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Kardinali ni nani?

Discussion in 'Habari na Hoja mchanganyiko' started by Paschal Matubi, Aug 30, 2009.

  1. P

    Paschal Matubi Member

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    Aug 30, 2009
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    Chanzo cha makala hii ni gazeti la TANZANIA DAIMA ya leo jumapili kama ilivyopatikana kwenye web yao. Bonyeza hapa au soma makala yote hapa chini
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    HAISHANGAZI kukuta gazetini au kwenye mtandao maneno yasemayo “Mkuu wa Kanisa Katoliki nchini, Polycarp Kardinali Pengo” au “The Head of the Catholic Church in Tanzania”.

    Je, ni kweli Kanisa Katoliki lina wadhifa wa “ukuu wa kanisa nchini”? Sheria ya kanisa {Can. 381(1)} inasema kila jimbo linaendeshwa na askofu wake. Hivyo Kardinali Pengo na uchungaji wake ni kwa Jimbo la Dar es Salaam bila kuvuka mipaka yake iliyozungukwa na majimbo ya Morogoro, Zanzibar na Lindi.

    Kinachoitwa ukuu wa kanisa nchini, hakimo katika Sheria za kanisa (Canon Laws). Ukardinali unapodhaniwa ndiyo “ukuu” huo, basi ni ishara kuwa Kanisa Katoliki limesheheni masuala ambayo hufikia kutamkwa au kujadiliwa bila utafiti likiwemo hili la ukardinali.

    Historia ya ukardinali inaambatana na Papa kuwa kiongozi wa kanisa duniani. Lakini Papa pia ni askofu wa jimbo la Roma. Hivyo anahitaji wasaidizi mbalimbali.
    Neno Kardinali linatokana na neno la Kilatini cardo ambalo kwa Kiswahili ni “bawaba” yaani chuma kinachoushikilia mlango ukutani kwa kupigiliwa misumari. Mlango huo asili yake ni mti uliokatwa, ukachongwa na kutundikwa ukutani kwa bawaba.

    Uhamisho wa watumishi wa kanisa kwenda jimbo jingine, ulifananishwa na ule mlango kuhamishiwa ukutani kwa kushikiliwa na bawaba (cardo). Hivyo zamani waliohamia jimbo lolote waliitwa “Cardinal” neno tunaloliita “Kardinali” au “Kardinali”.

    Neno “meseji” linatamkwa hata na mtoto na tunaelewa. Lakini inasisitizwa kutamka neno “ujumbe”. Neno “Teolojia” limetamadunishwa na kuwa “tauhidi” au “taali-Mungu”. Huwa nawaza, kwa utamadunishaji huu sitoshangaa tukiambiwa tutumie neno “ubawaba” badala ya “ukardinali” ili iwe “Bawaba Polycarp Pengo” badala ya “Kardinali Polycarp Pengo”.

    Ilipofika karne ya 9 haki ya kutambulika kama “Kardinali” ilibaki kwa baadhi ya waliohamishiwa jimbo moja tu la Roma au jimbo la Papa. Padri aliyehamishiwa Roma alipewa kanisa na lililoitwa Titular Church. Padri huyu alijulikana kama Cardinal-Priest (Kardinali-Padri) na hiyo ikawa aina ya kwanza ya makardinali.
    Baadhi ya mashemasi waliohamishiwa Roma walipewa kazi tofauti ikiwemo vituo vya huduma za kijamii vilivyojulikana kama deaconry. Hawa waliitwa Cardinal-Deacon (Kardinali-Shemasi) wakawa ni aina ya pili ya makardinali.

    Ofisi ya Papa ilihitaji msaada wa maaskofu hasa wa majimbo madogo jirani na Roma yaliyoitwa “Suburbicarian Diocese”. Kuhitajika Roma kuliwapa maaskofu hawa sifa ya ukardinali, wakajulikana kama Cardinal-Bishop (Kardinali-Askofu) na kuwa aina ya tatu ya makardinali.

    Hivyo, aina tatu za makardinali ni Cardinal-Deacon, Cardinal-Priest na Cardinal-Bishop. Sina hakika kama tafsiri yake ni Kardinali-Shemasi, Kardinali-Padri na Kardinali-Askofu.

