Ugonjwa wa Selimundu (Sickle Cell anaemia): Dalili na matibabu yake

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Watu walio na hali hii huwa wana upungufu wa chembechembe nyekundu kwenye damu mwilini. Hivi ni kumaanisha kuwa miili yao huwa haibebi hewa ya kutosha ya oksigeni. Hali hii inaweza kuwafanya wawe wagonjwa.

Kuna kitu chekundu katika damu kinachotwaa oksigeni katika hwa na kuipeleka kila mahali mwilini. Huwa kemikali ndani ya chembechembe zilizo asili ya kila kitu chenye uhai, kisipoumbika vizuri na kikose kupita ndani ya mishipa ya damu, mishipa inaweza kuziba na kusababisha maumivu makali.

Sickle Cell ni hali inayorithiwa. Mtu huipata kutoka kwa wazazi wake. Kila mtu hupata nusu ya jeni (genes) zake kutoka kwa mzazi wa kiume nusu na kutoka kwa mzazi wa kike. Iwapo wazazi wote (baba na mama) wana jeni ya Sickle Cell, wanaweza kupata mtoto aliye na ugonjwa huu hata kama wao wenyewe hawana.

Sickle Cell hali hii hupatikana sana sana kwa watu wanaotoka sehemu za Afrika ya Kati na Magharibi.

Watu walio hatarini zaidi ya kupata ugonjwa wa Anemia ya Sickle Cell

Wengi walio na hali hii katika damu yao hutoka sehemu za Afrika ya Kati, Amerika ya Kusini na Kati, India ya Kati na nchi za Mediterania kama vile Uhispania, Uturuki, Ugiriki na Italiano.

Kutambua iwapo una ugonjwa huu

Mtu yeyote anaweza kuenda kuangaliwa na daktari kuchunguza iwapo ana ugonjwa huu. Iwapo wewe na mpenzi wako mnapanga kuoana na kuwa wazazi, ni lazima ufanyiwe uchunguzi hasa iwapo mnatoka sehemu ya Afrika ya Kati au mna wazazi wanaotoka kwenye sehemu ambako ugonjwa huu upo. Daktari wako anaweza kukufanyia uchunguzi au akutume kwa daktari mwingine aliye na ujuzi wa kukagua tabia zinazorithiwa za kifamilia.

Iwapo mna mtoto ni muhimu afanyiwe uchunguzi iwapo ana ugonjwa huu au upo ndani ya uzao wake. Ni muhimu kutambua mtoto wako anapoendelea kukua iwapo ana huu ugonjwa.

Muone daktari mara moja kama utaona dalili zifuatazo:
  • Homa
  • Maumivu ya kifua
  • Kupumua haraka haraka
  • Uchovu
  • Kuvimba kwa tumbo au sehemu za chini yake
  • Kupoteza nguvu mara moja na kukosa hisi
  • Maumivu ambayo hayataisha hata baada ya kupewa dawa za kupunguza uchungu pale nyumbani
  • Kuhisi kujamiana ambako ni kuchungu mno na hakuwachi
  • Mabadiliko ya kighafla katika namna unavyoona vitu
=========
ZAIDI:

UGONJWA wa selimundu(sikoseli) ni ugonjwa wa kurithi ambao chimbuko lake ni familia kuwa na mtu anayekuwa na ugonjwa husika.

Ugonjwa huo unaambatana na dalili nyingi zinazotokana na kuvunjika kwa seli na kukwama kwenye mishipa ya damu kutokana na umbile lake.

Mgonjwa asipopata matibabu ya haraka na uangalizi wa karibu wa wahudumu wa afya na walezi wa wagonjwa hawa dalili hizi huchangia kwa kiasi kikubwa kwa waathirika wa ugonjwa huu kulazwa hospitali mara kwa mara na vifo vya utotoni.

Athari za ugonjwa wa sikoseli

Maumivu


Chembe nyekundu za selimundu hushindwa kupitika kwa urahisi katika mishipa midogo ya damu na hivyo kukwama na kuziba mzunguko wa damu. Hali hii husababisha maumivu yenye ukali tofauti.

Maambukizi ya vimelea vya magonjwa:

Wagonjwa wa sikoseli hasa watoto hupata maambukizi ya vimelea vya magonjwa mbalimbali kama vichomi (pneumonia), homa ya uti wa mgongo na homa ya ini.

Upungufu wa damu

Kutokana na chembe nyekundu za sikoseli kuwa na muda mfupi wa kuishi hii humuweka mgonjwa wa sikoseli katika hatari ya kupata upungufu mkubwa wa damu.

