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How would you know if you have cancer ?

Discussion in 'JF Doctor' started by Boflo, May 2, 2012.

  1. Boflo

    Boflo JF-Expert Member

    #1
    May 2, 2012
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    Mara nyingi nimewasikia watu wakisema fulani amechelewa kupata matibabu, kama angewahi angepona

    kutibiwa cancer yake......

    Nauliza utajuaje kama una cancer?

    Checking yake inafanyikaje na ni wapi kwa hapa Dar?

    Gharama zake zikoje??
     
  2. Zabibu

    Zabibu JF-Expert Member

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    nami pia ningependa kujua
     
  3. Micro E coli

    Micro E coli JF-Expert Member

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    Dalili za cancer inategemea ni cancer ya kitu gani au kiungo gani mkuu hii kitu ni pana sana mkuu.
     
  4. kisukari

    kisukari JF-Expert Member

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    dalili kubwa ni unnecessary bleeding.ila zipo cancer za aina nyingi.kama ya haja kubwa,bleeding unaweza ukahisi ni bawasiri kumbe ni cancer.au ya mapafu{inaambatana na kukohoa}ya kibofu cha mkojo.zipo nyingi kwa kweli.na huwa na stage zake.kuna check za blood test,kuna check za camera kwenye haja kubwa,kuna cheki za x.ray.
     
  5. Boflo

    Boflo JF-Expert Member

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    Last edited by a moderator: Jan 4, 2016
  6. Msafiri Kasian

    Msafiri Kasian JF-Expert Member

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    Naogopa sana haya magonjwa,cancer,figo nk.
     
  7. MziziMkavu

    MziziMkavu JF-Expert Member

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    May 3, 2012
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    Boflo Signs and Symptoms of Cancer What are signs and symptoms?

    A sign is a signal that something is not right in the body. But signs are signals that can be seen by someone else -- maybe a loved one, or a doctor, nurse, or other health care professional. Fever, fast breathing, and abnormal lung sounds heard through a stethoscope may be signs of pneumonia.


    A symptom is also a signal of disease, illness, injury, or that something is not right in the body. Symptoms are felt or noticed by the person who has them, but may not be easily seen by anyone else. For example, weakness, aches, and feeling short of breath may be symptoms of pneumonia.


    Having one sign or symptom may not be enough to figure out what's causing it. For example, a rash in a child could be a sign of a number of things, such as poison ivy, measles, a skin infection, or a food allergy. But if the child has the rash along with other signs and symptoms like a high fever, chills, achiness, and a sore throat, then a doctor can get a better picture of the

    illness. Sometimes, a patient's signs and symptoms still don't give the doctor enough clues to figure out the cause of an illness. Then medical tests, such as x-rays, blood tests, or a biopsy may be needed.


    How does cancer cause signs and symptoms?

    Cancer is a group of diseases that can cause almost any sign or symptom. The signs and symptoms will depend on where the cancer is, how big it is, and how much it affects the organs or tissues. If a cancer has spread (metastasized), signs or symptoms may appear in different parts of the body.


    As a cancer grows, it can begin to push on nearby organs, blood vessels, and nerves. This pressure causes some of the signs and symptoms of cancer. If the cancer is in a critical area, such as certain parts of the brain, even the smallest tumor can cause symptoms.


    But sometimes cancer starts in places where it will not cause any symptoms until it has grown quite large. One example is cancers in the pancreas. They usually do not cause symptoms until they grow large enough to press on nearby nerves or organs (this causes back or belly pain). Others grow around the bile duct and block the flow of bile. This causes the eyes and

    skin to look yellow (jaundice). By the time a pancreatic cancer causes these signs or symptoms, it is usually in an advanced stage. This means it has grown and spread beyond the place it started -- the pancreas.


    A cancer may also cause symptoms like fever, extreme tiredness (fatigue), or weight loss. This may be because cancer cells use up much of the body's energy supply, or they may release substances that change the way the body makes energy from food. Or the cancer may cause the immune system to react in ways that produce these symptoms.


    Sometimes, cancer cells release substances into the bloodstream that cause symptoms which are not usually linked to cancer. For example, some cancers of the pancreas can release substances which cause blood clots in veins of the legs. Some lung cancers make hormone-like substances that raise blood calcium levels. This affects nerves and muscles, making the person feel weak and dizzy.


    How are signs and symptoms helpful?

    Treatment works best when cancer is found early. Finding cancer early usually means it can be treated while it is still small and is less likely to have spread to other parts of the body. This often means a better chance for a cure, especially if the cancer can be removed with surgery.


    A good example of the importance of finding cancer early is melanoma skin cancer. It can be easy to remove if it has not grown deep into the skin. The 5-year survival rate (percentage of people who live at least 5 years after diagnosis) at this stage is nearly 100%. Once melanoma has spread to other parts of the body, the 5-year survival rate drops below 20%.