    Mwaka 1150 liliundwa jopo linaloendelea kuitwa College of Cardinals au jopo la makardinali wote. Papa alipenda kuwaita makardinali kwenye vikao vilivyoitwa Consistory hadi leo. Consistory huwa ya makardinali wachache walioko Roma ( ordinary consistory) au ya makardinali wote duniani (extraordinary consistory).
    Mwaka 1059 ilipitishwa kwamba Papa mpya atakuwa akichaguliwa na jopo la makardinali kwenye mkutano uliopewa jina Conclave linalotumika hadi leo.

    Papa Paul VI aliweka umri chini ya miaka 80 uwe sifa ya Kardinali kuhudhuria Conclave. Papa John Paul I ambaye upapa wake ulidumu kwa siku 33 ndiye wa kwanza kuchaguliwa kwa utaratibu huo Agosti 26, 1978.

    Je, mlei aweza kupewa ukardinali? Teodolfo Mertel alipewa ukardinali Machi 15, 1858 akiwa hajapewa hata ushemasi. Wengine humuita “lay-cardinal” yaani “kardinali-mlei” ingawa si sahihi kwani wenye madaraja madogo (minor orders) kama alilokuwa nalo yaani first tonsure yalihesabiwa kama ukleri wakinyoa vipara vidogo na si ulei kama ilivyo sasa.` Hata hivyo utata wake haukudumu kwani kesho yake alipewa daraja la ushemasi na Papa Pius IX.

    Mwaka 1917 Cardinal-Deacons walitakiwa wawe mapadri na mwaka 1962 kila kardinali alitakiwa awe askofu. Upadri ukabaki kuwa sifa ya chini (qualification) ya mkatoliki kuchaguliwa kuwa kardinali hadi leo {Rejea: Can. 351(1)}.

    Hata hivyo, Papa anaweza kuruhusu padri aliyeteuliwa kuwa Kardinali aendelee na upadri wake bila kupewa uaskofu. Imefanyika hivyo kwa mapadri Avery Dulles, Roberto Tucci na Albert Vanhoye wa shirika moja maarufu kama majesuit na bila kumsahau Padri Yves Congar ambaye ni marehemu.

    Mapadri hawa huvaa mavazi ya kiaskofu lakini hawawezi kumpa mtu upadrisho, ushemasi, au uaskofu kwa sababu si maaskofu ingawa ni makardinali (Rejea: Katekism 1576).

    Hadi leo aina za makardinali zimeendelea kuwa tatu ingawa wote sasa ni maaskofu isipokuwa kwa ruhusa kama tulivyoona.

    Leo hii Cardinal-Bishops wako sita wakipewa Suburbicarian Diocese. Mkuu wa jopo la makardinali au Dean of Cardinals anaongezewa jingine liitwalo Ostia na kufanya majimbo yale kuwa saba. Wanaishi Roma na hufanya kazi kwenye idara (Dicasteries) za kanisa pale Vatican.

    Cardinal-Deacons wengi wanaishi Roma pia. Bado hupewa vituo vya ushemasi japo leo vituo hivi huweza kuitwa makanisa (Titular Chuch). Mfano, Kardinali Joseph Levada alimrithi Kardinali Joseph Ratzinger (Papa wa sasa) kuongoza idara ya Doktrina ya imani (CDF). Kituo chake (deaconry au kanisa) kinachoambatana na ukardinali wake ni Santa Maria in Domnica.

    Cardinal-Priest (Kardinali-Padri) wengi hawaishi Roma. Mfano ni Polycarp Pengo ambaye kanisa lake huko Roma linaitwa Nostra Signora de La Salette. Yeye ni mjumbe wa idara za Doktrina ya imani (CDF) na Uinjilishaji (CEP). Pia ni mjumbe wa mabaraza mawili yanayosimamia majadiliano na dini nyingine (PCID) na tamaduni mbalimbali (PCC).

    Kwa nini Cardinal-Priests wengi hawaishi Roma? Mtaguso wa Trent kwenye kikao (Session) cha 23 ulipitisha hati iliyoitwa Decree Concerning Reform iliyotaka kila aliye mchungaji, lazima akae na watu wake anaowaongoza hata kama ni kardinali. Hivyo Kardinali Pengo anaishi D’Salaam kwa sababu ya jukumu jingine tofauti na ukadinali ambalo ni uaskofu wa jimbo hilo.

    Mpangilio wa makardinali kwa hadhi (seniority) kutoka juu kwenda chini ni Cardinal-Bishops, kisha Cardinal-Priests na mwisho ni Cardinal-Deacons. Kwenye sheria za Kanisa (Canon Laws) ukardinali umeelezwa kwenye kanuni ya 349 hadi 359.