Kuvimba kwa mikono na miguu:

Mara nyingi huambatana na homa hali hii husababishwa na chembe nyekundu za sikoseli kukwama na kuziba mzunguko wa damu kwenda kwenye mikono na miguu.
 

JamiiForums

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Nov 9, 2006
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Matibabu na njia za kukuwezesha kuishi na afya

Ugonjwa huu hautibiki. Lakini madaktari wanaweza kutibu dalili ndogondogo hata zile kubwa. Iwapo una huu ugonjwa na unahisi maumivu makali, madaktari watakupa dawa za kuzuia maumivu na vinywaji vingi.

Kuwekwa damu ingine kila mara kunasaidia kukabiliana na upungufu wa damu mwilini (Ni muhimu upewe damu nzuri)

Hapa kuna namna ambavyo unaweza kuishi ukiwa na afya nzuri.
  • Kila siku meza dawa ya asidi ya vitamini C (folate) ili ujenge upya chembechembe nyekundu zilizo asii ya kila kitu chenye uhai
  • Meza dawa za penisilini iliyoandikiwa kila siku mpaka utakapotimua miaka sita ili uzuie maambukizi
  • Kunywa maji mengi kila siku (kati ya glasi 8 – 10 kila siku kwa watu wazima)
  • Jiepushe kukaa mahali ambapo ni baridi sana au pana joto jingi sana
  • Jaribu usifadhaike au kuchosha sana mwili wako
  • Pumzika vya kutosha
  • Tazamwa inavyostahili kila mara na daktari anayejua sana kuhusu ugonjwa huu
 

tbl

Senior Member
Mar 29, 2011
115
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Hellow guys,can you please tell me the diagnostic tests of sickle cells,
thank u!
 

MziziMkavu

JF-Expert Member
Feb 3, 2009
40,486
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[SIZE=+2]Genetic Disease Profile: Sickle Cell Anemia[/SIZE]
[SIZE=-1]For more about the gene that causes sickle cell anemia, see the HBB Gene Profile. The following was adapted from NIH Publication No. 96-4057.[/SIZE]


Disease Description

[SIZE=-1]Sickle cell anemia is an inherited blood disorder characterized primarily by chronic anemia and periodic episodes of pain. The underlying problem involves hemoglobin, a component of red blood cells. Hemoglobin molecules in each red blood cell carry oxygen from the lungs to body organs and tissues and bring carbon dioxide back to the lungs.

In sickle cell anemia, the hemoglobin is defective. After hemoglobin molecules give up their oxygen, some may cluster together and form long, rod-like structures. These structures cause red blood cells to become stiff and assume a sickle shape.

Unlike normal red cells, which are usually smooth and donut-shaped, sickled red cells cannot squeeze through small blood vessels. Instead, they stack up and cause blockages that deprive organs and tissues of oxygen-carrying blood. This process produces periodic episodes of pain and ultimately can damage tissues and vital organs and lead to other serious medical problems. Normal red blood cells live about 120 days in the bloodstream, but sickled red cells die after about 10 to 20 days. Because they cannot be replaced fast enough, the blood is chronically short of red blood cells, a condition called anemia.[/SIZE]



Inheritance

[SIZE=-1]Sickle cell anemia is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder caused by a defect in the HBB gene, which codes for hemoglobin. The presence of two defective genes (SS) is needed for sickle cell anemia. If each parent carries one sickle hemoglobin gene (S) and one normal gene (A), each child has a 25% chance of inheriting two defective genes and having sickle cell anemia; a 25% chance of inheriting two normal genes and not having the disease; and a 50% chance of being an unaffected carrier like the parents.[/SIZE]


Incidence

[SIZE=-1]Sickle cell anemia affects millions throughout the world. It is particularly common among people whose ancestors come from sub-Saharan Africa; Spanish-speaking regions (South America, Cuba, Central America); Saudi Arabia; India; and Mediterranean countries such as Turkey, Greece, and Italy. In the Unites States, it affects around 72,000 people, most of whose ancestors come from Africa. The disease occurs in about 1 in every 500 African-American births and 1 in every 1000 to 1400 Hispanic-American births. About 2 million Americans, or 1 in 12 African Americans, carry the sickle cell trait.[/SIZE]


Symptoms

[SIZE=-1]The clinical course of sickle cell anemia does not follow a single pattern; some patients have mild symptoms, and some have very severe symptoms. The basic problem, however, is the same: the sickle-shaped red blood cells tend to get stuck in narrow blood vessels, blocking the flow of blood. This results in the following conditions:

Hand-foot syndrome. When small blood vessels in hands or feet are blocked, pain and swelling can result, along with fever. This may be the first symptom of sickle cell anemia in infants.