    Sometimes people ignore symptoms. They may not know that symptoms could mean something is wrong. Or they may be frightened by what the symptoms might mean and don't want to get medical help. Some symptoms, such as tiredness, are more likely caused by something other than cancer. They can seem unimportant, especially if there is an obvious cause or the

    problem only lasts a short time. In the same way, a person may reason that a symptom like a breast lump is probably a cyst that will go away by itself. But no symptom should be ignored or overlooked, especially if it has lasted a long time or is getting worse.


    Most likely, any symptoms you may have will not be caused by cancer, but it's important to have them checked out by a doctor, just in case. If cancer is not the cause, a doctor can help figure out what is and treat it, if needed.

    Sometimes, it is possible to find cancer before you have symptoms. The American Cancer Society and other health groups recommend cancer-related check-ups and certain tests for people even though they have no symptoms. This helps find certain cancers early, before symptoms start. For more information on early detection tests, see our document

    American Cancer Society Guidelines for the Early Detection of Cancer
    . But keep in mind, even if you have these recommended tests, it is still important to see a doctor if you have any symptoms.


    What are some general cancer signs and symptoms?
    You should know some of the general signs and symptoms of cancer. But remember, having any of these does not mean that you have cancer -- many other things cause these signs and symptoms, too. If you have any of these symptoms and they last for a long time or get worse, please see a doctor to find out what is going on.

    Unexplained weight loss


    Most people with cancer will lose weight at some point. When you lose weight with no known reason, it's called anunexplained weight loss. An unexplained weight loss of 10 pounds or more may be the first sign of cancer. This happens most often with cancers of the pancreas, stomach, esophagus, or lung.

    Fever


    Fever is very common with cancer, but it more often happens after cancer has spread from where it started. Almost all patients with cancer will have fever at some time, especially if the cancer or its treatment affects the immune system. This can make it harder for the body to fight infection. Less often, fever may be an early sign of cancer, such as blood cancers like leukemia or lymphoma.

    Fatigue


    Fatigue is extreme tiredness that does not get better with rest. It may be an important symptom as cancer grows. It may happen early, though, in cancers like leukemia. Some colon or stomach cancers can cause blood loss. This is another way cancer can cause fatigue.
    Pain

    Pain may be an early symptom with some cancers like bone cancers or testicular cancer. A headache that does not go away or get better with treatment may be a symptom of a brain tumor. Back pain can be a symptom of cancer of the colon, rectum, or ovary. Most often, pain due to cancer is a symptom of cancer that has already spread from where it started (metastasized).
    Skin changes

    Along with cancers of the skin, some other cancers can cause skin symptoms or signs that can be seen. These signs and symptoms include:

    • Darker looking skin (hyperpigmentation)
    • Yellowish skin and eyes (jaundice)
    • Reddened skin (erythema)
    • Itching (pruritis)
    • Excessive hair growth

    Signs and symptoms of certain cancers
    Along with the general symptoms, you should watch for certain other common symptoms and signs which could suggest cancer. Again, there may be other causes for each of these, but it is important to see a doctor about them as soon as possible.

    Change in bowel habits or bladder function


    Long-term constipation, diarrhea, or a change in the size of the stool may be a sign of colon cancer. Pain when passing urine, blood in the urine, or a change in bladder function (such as needing to pass urine more or less often than usual) could be related to bladder or prostate cancer. Report any changes in bladder or bowel function to a doctor.

    Sores that do not heal


    Skin cancers may bleed and look like sores that do not heal. A long-lasting sore in the mouth could be an oral cancer. This should be dealt with right away, especially in people who smoke, chew tobacco, or often drink alcohol. Sores on the penis or vagina may either be signs of infection or an early cancer, and should be checked by a doctor.

    White patches inside the mouth or white spots on the tongue


    White patches inside the mouth and white spots on the tongue may be leukoplakia. Leukoplakia is a pre-cancerous area that is caused by frequent irritation. It is often caused by smoking or other tobacco use. People who smoke pipes or use oral or spit tobacco are at high risk for leukoplakia. If it is not treated, leukoplakia can become oral cancer. Any long-lasting mouth changes should be checked by a doctor or dentist right away.

    Unusual bleeding or discharge


    Unusual bleeding can happen in early or advanced cancer. Blood in the sputum (phlegm) may be a sign of lung cancer. Blood in the stool (or a dark or black stool) could be a sign of colon or rectal cancer. Cancer of the cervix or the endometrium(lining of the uterus) can cause abnormal vaginal bleeding. Blood in the urine may be a sign of bladder or kidney cancer. A bloody discharge from the nipple may be a sign of breast cancer.

    Thickening or lump in the breast or other parts of the body


    Many cancers can be felt through the skin. These cancers occur mostly in the breast, testicle, lymph nodes (glands), and the soft tissues of the body. A lump or thickening may be an early or late sign of cancer and should be reported to a doctor, especially if you've just found it or notice it has grown in size.

