the lower canopy level and small leaves in the upper canopy. Other plants grow in the upper canopy on larger trees to get sunlight. These are the epiphytes such as orchids and bromeliads. Many trees have buttress and stilt roots for extra support in the shallow, wet soil of the rainforests.
    Over 2,500 species of vines grow in the rainforest. Lianas start off as small shrubs that grow on the forest floor. To reach the sunlight in the upper canopy it sends out tendrils to grab sapling trees. The liana and the tree grow towards the canopy together. The vines grow from one tree to another and make up 40% of the canopy leaves. The rattan vine has spikes on the underside of its leaves that point backwards to grab onto sapling trees. Other "strangler" vines will use trees as support and grow thicker and thicker as they reach the canopy, strangling its host tree. They look like trees whose centers have been hollowed out.
    Dominant species do not exist in tropical rainforests. Lowland dipterocarp forest can consist of many different species of Dipterocarpaceae, but not all of the same species. Trees of the same species are very seldom found growing close together. This bio diversity and separation of the species prevents mass contamination and die-off from disease or insect infestation. Bio diversity also insures that there will be enough pollinators to take care of each species' needs. Animals depend on the staggered blooming and fruiting of rainforest plants to supply them with a year-round source of food.

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    [SIZE=+3]Animal Life[/SIZE]
    Many species of animal life can be found in the rain forest. Common characteristics found among mammals and birds (and reptiles and amphibians, too) include adaptations to a life in the trees, such as the prehensile tails of New World monkeys. Other characteristics are bright colors and sharp patterns, loud vocalizations, and diets heavy on fruits.
    Insects make up the largest single group of animals that live in tropical forests. They include brightly colored butterflies, mosquitoes, camouflaged stick insects, and huge colonies of ants.
    The Amazon river basin rainforest contains a wider variety of plant and animal life than any other biome in the world. The second largest population of plant and animal life can be found in scattered locations and islands of Southeast Asia. The lowest variety can be found in Africa. There may be 40 to 100 different species in 2.5 acres ( 1 hectare) of a tropical rain forest.

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    When early explorers first discovered the rainforests of Africa, Southeast Asia and South America, they They were amazed by the dense growth, trees with giant buttresses, vines and epiphytes . The tropical vegetation grew so dense that it was difficult to cut one's way through it. It was thought at the time that the soil of a rainforest must be very fertile, filled with nutrients, enabling it to support the immense trees and other vegetation they found.
    Today we know that the soil of the tropical rainforests is shallow, very poor in nutrients and almost without soluble minerals. Thousands of years of heavy rains have washed away the nutrients in the soil obtained from weathered rocks. The rainforest has a very short nutrient cycle. Nutrients generally stay in an ecosystem by being recycled and in a rainforest are mainly found in the living plants and the layers of decomposing leaf litter. Various species of decomposers like insects, bacteria, and fungi make quick work of turning dead plant and animal matter into nutrients. Plants take up these nutrients the moment they are released.
    A study in the Amazon rainforest found that 99% of nutrients are held in root mats. When a rainforest is burned or cut down the nutrients are removed from the ecosystem. The soil can only be used for a very short time before it becomes completely depleted of all nutrients.

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    [SIZE=+3]Where the Rainforests Are Found[/SIZE]
    The tropical rain forest can be found in three major geographical areas around the world.

