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Kwanini mtizamo wan chi yetu katika energy unaenda kinyume na malengo ya dunia ya kupunguza co2 emis

Discussion in 'Jukwaa la Siasa' started by Ame, Mar 30, 2011.

  1. A

    Ame JF-Expert Member

    #1
    Mar 30, 2011
    Joined: Mar 14, 2011
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    Utangulizi

    Hapa nataka kutoa summary ya mambo ya kuzingatiwa katika energy policy ya nchi, kama haya yamo kwenye policy yetu ya energy (If we have anyway) je kamati ya Bunge katika kuisimamia serikali inawa bana kuhusu haya na je mapendekezo wanayozingatia yanafuata hii thinking katika energy development nchini kwetu?


    Table:1 Sectoral Factors Influencing Role of Government in Technology Innovation
    [FONT=&quot] [/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot]SECTORAL CHARACTERISTIC [/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT]

    [FONT=&quot] [/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot]Power Sector Technologies [/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT]


    National Interest


    [FONT=&quot] [/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot]Energy Security [/FONT]

    [FONT=&quot] [/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot]Environmental Externalities [/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT]

    [FONT=&quot] [/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot]air pollution, climate change [/FONT]

    [FONT=&quot] [/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot]Market characteristics [/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT]

    [FONT=&quot] [/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot]electricity is commodity good [/FONT]

    [FONT=&quot] [/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot]Complementary and Enabling Infrastructure – Institutional [/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT]

    [FONT=&quot] [/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot]rules for access to power network; knowledge about resource availability; environmental regulation [/FONT]

    [FONT=&quot] [/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot]Complementary and Enabling Infrastructure –Physical [/FONT][FONT=&quot][/FONT]

    [FONT=&quot] [/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot]power network [/FONT]

    Source: Norberg-Bohm, [FONT=&quot]The Role of Government in Technology Innovation (With minor modification)[/FONT]




    Table 2: Energy production possibilities and unit cost per each technology[FONT=&quot]
    [/FONT]

    Technology
    Characteristics
    Investment cost (US$/kW)
    Production cost (US$/MWh)
    Large hydro
    10 to 18 000 MW
    1 000 – 5 500
    30 – 120
    Small hydro
    1 to 10 MW
    2 500 – 7 000
    60 – 140
    Onshore wind
    1 to 3 MW
    1 200 – 1 700
    70 -140
    Offshore wind
    1.5 to 5 MW
    2 200 – 3 000
    80 – 120
    Biomass co-firing
    5 to > 100 MW
    120 to 1 200 + power station costs
    20 - 50
    Biomass combustion
    10 to 100 MW
    2 000 – 3 000
    60 - 190
    Solar PV
    10 MW + rooftop 1-5 kWp
    5 000 – 6 500
    200 - 800
    Concentrating Solar Power (CSP)
    Up to 300 MW
    4 000 – 9 000
    130 - 230
    Enhanced geothermal
    5 to 50 MW
    5 000 – 15 000
    150 - 300
    Tidal and marine currents
    Demonstration
    7 000 – 10 000
    150 - 200

    Source:Energy Transition Perspective: Building blocks and Institutional constraints (www.itineralinstitute.org)

    Energy system innovations; technology-push & demand-pull measures
    [FONT=&quot]•[FONT=&quot] [/FONT][/FONT] Technology-push; new technologies need to be created to be pushed into the market –For this to be realised then the important factors are such as

    • [FONT=&quot] [/FONT] Research & Development
    • [FONT=&quot] [/FONT]policies,
    • [FONT=&quot][/FONT]demonstration projects, etc
    [FONT=&quot][FONT=&quot][/FONT][/FONT]Demand-pull: economic instruments can be use to create demand for new technologies

      • carbon taxes,
      • production subsidies,…etc

    Sijui kama kamati ya bunge na wizara husika inazingatia haya kuleta permanent energy solution. Sasa hapa sielewi hiyo Dowans na miradi inayofanana na hiyo ilikuwaje ikawa ndiyo mtizamo wa kutatua matatizo yetu ya energy huku hizi zikitumia oil ambayo haipo hapa kwetu na inapanda kila siku katika global market huku ikilaumiwa kuchafua mazingira kwa hali ya juu.

    Kama mimi ningekuwa mshauri wa wizara basi decision ingetegemea Capacity Factor (CF) (CF= Total Production/Theoratical Maximum Production)ya particular technology kulingana na available resources yaani tulizonazo. So far tuna Biomass (Kuni) Hydropower, coal na solar. Nitaeleza faida ya one after the other na sababu za kuichagua ama kuacha.
    Biomas- Hii ni most preferred kwasababu kwenye climate issues ni co2 neutral na maana uki burn kuni basi co2 released inakuwa taken na growing trees ambazo zitakuwa zinafuata utaalamu wa tree management katika sustainable use. Hii pia katika nchi kama yetu italeta economy of scale kwani wananchi badala ya kulima mahindi tu na kahawa na other crops basi watalima miti kufuata maelekezo ya wataalam ili kuwe na rotation nzuri. Climate yetu ni favourable kwenye fast growing species. Sasa Sweeden hi indo source yao ya energy na wamepanga after not less than 10 years watakuwa energy independent country.
    Hydro power: Stglers Gorge ni moja ya available resources. Hii pamoja environmentalist wanaijia juu lakini bado nchi kama Norway ni 100% dependent on this japo winters zina constrain hii technology kwao. Sisi comperatively tuna advantage kwani tukiweza kutunza vyanzo vyetu basi tume solve hii problem. China wana Hydro powers kubwa ambazo zina uwezo wa kuzalisha umeme wakutumia nchi yetu na mapaka tuka export kwa majirani zetu-Urafiki wetu ungeweza kuwashawishi wakatusaidia.
    Solar japo CF yake haizidi 33% kwenye nchi zenye jua masaa kumi na mbili bado rural areas zingesaidia kwenye lighting ya nyumba zao. etc etc

    Hofu yangu nikuwa pengine hatuna independent energy policy ndiyo maana tuko tunapiga mark time kila mwaka hata baada ya miaka 50. Lakini kinachonishangaza ni vipi watu walifikiria kina Dowans na IPTL huku zikienda contrary na mtizamo wa dunia kwamaana ya Kyoto protocol? Je hakuna watu walioshiriki kwenye hiyo global resolutions? Ndiyo hapo napo washangaa vijana wasomi kama hao wanao ongoza hizo kamati za Bunge kushindwa kufikiria into these lines na kung’ang’ania mambo ya umeme wa fossils. Nawasilisha!
     
  2. A

    Ame JF-Expert Member

    #2
    Mar 30, 2011
    Joined: Mar 14, 2011
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    Mods management ya document imenishinda kuna table zime paraganyika hapo; sorry for the readers
     
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