    Indigestion or trouble swallowing


    Indigestion or swallowing problems may be signs of cancer of the esophagus (the swallowing tube that goes to the stomach), stomach, or pharynx (throat). But like most symptoms on this list, they are most often caused by something other than cancer.
    Recent change in a wart or mole or any new skin change

    Any wart, mole, or freckle that changes color, size, or shape, or that loses its sharp border should be seen by a doctor right away. Any other skin changes should be reported, too. A skin change may be a melanoma which, if found early, can be treated successfully.

    Nagging cough or hoarseness


    A cough that does not go away may be a sign of lung cancer. Hoarseness can be a sign of cancer of the voice box (larynx) or thyroid gland.

    The signs and symptoms listed above are the ones more commonly seen with cancer, but there are many others that are less common and are not listed here. If you notice any major changes in the way your body works or the way you feel -- especially if it lasts for a long time or gets worse -- let a doctor know. If it has nothing to do with cancer, the doctor can find out more about what's going on and, if needed, treat it. If it is cancer, you'll give yourself the chance to have it treated early, when treatment works best.

     
  8. MziziMkavu

    MziziMkavu JF-Expert Member

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  9. MziziMkavu

    MziziMkavu JF-Expert Member

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    [h=2]Ugonjwa wa Saratani Kansa[/h]
    Kupambana na ugonjwa huu ni vigumu na unatisha.Kuna aina nyingi ya saratani jambo linalofanya kuwa gumu kukabiliana nao.

    Saratani ya ubongo Ubongo ni mojawapo ya kiungo kitovu cha mtandao wa mishipa ya kusafirisha damu mwilini.Ubongo na uti wa mgongo huweza kuwa na uvimbe wa saratani ingawa ni nadra sana, ugonjwa huu ni hatari sana ikiwa hautatibiwa mapema.
    Kisababishacho saratani ya ubongo haijulikani, lakini kuna mambo mengi yanayoweza kusababisha ugonjwa huu:


    • Ukiwa na saratani katika sehemu zengine za mwili huweza kusambaa hadi katika ubongo
    • Kufanya kazi katika kampuni za kusafisha mafuta, bidhaa za mipira , zinazotengeza madawa.

    Dalili
    Uvimbe unaweza kujitokeza katika sehemu yoyote ya ubongo,kwa hivyo dalili zitatofautiana.
    Sehemu ya mbele (frontal)


    • Kuumwa na kichwa
    • Ulegevu mwilini
    • Kufa ganzi sehemu moja ya mwili
    • Mabadiliko ya haraka mwilini,hisia ,moyo na tabia
    • Kuchanganyikiwa na akili

    Sehemu sawia (parietal)


    • Kuumwa na kichwa
    • Kushikwa na kifafa
    • Kufa ganzi
    • Shida unapoandika hati
    • Shida unapojaribu kusonga kwa namna Fulani
    • Shida kufanya hesabu rahisi

    Sehemu ya nyuma (occipital)


    • Kuumwa na kichwa
    • Kushindwa kuona vizuri
    • Kuona mazingaumbwe yako tu
    • Kushikwa na kifafa

    Kwa muda mfupi (temporal)


    • Kuumwa na kichwa
    • Kushikwa na kifafa
    • Shida ya kufuata maagizo kwa pamoja
    • Kutong'amua usumbufu wa hali ya anga.

    Uvimbe katika mtandao wa mishipa huweza kumfanya mtu ashindwe kusimama wima, kutapika,na kubadilika kwa ghafla kwa hisia.



    Saratani ya Matiti Wanawake walio hatarini kuupata ugonjwa huu ni:


    • Ajuza
    • Wenye asili ya kihindi au kizungu
    • Wanawake ambao washaugua saratani ya matiti mbeleni
    • Walio na jamaa wa karibu ( mama,dada,binti) ambao washawahi kuuguwa ugonjwa huu
    • Wanawake wenye hitilafu ya kinasaba kutoka kwa mzazi aliyeugua ugonjwa huu
    • Wanawake tasa au waliowapata watoto baada ya umri wa miaka 30.
    • Wanawake waliopata damu yao ya hedhi wakiwa na umri mdogo kabla miaka 12.
    • Wanawake waliokatika hedhi wakiwa wamechelewa baada ya miaka 50.
    • Wanawake wenye matiti makubwa(daktari anaweza kukuelezea baada ya uchunguzi wa mammogram)
    • Wanawake waliotumia tembe za uzazi,waliokosa kunyonyesha, wanaokunywa pombe kila siku,wanaonenepa sana baada ya kukatika hedhi,wanaomeza vidonge vya kubadilisha nasaba,na wale ambao hawakunyonyesha.