    Majimbo au makanisa yao kule Roma sasa yanaendeshwa na maaskofu au mapadri wengine ingawa bado yanatolewa kwa makardinali kama ilivyokuwa asili.

    Papa anaweza kumtunuku mtu ukardinali kwa siri bila kumuambia yeyote na hata mhusika mwenyewe. Kardinali wa aina hii huitwa Cardinal in pectore au kardinali wa siri. Askofu Ignatius Kung Pin-mei wa Shanghai nchini China alipewa ukardinali wa aina hii Juni 30, 1979 wakati yeye hana habari tena akiwa gerezani akitumikia kifungo kutoka serikali ya kikomunisti ya China iliyokuwa haielewani na kanisa.

    Ukardinali wake ulitangazwa wazi Juni 28, 1991 miaka mitatu baada ya kutoka kifungoni. Papa akifariki bila kuwatangaza makardinali hawa, basi ukardinali wao (in pectore) hautambuliki tena labda kama ilikuwa imeandikwa kwenye karatasi (testament). Hivyo Papa ndiye mwenye kujua idadi halisi ya makardinali duniani.

    Ukardinali haukutajwa kwenye Katekism ya Kanisa Katoliki wala Biblia. Kwa heshima makardinali huitwa “Princes of the Church” au “Wana watukuka wa Kanisa” . Wanapotambulishwa hutumika neno “Eminence” ambapo kiswahili limetumika neno “Mwadhama”.

    Kumtaja Kardinali yawezekana kutumia mtindo wa kilatini mfano Polycarp Kardinali Pengo au wa kiingereza yaani Kardinali Polycarp Pengo.

    Suala la Makanisa ya wakatoliki wa Mashariki (Eastern Churches) limefundishwa kwenye hati tatu za Mtaguso mkuu wa Vatican (Vatican II). Ni vizuri kuzirejea sehemu zake ambazo ni Orientalium Ecclesiarum sehemu ya 7-11, Lumen Gentium sehemu ya 23 na Decree on Ecumenism sehemu ya 14-17.

    Wakati hili letu la Magharibi (Western Church) linaongozwa kutoka Roma yale ya mashariki yanaendeshwa na wakuu waitwao Patriarch au Patriaka. Sita kati ya makanisa hayo yaliyo 22 ni Melkite Greek, Koptik, Syria, Chaldean, Armenia, Maronite.

    Yote hayo yanatambua nafasi ya Papa au askofu wa Roma kama kiongozi wa ukatoliki duniani. Yote hayo na hili letu yana hadhi sawa hakuna linalomzidi mwenzake (Rejea: Orientalium Ecclesiarum sehemu ya 3).

    Kardinali Ignace Tappouni alikuwa ni Patriaka wa Antiokia na kiongozi wa Kanisa Katoliki la Syria tangu 1929 hadi 1968. Alipewa ukardinali mwaka 1935 kama Cardinal-Priest. Kwenye kitabu cha Askofu Method Kilaini kiitwacho “Tulivyomfahamu Kardinali Rugambwa”, kardinali huyu au Patriaka anaonekana kwenye picha ya pili ukurasa wa 89 akimpongeza Laurian Rugambwa kuwa mwafrika wa kwanza kupewa ukardinali.

    Baada ya Mtaguso (Vatican II) mapatriaka walipewa ngazi ya Cardinal-Bishop lakini wakitambulika kwa majimbo yao wanakoishi bila kupewa majimbo yale “Suburbicarian Diocese” .

    Kardinali Stephanos I Sidarouss aliyekuwa Patriaka wa Alexandriakwa Kanisa Katoliki la Koptik alishiriki Conclave zote mbili za mwaka 1978, yaani ile ya Agosti iliyomchagua Papa John Paul I na ile ya Oktoba iliyomchagua Papa John Paul II.
    Kardinali Nasrallah Pierre Sfeir, ambaye ni mlebanon, hadi sasa ni Patriaka wa Antiokia kwa Kanisa la Maronite. Hakushiriki Conclave ya mwaka 2005 iliyomchagua Papa Benedict XVI kwani alishavuka umri wa miaka 80. Lakini alionekana akisaidiana (co-celebrate) na Kardinali Joseph Ratzinger ilipowadia liturjia ya Ekaristi kwenye misa ya mazishi ya Papa John Paul II.

    Hivyo, kwa sababu mapatriaka hawa wana haki ya kupiga au kupigiwa kura kwenye Conclave, basi haki hiyo inatoa uwezekano wa mmoja wao kuchaguliwa kuwa Papa. Hivyo upo uwezekano wa kumpata Papa kutoka katika haya makanisa ya mashariki.