    • Central America in the the Amazon river basin.
    • Africa - Zaire basin, with a small area in West Africa; also eastern Madagascar.
    • Indo-Malaysia - west coast of India, Assam, Southeast Asia, New Guinea and Queensland, Australia.
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    [TD="width: 23"] [SIZE=+4]****[/SIZE]
    [SIZE=+3]Rainforests[/SIZE] [SIZE=+1]by Michael G. 2001[/SIZE]
    In an average year the climate in a tropical rain forest is very humid because of all the rainfall. A tropical rainforest gets about 150 cm of rain per year. It gets lots of rain because it is very hot and wet in rain forests. The hotter the air, the more water vapor it can hold. It rains usually about 1/8 of an inch per day.
    This climate is found near the equator. That means that there is more direct sunlight hitting the land and sea there than anywhere else. The sun warms the land and sea and the water evaporates into the air. The warm air can hold a lot of water vapor. As the air rises, it cools. That means it can hold less water vapor. Then as warm meets cold, condensation takes place and the vapor forms droplets and clouds form. The clouds then produce rain. It rains more than ninety days a year and the strong sun usually shines between the storms. The water cycle repeats often along the equator.
    The main plants in this biome are trees. This is important because in the rain forest, some rain never gets past the trees and to the smaller plants and ground below. Trees in this climate reach a height of more than 164 feet. They form a canopy. The forest floor is called understory. The canopy also keeps sunlight from reaching the plants in the understory. Between the canopy and understory is a lower canopy made up of smaller trees. These plants do receive some filtered sunlight.
    The tropical rain forest is classified under the Köppen Classification system as Af, meaning tropical forest. The A is given to tropical climates that are moist for all months and which have average temperatures above 18 degrees Celsius. The f stands for sufficient precipitation for all months. The latitude range for my climate is 15° to 25° North and South of the equator.
    The annual precipitation of a rain forest is greater than 150 cm. In a rain forest there is a short dry season. In only a month the rainforest receives 4 inches of rain. The rain forest climate is different from a lot of other climates. In other climates, the evaporation is carried away to fall as rain in far off areas, but in the rain forests, 50 percent of the precipitation comes from its own evaporation. A lot of the rain that falls on the rain forest never reaches the ground, instead it stays on the trees because the leaves act as a shield.
    The average temperature of a rain forest is about 77° Fahrenheit. The rain forest is about the same temperature year round. The temperature never drops below 64° Fahrenheit. Rain forests are so hot because they are found near the equator. The closer to the equator you are, the more solar radiation there is. The more solar radiation there is, the hotter it is. Rain forest are never found in climates which have temperatures 32° Fahrenheit and below because the plant life will not be able to live in the frost. All the plants will die out if the rain forest is cooler.
    The plants that make up the understory of a rain forest have adapted to the small amount of sunlight that they receive. Ferns and mosses do well, along with epiphytes. These are plants that grow on other plants. They can be found growing on branches of tall trees. There are many different plant species found in the rain forest.
    by Michael G. 2001
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    bibliography:
    "Introduction", http://www.hqlist.demon.nl/gvg/ctkoppen.htm (Nov 2000)
    "Köppen Biomes", http://www.tesarta.com/www/resources/library/biomes.html (Dec 2000)
    "Rainfall", http://encarta.msn.com/find/print.asp?&pg=8&ti=00531000&sc=29&pt=1 (Dec.2000)
    "Temperature", http://encarta.msn.com/find/print.asp?&pg=8&ti=00531000&sc=29&pt=1 (Dec.2000)
    Allaby, Michael, Biomes of the world volume 7 Oxford: Anndromedia Limited1999
    Kellert, Stephen R. Macmillion Encyclopedia of the Environment. Simon and Schuster and Prentice Hall International. 1997
    "Rainforest Climate", http://passporttoknowledge.com/rainforest/GEOsystem/Rainforests/climate.html (March 2001)
    Stralhler, Arthur N. Strahler, Alan H. Elements of Physical Geography . John Wiley & Sons. 1997.
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    [TD="width: 80"] [SIZE=+2]Our Planet[/SIZE] [/TD]
    [TD="width: 120"] [SIZE=+2]World Biomes[/SIZE] [/TD]
    [TD="width: 66"] [SIZE=+2]Plants[/SIZE] [/TD]
    [TD="width: 86"] [SIZE=+2]Animals[/SIZE] [/TD]
    [TD="width: 86, align: center"] [SIZE=+2]Climate[/SIZE]
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    [TD="width: 100, align: center"] [SIZE=+2]Index[/SIZE]
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  10. MaxShimba

    MaxShimba JF-Expert Member

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    Usidanganyike, hakuna anaeujali uislam bali allah wenu. Uislam si mali kitu wala si chochote wala lolote. Ile ni dini ya wapoteao.
     
  11. Romance

    Romance JF-Expert Member

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    Usidanganyike, hakuna anaeujali uislam bali allah wenu. Uislam si mali kitu wala si chochote wala lolote. Ile ni dini ya wapoteao
     
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    Mrdash1 JF-Expert Member

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    Mhh!!!! wewe jirani yako akutishie kukuua tena kwa kukukata kichwa halafu usimfikirie!!??? Eeee bwana wee, waache makafiri wachukue tahadhari na waislamu
     
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    Sideeq JF-Expert Member

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    Lete aya moja ya Quran nitaichambua inshaalah wakati huohuo wewe ichambue hii:
    Minor Tractates. Soferim 15, Rule 10. This is the saying of Rabbi Simon ben Yohai: Tob shebe goyyim harog ("Even the best of the gentiles should all be killed").
    Halafu tunaendelea namna hi,i yaani moja moja kama wewe kweli ni great thinker basi utakubali tu,au kama huwezi si vibaya ukamleta Rabbi hapa.
     
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