Fatigue, paleness, and shortness of breath. These are all symptoms of anemia or a shortage of red blood cells.

Pain that occurs unpredictably in any body organ or joint. A patient may experience pain wherever sickled blood cells block oxygen flow to tissues. The frequency and amount of pain vary. Some patients have painful episodes (also called crises) less than once a year, and some have as many as 15 or more episodes in a year. Sometimes pain lasts only a few hours; sometimes it lasts several weeks. For especially severe ongoing pain, the patient may be hospitalized and treated with painkillers and intravenous fluids. Pain is the principal symptom of sickle cell anemia in both children and adults.

Eye problems. The retina, the "film" at the back of the eye that receives and processes visual images, can deteriorate when it does not get enough nourishment from circulating red blood cells. Damage to the retina can be serious enough to cause blindness.

Yellowing of skin and eyes. These are signs of jaundice, resulting from rapid breakdown of red blood cells.

Delayed growth and puberty in children and often a slight build in adults. The slow rate of growth is caused by a shortage of red blood cells.[/SIZE]


Complications

[SIZE=-1]Infections. [/SIZE]
[SIZE=-1]In general, both children and adults with sickle cell anemia are more vulnerable to infections and have a harder time fighting them off. This is the result of spleen damage from sickled red cells, thus preventing the spleen from destroying bacteria in the blood. Infants and young children, especially, are susceptible to bacterial infections that can kill them in as little as 9 hours from onset of fever. Pneumococcal infections used to be the principal cause of death in children with sickle cell anemia until physicians began routinely giving penicillin on a preventive basis to those who are diagnosed at birth or in early infancy.

Stroke. Defective hemoglobin damages the walls of red blood cells, causing them to stick to blood vessel walls. The resulting narrowed or blocked small blood vessels in the brain can lead to serious, life-threatening strokes, primarily in children.

Acute chest syndrome. Similar to pneumonia, this life-threatening complication is caused by infection or trapped sickled cells in the lung. It is characterized by chest pain, fever, and an abnormal chest X ray.[/SIZE]


Diagnosis
[SIZE=-1]
[/SIZE]
[SIZE=-1]Early diagnosis of sickle cell anemia is critical so children who have the disease can receive proper treatment.

Blood test - More than 40 states now perform a simple, inexpensive blood test for sickle cell disease on all newborn infants. This test is performed at the same time and from the same blood samples as other routine newborn-screening tests. Hemoglobin electrophoresis is the most widely used diagnostic test. If the test shows the presence of sickle hemoglobin, a second blood test is performed to confirm the diagnosis. These tests also tell whether or not the child carries the sickle cell trait.[/SIZE]


Treatment

[SIZE=-1]Although there is no cure for sickle cell anemia, doctors can do a great deal to help patients, and treatment is constantly being improved. Basic treatment of painful crises relies heavily on painkilling drugs and oral and intravenous fluids to reduce pain and prevent complications.

Blood Transfusions - Transfusions correct anemia by increasing the number of normal red blood cells in circulation. They can also be used to treat spleen enlargement in children before the condition becomes life-threatening. Regular transfusion therapy can help prevent recurring strokes in children at high risk.

Oral Antibiotics - Giving oral penicillin twice a day beginning at 2 months and continuing until the child is at least 5 years old can prevent pneumococcal infection and early death. Recently, however, several new penicillin-resistant strains of pneumonia bacteria have been reported. Since vaccines for these bacteria are ineffective in young children, studies are being planned to test new vaccines.

Hydroxyurea - The first effective drug treatment for adults with severe sickle cell anemia was reported in early 1995, when a study conducted by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute showed that daily doses of the anticancer drug hydroxyurea reduced the frequency of painful crises and acute chest syndrome. Patients taking the drug needed fewer blood transfusions.

Regular health maintenance is critical for people with sickle cell anemia. Proper nutrition, good hygiene, bed rest, protection against infections, and avoidance of other stresses all are important in maintaining good health and preventing complications. Regular visits to a physician or clinic that provides comprehensive care are necessary to identify early changes in the patient's health and ensure immediate treatment.

Today, with good health care, many people with sickle cell anemia are in reasonably good health much of the time and living productive lives. In fact, in the past 30 years, the life expectancy of people with sickle cell anemia has increased. [/SIZE]
 

caven dish

Senior Member
Sep 12, 2011
124
0
Sickle cell haina dawa ila kuna dawa zinazotumika kupunguza makali ya ugonjwa - kwa ushauri zaidi nenda Muhimbili kuna Clinic maalum kwa ajili ya Sicklers. Nakutakia mafanikio mema.
 

salito

JF-Expert Member
Dec 29, 2011
1,412
1,500
docta na wana jf nadhan hamjambo!me sina ufaham na huu ugonjwa wa cycocell,naomba kufahamishwa nini chanzo chake!na unadalili zipi na matibabu kama yapo..
 