    Dalili ya saratani ya Matiti:


    • Uvimbe kwenye matiti au kwapa
    • Mabadiliko katika umbo la matiti
    • Chuchu kutoa usaa ama titi kuwa nyororo
    • Chuchu kupotelea ndani ya matiti badala ya kujitokeza nje
    • Madutamaduta kwenye matiti kama yale ya maganda ya machungwa
    • Kubadilika kwa ngozi ya matiti na chuchu kuonekana zimefura

    Ukiwa na mojawapo ya dalili hizi muone daktari,ni vyema kufanyiwa uchunguzi wa mammograms.
    Fanyiwa uchunguzi wa matiti mapema ili kutambua saratani ya matiti mapema.Kujichunguza kila mwezi na kufanyiwa uchunguzi wa mammograms mara moja kwa mwaka hasa wanaozidi miaka 40 in bora.​
     
  10. MziziMkavu

    MziziMkavu JF-Expert Member

    #10
    May 3, 2012
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    Saratani ya mlango wa kizazi Hii ni njia ya kizazi kati ya uke na mji wa mamba.Ugonjwa huu ukijulikana mapema unweza kutibiwa, wakati wa kufanyiwa uchunguzi wa ubwabwa na fupa nyongo.
    Nani yumo hatarini


    • Wanawake wengine wamo hatarini mwa kupata saratani ya mlango wa kizazi:
    • Wanawake wasioenda kwa uchunguzi wa kila mwaka wa fupa nyongo na ubwabwa
    • Wanawake walio na "human papillomavirus" HPV au genital warts

    Kuvuta sigara, kuwa na ukimwi,na kutokula vyakula bora huweza kusababisha saratani ya mlango wa kizazi.
    Dalili ya saratani ya mlango wa kizazi


    • Hamna dalili zozote mpaka unaposambaa nje ya mlango wa kizazi.

    Hali hii ikitokea waweza kuwa:


    • Kuvuja damu katikati ya siku za hedhi, unaposhiriki ngono au baada ya hedhi kukatika
    • Kuvuja damu nyingi zaidi ya kawaida.

    Ukiona dalili hizi pata ushauri wa daktari.



    Saratani ya Utumbo Mpana na Sehemu za Siri za Nyuma Saratani ya sehemu za siri za nyuma zipo. Huambukiza sehemu za mmeng'enyo(digestive system) wa chakula. Watu wengi wanaopata ugonjwa huu ni wa umri wa zaidi ya miaka 50.

    Matibabu yake yameimarika, lakini ni vyema kugundua mapema.Watu wanahitaji kufahamu madhara, dalili na umuhimu wa kupimwa na madaktari wao.

    Walio hatarini kupatwa na saratani ya utumbo mpana:


    • Ajuza wa miaka 50 na zaidi.
    • Wanaokula vyakula vya mafuta mengi
    • Walio na maoteo (ndani ya utumbo mpana )
    • Wanawake ambao washaugua saratani ya matiti, au mji wa mimba au yai la mwanamke
    • Aliye wahi kuugua saratani ya utumbo mpana
    • Aliye na mzazi, jamaa au motto aliye na saratani ya utumbo mpana
    • Aliye na utumbo mpana wenye kiungulia (donda au uvimbe)

    Dalili za saratani ya utumbo mpana ni:


    • Kuvimbiwa, kusokotwa au kujihisi tumbo limejaa sehemu ya chini
    • Kuhara, kufunga choo au kujihisi haukamilishi haja kabisa
    • Damu katika kinyesi
    • Kinyesi chembamba zaidi
    • Kupoteza uzito bila ya kufahamu kisababu
    • Kujihisi mchovu kila wakati
    • Kutapika

    Hizi dalili zinaweza kusababishwa na shida nyingine ambazo si saratani. Muulize daktari wako ili ufahamu
    Saratani ya Mapafu Saratani ya mapafu ndio aina hatari ya magonjwa ya saratani, lakini ndio rahisi kuzuia.Uvutaji wa sigara husababisha asilimia 9% kwa 10% ya kesi za ugonjwa huu.Matibabu ya ugonjwa huu yameimarika lakini bado hakuna tiba.Ili kuimarisha afya yako na walio karibu yako usivute sigara.
    Pia hakikisha nyumba yako haina 'radon' gesi hatari isababishayo saratani ya mapafu.

    Watu wengine wamo hatarini zaidi ya kupata saratani ya mapafu.


    • Wanaovuta sigara au kiko, na hata usipo vuta moshi ndani, umo hatarini kupata saratani ya domo. Kukaa karibu na mvutaji sigara au kuishi naye ama kufanya kazi katika mazingira yenye moshi huongeza hatari hasa kwa watoto wasio na namna.
    • Kiwango kingi cha madini ya radon nyumbani mwako.
    • Kufanya kazi karibu na asbestos, aseniki, uranium au bidhaa kutokana na mafuta.
    • Kuwa na kifua kikuu.

    Ishara ya saratani ya mapafu ni nini?