    Je, ukardinali ni kiunganishi cha maaskofu nchini? Heshima ya ukardinali ni kubwa. Lakini tumeona yawezekana kumpata Kardinali ambaye ni padri lakini si askofu. Na zamani ni Cardinal-Bishop tu ndiyo walikuwa maaskofu.

    Rais wa Baraza la Maaskofu Tanzania ni Askofu Jude Thaddaeus Ruwa’Ichi wa jimbo la Dodoma. Ndiye anayeongoza baraza hilo linalounganisha maaskofu wote nchini kwa mujibu wa Sheria za Kanisa na kwa mambo wanayokubaliana (Rejea Sheria za kanisa: Can. 447 hadi 459).
     
  2. Kichuguu

    Kichuguu Platinum Member

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    Asante sana kwa maelezo ya kina kuhusu huu wadhifa wa Kardinali. Ngoja na mimi nichangie kidogo.

    Makardinali ni watu wenye mamlaka fulani kule Vatican. Kuna makardinali wa aina tatu. Makardinali waliochaguliwa kutokana na maaskofu wa majimboni (Priest cardinal), kama alivyo Pengo, wana mamlaka zaidi kama washauri wa Papa kuhusu majimbo kadhaa yanayozunguka majimbo yao ambayo huitwa majimbo makuu (archdiocese). Ni kutokana na nyadhifa hizi za kuwa washauri wa papa kwenye majimbo hayo ndiyo maana wanakuwa na mamlaka juu ya majimbo hayo. Majimbo hayo siyo lazima yawe katika nchi moja, ingawa sehemu nyingi zina majimbo hayo katika nchi moja kama ilivyo Tanzania. Vile vile nchi moja inaweza kuwa na hao priest cardinals zaidi ya mmoja, kwa mfano Marekani ina makardinali wa namna hiyo wengi sana.
     
  3. Augustine Moshi

    Augustine Moshi JF-Expert Member

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    I doubt that we need this here. What we know is that Polycarp Cardinal Pengo is the most senior Catholic clergyman in Tanzania. That gives him the right, and duty, to speak boldly on religious and social matters.

    By the way, he happens to be the President of all bishops in Africa at the moment. That ought to assuage all those who might be wondering about his authority. It is an authority that derives from his pastoral calling.
     
  4. Mateso

    Mateso JF-Expert Member

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    Bwana Matubi tunashukuru kwa post yako nzuri na eleweka. Nadhani hujachallenge Kardinali kama msimamizi wa kiroho nchini bali umesema siyo kiongozi wa kanisa katoliki Tz kitu ambacho ni kweli kwani yeye ni askofu mkuu wa jimbo la DSM. Watu wanasahau Kardinali Rugambwa alikuwa askofu wa Bukoba na siyo DSM. Hongera mzee endelea kutumegea kwa kiasi utakavyobarikiwa.
     
  5. M

    Mdanganywa JF-Expert Member

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    Yawezekana hatumuelewi jamaa kwa sababu ya uzembe wetu wa kusoma kama tulivyo kawaida yetu. Reference alizotoa zinasemaje kama mmezipitia? Je ni sisi tunapotoa maoni mengine reference zetu ni zipi?
     
  6. Ndahani

    Ndahani JF-Expert Member

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    Ni kweli kabisa kwamba kardinali siyo mkubwa wa maaskofu maana final say ya mambo ya kiutawala ya jimbo yako kati ya askofu wa jimbo na papa. Isipokuwa one role ya cardinals in kuchagua papa pale hitaji hilo linapotokea. Wanaitwa red princes kama sikosei na hawa ndo wanakwenda kwenye conclave
     
  7. M

    MzeePunch JF-Expert Member

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    What are you trying to prove?
     