Dec 26, 2011
75
0
docta na wana jf nadhan hamjambo!me sina ufaham na huu ugonjwa wa cycocell,naomba kufahamishwa nini chanzo chake!na unadalili zipi na matibabu kama yapo..
sicle cell ni disorder ya redblood cells ambapo cell inakuwa na shape isiyo ya kawaida ina kuwa kama mwezi mchanga na rigid, inakua vigumu kupita kwenye blood vessel matokeo yake kufanya damu isipite kwa urahisi au kuzuia kabisa,matokeo yake ni kusababisha upungufu mkubwa wa damu sehemu zingine za mwili(anaemia) ambayo huitwa sicle cell anaemia.kawaida cells ni round na ni flexible.

Tabia nyingine ya sicle cell ni kufa mapema zaidi kuliko cell zingine kabla ya kuwa replaced,cell hizi hufa baada ya siku 10-20 na kusababisha anaemia,wakati cell za kawaida huchukua siku 120 ndipo hufa.

Sicle cell ni disorder ambayo mara nyingi ni ya kurithi toka kwa wazazi,hali hii husababishwa na mabadiliko yasiyo ya kawaida yanayotokea kwenye DNA,ambayo ndiyo huhusika na utengenezaji wa vinasaba(gene).DNA ni master plan ya cell so makosa yanapofanyika katika master plan hii husababisha magonjwa au disorder mbalimbali mwilini mfano sicle cell nk.s.cell huanza kujitokeza mtoto awapo kuanzia miezi 4 na kuendelea.

Dalili zinazojitokeza ni.
1.Kupugukiwa damu(anaemia).
2.Maumivu kwenye mifupa.
3.kuugua mara kwa mara.
4.kuvimba miguu kutokana na upungufu wa damu.
5.kushindwa kuona vizuri baadaye kadri ugonjwa unavyozidi.
6.kuchelewa kukua mtoto nk.

Matibabu:
Hakuna tba yake ila ni kutibu dalili zinazojitokeza.
 

Sigma

JF-Expert Member
Feb 26, 2011
5,013
1,195
Nitakuja badae ku-comment complications mbalimbali za sickle cell disease na tiba zake.
Kwa sasa mda umebana.
Kazi kwanza.
 

salito

JF-Expert Member
Dec 29, 2011
1,412
1,500
sicle cell ni disorder ya redblood cells ambapo cell inakuwa na shape isiyo ya kawaida ina kuwa kama mwezi mchanga na rigid, inakua vigumu kupita kwenye blood vessel matokeo yake kufanya damu isipite kwa urahisi au kuzuia kabisa,matokeo yake ni kusababisha upungufu mkubwa wa damu sehemu zingine za mwili(anaemia) ambayo huitwa sicle cell anaemia.kawaida cells ni round na ni flexible.

Tabia nyingine ya sicle cell ni kufa mapema zaidi kuliko cell zingine kabla ya kuwa replaced,cell hizi hufa baada ya siku 10-20 na kusababisha anaemia,wakati cell za kawaida huchukua siku 120 ndipo hufa.

Sicle cell ni disorder ambayo mara nyingi ni ya kurithi toka kwa wazazi,hali hii husababishwa na mabadiliko yasiyo ya kawaida yanayotokea kwenye DNA,ambayo ndiyo huhusika na utengenezaji wa vinasaba(gene).DNA ni master plan ya cell so makosa yanapofanyika katika master plan hii husababisha magonjwa au disorder mbalimbali mwilini mfano sicle cell nk.s.cell huanza kujitokeza mtoto awapo kuanzia miezi 4 na kuendelea.

Dalili zinazojitokeza ni.
1.Kupugukiwa damu(anaemia).
2.Maumivu kwenye mifupa.
3.kuugua mara kwa mara.
4.kuvimba miguu kutokana na upungufu wa damu.
5.kushindwa kuona vizuri baadaye kadri ugonjwa unavyozidi.
6.kuchelewa kukua mtoto nk.

Matibabu:
Hakuna tba yake ila ni kutibu dalili zinazojitokeza.
Asante sana kwa ufafanuzi mzuri maana kweli nilikuwa shalow hata spelling nimevuruga aha ha ha ha ha ha asante sana..
 

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