    • Kikohozi kisicho kwisha.
    • Kuumwa na kifua.
    • Kukohoa damu
    • Shida ya kupumua au kukorota upumuapo
    • Nimonia(kichomi) au mkamba usiyokwisha
    • Uvimbe shingoni au usoni.
    • Kupoteza uzito wako bila sababu au kutohisi njaa.
    • Kujihisi mchovi kila wakati.


    Ukiwa na mojawapo ya dalili hizi, hasa ikiwa umo hatarini ya kupata huu ugonjwa, mwone daktari.


    Saratani ya Mdomo Saratani ya mdomo husambaa kinywani kwenye ulimi, ufizi, kidakatonge na koromeo.Watu hawatambui ugonjwa huu upesi.Wanaovuta sigara,kuvuta tumbako au kunywa kunywa pombe wamo hatarini mwa kupata sratani yam domo.Unaweza kusaidiwa ili kuwacha sigara au pombe.Ugonjwa huu unaweza kitibiwa ukiuwahi mapema.
    Ishara ya saratani ya Mdomo ni kama zifuatazo;


    • Uvimbe sehemu yoyote mdomoni, ambao hauponiau kutokuwa na damu kwa urahisi.
    • Kuhisi uchungu au kufa ganzi mdomoni.
    • Kuhisi uchungu unapo tafuna, kumeza chakula ulimi unapotumika au taya.
    • Kubadilika kwa sauti yako.
    • Kuumwa na sikio.
    • Koo linalowasha bila kupona.

    Ukiwa na ishara hizi mwone daktari haraka sana.
     
  11. MziziMkavu

    MziziMkavu JF-Expert Member

    #11
    May 3, 2012
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    Saratani ya kifuko cha mayai ya uzazi cha mwanamke. Vifuko hivi ni viwili vidogo vilivyo kila upande wa mji wa mimba. Saratani hii huwaambukiza wanawake walio zidi umri wa miaka 50. Ni vigumu kuitambua kwa hivyo ni muhimu kumtembelea daktari wako kila mwaka kwa uchunguzi wa fupanyonga bila kujali miaka yako.
    Baadhi ya mambo yanayowatia wanawake hatarini kupata saratani ya kifuko cha mayai ni:


    • Ikiwa mtu yeyote wakike katika familia (mama,dada,nyanya) amewahi kua nao huu.
    • Umri kuzidi miaka 50.
    • Ukiwa tasa.
    • Ikiwa umewahi kuwa na saratani ya matiti au utumbo mpaua

    Wanawake hutambua ungonjwa huu kama umeshaenea sana.

    Ishara zengine ni kama:


    • Maumivu tumboni kama uliyejawa na hewa tumboni.
    • Kuendesha au kufunga choo
    • Kutohisi njaa au kutokula vizuri
    • Kupoteza au kuongeza uzito bila kisababu
    • Kuvuja damu wakati haupo katika hedhi.


    Dalili hizi zaweza kuwa kitu kingine, lakini ni vyema kuongea na daktari unapoziona.


    Saratani ya tezi kibofu cha mkojo (Prostate) Saratani ya mamalia dume (tezi kibofu) huwa kati ya wanaume. Huweza kutibiwa inapogunduliwa mapema. Ugonjwa huu huwaambukiza wanaume walio na umri wa miaka 55 na zaidi. Mamalia dume hutengeza manii ambayo mbegu za kiume hupatikana. Huambukiza chini ya kibofu cha mikojo.
    Wanaume wengine wamo hatarini kupata saratani ya mamalia dume:


    • Walio na umri wa miaka 55 na zaidi
    • Wanaume ambao wamekuwa na jamaa kama baba au kaka ambao washauguwa ugonjwa huu.
    • Wanaume weusi.
    • Kula vyakula vingi vya mafuta, nyama nyekundu, siagi na maziwa.

    Dalili ya saratani ya mamalia dume:


    • Kukojoakojoa kila mara hasa wakati wa siku.
    • Kuwa na shida za kuanza kukojoa au kusitiri mikojo.
    • Kukojoa kwa matone matone.
    • Kuhisi uchungu au moto unapokojoa
    • Kuwa na shida kusimika.
    • Kuhisi uchungu unapomwaga manii.
    • Kukojoa mikojo iliyochanganyika na damu.
    • Maumivu ya kila mara hasa sehemu za mgongo,nyonga au mapajani sehemu za juu.

    Daktari wako anaweza kukufanyia uchunguzi kutambua kama una saratani ya mamalia dume.Kwa kutumia kemikali ya "Prostate specific antigen" au PSA katika damu yako, ikiwa una idadi ya juu ya PSA , waweza kuwa na ugonjwa huu.