  8. M

    MzeePunch JF-Expert Member

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    College of Cardinals

    Among the College of Bishops, it has been a longstanding tradition of the Church, to raise certain bishops and archbishops to the College of Cardinals. The Cardinals have traditionally been seen as the "Princes of the Church". Because of their special devotion and holiness, they are called to assist the Holy Father in the governance of the Church. Most Cardinals are either Archbishops of the largest dioceses in their countries or regions, or the heads of the dicasteries of the Roman Curia (the Pope's Ministers of State, if you like).
    Of course, the singular role that the Cardinals play is that of electing a new Pontiff when the See of Peter is vacant. To them belongs this honour and responsibility.
    Because the Cardinals are called to help the Pope in his leadership of the Church, they are also linked in a special way to the Diocese of Rome. A small number of Cardinals are made the titular bishops (ie, in name only) of the suburbicarian sees surrounding Rome. In addition, each of the remaining Cardinals is given the honorary "governance" of one of the Parish Churches of Rome. Whenever they visit Rome, they are encouraged to minister to their community in Rome. Strictly speaking, it is the Cardinal who is the "parish priest" of these parishes, not the priest who fulfils that role in reality. However, in real terms, the Cardinal's position in that church is only titular.

    Source: www.catholic.pages.com/hierarchy/cardinals.asp
     
  9. Amosam

    Amosam Senior Member

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    Zaidi ya yote ndiye mchafuzi mkuu wa amani katika mataifa mfano mauaji ya kimbali Rwanda 1994
     
  10. M

    Mdanganywa JF-Expert Member

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    Rwanda haijawahi kupata Kadinali tangu Kanisa katoliki liingie nchini humo.
     
  11. Amosam

    Amosam Senior Member

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    Kaka tumia lugha nzuri kwani umekwenda mbali sana hata napata wasiwasi kuhusu funga yako!
     
  12. kaygeezo

    kaygeezo Senior Member

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    May be aliyeleta hii mada anataka kusema nini zaid, sijamuelewa, maans ametoa maana ya cardinal tu,wha next then, sidhani kama mleta mada alikuwa na maana ya kutuambia cardinal ni nani?
    sijui wenzangu mmeonaje
     
  13. S

    SubiriJibu JF-Expert Member

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    Huyu jamaa anashangaa Zanzibar kuwa na jimbo la Katoliki. Nadhani inabidi akawaulize Iran au Yemen ili wamtoe mshangao kwa kuona jimbo Katoliki si jambo la kuongelea kwani ni kawaida kwao.
     
  14. Mimibaba

    Mimibaba JF-Expert Member

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    Lugha yako haina uvumilivu. Elimu ni elimu tu. Michango hii yote nimuhimu sana kujua pande nyingi za uelewa
     
  15. B

    ByaseL JF-Expert Member

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    "Koma kabisa mshenzi wa tabia wewe zanzibar haiwezi kuwa na jimbo la kanisa,lolote mikiristo yote ilioko znz ni minyamwezio kutoka bara.
    SHIKA ADABU YAKO USITAKE IKAFIRISHA ZNZ YETU .
    PUNDA WEWE."



    Bwana Juzamo. Unajua huu ni mwezi Mtukufu wa Ramadhani? Matusi ya nini?
     
  16. Kobe

    Kobe JF-Expert Member

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    Hivi we JUZAMO ni binadamu au ni mnyama? Unaelekea una roho mbaya sana tena ni mbaguzi na muuaji kabisa,kwani kuna mtu aliyekulazimisha kuchangia kitu ambacho hakikuhusu? We hiyo ZNZ uliiumba wewe? kwanza unahakaika gani kuwa ni mzanzibar halisi? Mijitu kama nyinyi hamtakiwi kwenye jumuiya ya watu wapenda amani na wasio wabaguzi na wenye roho mbaya kama wewe,na hautokuja kufanikiwa maishani kwasababu una roho mbaya tena yakishetani na inawezekana wewe ni mganga wakienyeji mfuga majini! na MUNGU akulaani na uadhirike na peponi hawaendi watu wenye roho mbaya kama wewe!!
     
  17. Chakaza

    Chakaza JF-Expert Member

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    Mmh! mkuu ungemwona daktari haraka, isijekuwa una malaria ndugu yangu. USHAURI WA BURE.
     
  18. S

    SubiriJibu JF-Expert Member

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    Kwa nini udhani zaidi ya alichokileta ambacho ni ufafanuzi maana ya cardinal? Ukiitizama kwa makini aliyeleta si mtoa mada na yeye kaiokota na kutuletea.
     
  19. Augustine Moshi

    Augustine Moshi JF-Expert Member

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    Hapana. Bukoba haijawahi kuwa na Kardinali. Haijawahi kuwa Jimbo Kuu. Kardinali Rugambwa alikuwa Askofu Mkuu wa Dar es Salaam. He might have been Bishop of Bukoba before that elevation, but that is neither here nor there. Tumeeleweshana tu.
     
  20. Mchaga

    Mchaga JF-Expert Member

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    kweli kabisa mmeku...
     
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