    Saratani ya tezi kibofu cha mkojo (Prostate) Saratani ya mamalia dume (tezi kibofu) huwa kati ya wanaume. Huweza kutibiwa inapogunduliwa mapema. Ugonjwa huu huwaambukiza wanaume walio na umri wa miaka 55 na zaidi. Mamalia dume hutengeza manii ambayo mbegu za kiume hupatikana. Huambukiza chini ya kibofu cha mikojo.
    Wanaume wengine wamo hatarini kupata saratani ya mamalia dume:


    • Walio na umri wa miaka 55 na zaidi
    • Wanaume ambao wamekuwa na jamaa kama baba au kaka ambao washauguwa ugonjwa huu.
    • Wanaume weusi.
    • Kula vyakula vingi vya mafuta, nyama nyekundu, siagi na maziwa.

    Dalili ya saratani ya mamalia dume:


    • Kukojoakojoa kila mara hasa wakati wa siku.
    • Kuwa na shida za kuanza kukojoa au kusitiri mikojo.
    • Kukojoa kwa matone matone.
    • Kuhisi uchungu au moto unapokojoa
    • Kuwa na shida kusimika.
    • Kuhisi uchungu unapomwaga manii.
    • Kukojoa mikojo iliyochanganyika na damu.
    • Maumivu ya kila mara hasa sehemu za mgongo,nyonga au mapajani sehemu za juu.

    Daktari wako anaweza kukufanyia uchunguzi kutambua kama una saratani ya mamalia dume.Kwa kutumia kemikali ya "Prostate specific antigen" au PSA katika damu yako, ikiwa una idadi ya juu ya PSA , waweza kuwa na ugonjwa huu.

    Saratani ya Ngozi Watu wengine wamo hatarini zaidi kupata saratani ya ngozi:


    • Walio weupe, na macho na ngozi ilio parara.
    • Walio na mabakabaka mwilini.
    • Wanaoishi sehemu ambayo kuna jua jingi.
    • Walio na maturuturu kutokana na miale ya jua.

    Dalili za Saratani ya Ngozi ni nini?


    • Uvimbe au mabaka katika ngozi
    • Uvimbe katika ngozi usiopona
    • Katika hatua za mwisho unahisi mwasho, ngozi inayowaka moto na kutokwa damu.

    Saratani ya ngozi inaweza kutibika ikitambulikana mapema. Hata wale wasiokuwa hatarini ya kupata saratani ya ngozi lazima watumie mafuta ya kujipaka ili kuzuia miale ya jua hasa kati ya saa 4 asubuhi na saa 9 mchana.

    Saratani ya Makodo (Testicular)
    Saratani ya makodo au mapumbu ndio inayojulikana sana hasa kwa vijana barubaru wa kati ya miaka 15 hadi 35. Habari njema ni kuwa saratani ya makodo ni haba sana na inatibika.

    Licha ya kutoa mbegu za uzazi, makodo pia hutengeza homoni za kiume. Makodo ni laini, mviringo na ngumu. Wanaume wanahitaji kujikagua wenyewe mara kwa mara kila mwezi kutambua mabadiliko.

    Wanaume wengine wamo hatarini zaidi mwa kupata saratani ya makodo:


    • Watoto wa kiume waliozaliwa na makodo isiyo ning'inia chini.
    • Wanaume ambao makodo yao hayakumea kawaida.
    • Wanaume waliozaliwa na Klinefelter's Syndrome (Hali ya mvulana kuzaliwa na chromosome zaidi ya 46 iliyo kawaida. Akikua mwili wake una dalili za uke kama vile matiti na kutokuwa na nywele usoni)

    Dalili za Saratani ya Makodo


    • Uvimbe usiyo na uchungu kwa kodo
    • Uchungu ndani ya kodo
    • Kodo kuwa ngumu na kubadilika kwa saizi. (Kuvimba au kurudi). Kuhisi uzito kwa mapumbu (mfuko wa makodo)
    • Uchungu usio mkali kwa manena na sehemu ya chini ya tumbo.
    • Matiti kuwa makubwa au kuuma.

    Hizi pia zinaweza kuwa dalili za magonjwa mengine ambayo si saratani. Ukihisi dalili yoyote ya hizi, muone daktari.




    Saratani ya Makodo (Testicular) Saratani ya makodo au mapumbu ndio inayojulikana sana hasa kwa vijana barubaru wa kati ya miaka 15 hadi 35. Habari njema ni kuwa saratani ya makodo ni haba sana na inatibika.

    Licha ya kutoa mbegu za uzazi, makodo pia hutengeza homoni za kiume. Makodo ni laini, mviringo na ngumu. Wanaume wanahitaji kujikagua wenyewe mara kwa mara kila mwezi kutambua mabadiliko.

    Wanaume wengine wamo hatarini zaidi mwa kupata saratani ya makodo:


    • Watoto wa kiume waliozaliwa na makodo isiyo ning'inia chini.
    • Wanaume ambao makodo yao hayakumea kawaida.
    • Wanaume waliozaliwa na Klinefelter's Syndrome (Hali ya mvulana kuzaliwa na chromosome zaidi ya 46 iliyo kawaida. Akikua mwili wake una dalili za uke kama vile matiti na kutokuwa na nywele usoni)

    Dalili za Saratani ya Makodo


    • Uvimbe usiyo na uchungu kwa kodo
    • Uchungu ndani ya kodo
    • Kodo kuwa ngumu na kubadilika kwa saizi. (Kuvimba au kurudi). Kuhisi uzito kwa mapumbu (mfuko wa makodo)
    • Uchungu usio mkali kwa manena na sehemu ya chini ya tumbo.
    • Matiti kuwa makubwa au kuuma.

    Hizi pia zinaweza kuwa dalili za magonjwa mengine ambayo si saratani. Ukihisi dalili yoyote ya hizi, muone daktari
     
  12. MziziMkavu

    MziziMkavu JF-Expert Member

    #12
    May 3, 2012
    Joined: Feb 3, 2009
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    Saratani ya Mapafu Saratani ya mapafu ndio aina hatari ya magonjwa ya saratani, lakini ndio rahisi kuzuia.Uvutaji wa sigara husababisha asilimia 9% kwa 10% ya kesi za ugonjwa huu.Matibabu ya ugonjwa huu yameimarika lakini bado hakuna tiba.Ili kuimarisha afya yako na walio karibu yako usivute sigara.
    Pia hakikisha nyumba yako haina 'radon' gesi hatari isababishayo saratani ya mapafu.

    Watu wengine wamo hatarini zaidi ya kupata saratani ya mapafu.


    • Wanaovuta sigara au kiko, na hata usipo vuta moshi ndani, umo hatarini kupata saratani ya domo. Kukaa karibu na mvutaji sigara au kuishi naye ama kufanya kazi katika mazingira yenye moshi huongeza hatari hasa kwa watoto wasio na namna.
    • Kiwango kingi cha madini ya radon nyumbani mwako.
    • Kufanya kazi karibu na asbestos, aseniki, uranium au bidhaa kutokana na mafuta.
    • Kuwa na kifua kikuu.

    Ishara ya saratani ya mapafu ni nini?


    • Kikohozi kisicho kwisha.
    • Kuumwa na kifua.
    • Kukohoa damu
    • Shida ya kupumua au kukorota upumuapo
    • Nimonia(kichomi) au mkamba usiyokwisha
    • Uvimbe shingoni au usoni.
    • Kupoteza uzito wako bila sababu au kutohisi njaa.
    • Kujihisi mchovi kila wakati.


    Ukiwa na mojawapo ya dalili hizi, hasa ikiwa umo hatarini ya kupata huu ugonjwa, mwone daktari.


    Saratani ya Matiti Wanawake walio hatarini kuupata ugonjwa huu ni:


    • Ajuza
    • Wenye asili ya kihindi au kizungu
    • Wanawake ambao washaugua saratani ya matiti mbeleni
    • Walio na jamaa wa karibu ( mama,dada,binti) ambao washawahi kuuguwa ugonjwa huu
    • Wanawake wenye hitilafu ya kinasaba kutoka kwa mzazi aliyeugua ugonjwa huu
    • Wanawake tasa au waliowapata watoto baada ya umri wa miaka 30.
    • Wanawake waliopata damu yao ya hedhi wakiwa na umri mdogo kabla miaka 12.
    • Wanawake waliokatika hedhi wakiwa wamechelewa baada ya miaka 50.
    • Wanawake wenye matiti makubwa(daktari anaweza kukuelezea baada ya uchunguzi wa mammogram)
    • Wanawake waliotumia tembe za uzazi,waliokosa kunyonyesha, wanaokunywa pombe kila siku,wanaonenepa sana baada ya kukatika hedhi,wanaomeza vidonge vya kubadilisha nasaba,na wale ambao hawakunyonyesha.

    Dalili ya saratani ya Matiti:


    • Uvimbe kwenye matiti au kwapa
    • Mabadiliko katika umbo la matiti
    • Chuchu kutoa usaa ama titi kuwa nyororo
    • Chuchu kupotelea ndani ya matiti badala ya kujitokeza nje
    • Madutamaduta kwenye matiti kama yale ya maganda ya machungwa
    • Kubadilika kwa ngozi ya matiti na chuchu kuonekana zimefura

    Ukiwa na mojawapo ya dalili hizi muone daktari,ni vyema kufanyiwa uchunguzi wa mammograms.
    Fanyiwa uchunguzi wa matiti mapema ili kutambua saratani ya matiti mapema.Kujichunguza kila mwezi na kufanyiwa uchunguzi wa mammograms mara moja kwa mwaka hasa wanaozidi miaka 40 in bora.


    Saratani ya Mdomo Saratani ya mdomo husambaa kinywani kwenye ulimi, ufizi, kidakatonge na koromeo.Watu hawatambui ugonjwa huu upesi.Wanaovuta sigara,kuvuta tumbako au kunywa kunywa pombe wamo hatarini mwa kupata sratani yam domo.Unaweza kusaidiwa ili kuwacha sigara au pombe.Ugonjwa huu unaweza kitibiwa ukiuwahi mapema.
    Ishara ya saratani yam domo ni kama zifuatazo;


    • Uvimbe sehemu yoyote mdomoni, ambao hauponiau kutokuwa na damu kwa urahisi.
    • Kuhisi uchungu au kufa ganzi mdomoni.
    • Kuhisi uchungu unapo tafuna, kumeza chakula ulimi unapotumika au taya.
    • Kubadilika kwa sauti yako.
    • Kuumwa na sikio.
    • Koo linalowasha bila kupona.

    Ukiwa na ishara hizi mwone daktari haraka sana.

    Saratani ya Ngozi Watu wengine wamo hatarini zaidi kupata saratani ya ngozi:


    • Walio weupe, na macho na ngozi ilio parara.
    • Walio na mabakabaka mwilini.
    • Wanaoishi sehemu ambayo kuna jua jingi.
    • Walio na maturuturu kutokana na miale ya jua.

    Dalili za Saratani ya Ngozi ni nini?


    • Uvimbe au mabaka katika ngozi
    • Uvimbe katika ngozi usiopona
    • Katika hatua za mwisho unahisi mwasho, ngozi inayowaka moto na kutokwa damu.

    Saratani ya ngozi inaweza kutibika ikitambulikana mapema. Hata wale wasiokuwa hatarini ya kupata saratani ya ngozi lazima watumie mafuta ya kujipaka ili kuzuia miale ya jua hasa kati ya saa 4 asubuhi na saa 9 mchana.


    Saratani ya Nyumba ya Uzazi. (Uterine)
    Aina hii ya saratani huwa katika nyumba ya uzazi, pale mtoto anakulia. Kuna aina tofauti ya saratani ya nyumba ya uzazi: Endometrial (Utando unaofunikasehemu ya ndani ya nyumba ya uzazi) na Sarcomas (uvimbe wa saratani katika misuli au mifupa). Endometrial ndio inayojulikana zaidi na huvamia sehemu nyepesi ya nyumba ya uzazi. Sarcomas ambayo ni nadra sana huvamia misuli inayosaidia nyumba ya
    uzazi, ni muhimu kumuona daktari kila mwaka kwa uchunguzi.

    Ni zipi hatari za kuwa na ugonjwa huu?


    • Kuwa na miaka 50 na zaidi.
    • Kutumia madawa yenye hormone
    • Ukiwa na endometrial hyperplasia
    • Uzito wa kupita kiasi
    • Ikiwa umewahi kuwa na saratani ya utumbo mpana (Colorectal)


    Ishara zake ni zipi?


    • Uvujaji wa damu usio wa kawaida kutoka kwa uke
    • Kuvuja zaidi wakati wa hedhi
    • Uchungu unapokojoa au kushiriki ngono
    • Maumivu sehemu ya chini ya tumbo
    • Damu katika kinyesi au mkojo wako


    Ishara hizi zaweza kuwa kitu kingine, lakini muone daktari mara moja ukihisi mojawapo ya dalili hizi.


    Saratani ya Utumbo Mpana na Sehemu za Siri za Nyuma
    Saratani ya sehemu za siri za nyuma zipo. Huambukiza sehemu za mmeng'enyo(digestive system) wa chakula. Watu wengi wanaopata ugonjwa huu ni wa umri wa zaidi ya miaka 50.

    Matibabu yake yameimarika, lakini ni vyema kugundua mapema.Watu wanahitaji kufahamu madhara, dalili na umuhimu wa kupimwa na madaktari wao.

    Walio hatarini kupatwa na saratani ya utumbo mpana:


    • Ajuza wa miaka 50 na zaidi.
    • Wanaokula vyakula vya mafuta mengi
    • Walio na maoteo (ndani ya utumbo mpana )
    • Wanawake ambao washaugua saratani ya matiti, au mji wa mamba au yai la mwanamke
    • Aliye wahi kuugua saratani ya utumbo mpana
    • Aliye na mzazi, jamaa au motto aliye na saratani ya utumbo mpana
    • Aliye na utumbo mpana wenye kiungulia (donda au uvimbe)

    Dalili za saratani ya utumbo mpana ni:


    • Kuvimbiwa, kusokotwa au kujihisi tumbo limejaa sehemu ya chini
    • Kuhara, kufunga choo au kujihisi haukamilishi haja kabisa
    • Damu katika kinyesi
    • Kinyesi chembamba zaidi
    • Kupoteza uzito bila ya kufahamu kisababu
    • Kujihisi mchovu kila wakati
    • Kutapika

    Hizi dalili zinaweza kusababishwa na shida nyingine ambazo si saratani. Muulize daktari wako ili ufahamu.
     
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