It is an unfortunate fact that ammunition and explosive storage can never be 100% safe in terms ofthe ‘absence of risk', and the best that can be achieved is ‘tolerable risk'. It is appropriate, however, to highlight that in terms of national stockpiles the hazard is the physical presence of the ammunition and explosives, whereas the risk is primarily dependent on: a) the physical and chemical condition of the ammunition and explosives; b) the training and education of the personnel responsible for the storage and surveillance of the stockpiles; c) the handling, repair, maintenance and disposal systems in place; and d) the storage infrastructure and environment. The concept of tolerable risk can only be achieved if the ammunition management systems and storage infrastructure are to appropriate standards or in accordance with ‘best practices'. A past desk study by the Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD), supplemented by further SEESAC research, has identified a significant number of recent explosive events that have occurred due to inappropriate storage (report not attached) This study clearly indicates that in almost all post-conflict environments, and in many developing countries, a physical risk exists to communities from the presence of abandoned, damaged or inappropriately stored and managed stockpiles of ammunition and explosives. There are many possible causes of undesirable explosions in Ammunition Storage Areas, but these can usually be attributed under the following generic areas: a) deterioration of the physical or chemical condition of the ammunition and explosives. b) unsafe storage practices and infrastructure; c) unsafe handling and transport practices; d) external effects, (such as fire); or e) deliberate sabotage. Regrettably, the dramatic consequences of an ammunition explosion normally make the key witnesses to the event its first victims. Therefore any subsequent investigation tends to concentrate on the practices and regulations in force at the time, as key witnesses are not available. Due to the fact that a degree of technical knowledge is required for an effective investigation, the investigating authority is also usually the authority responsible for the ammunition management and storage in the first place. This complicates impartiality, independence of investigation and leads to a reluctance to allocate responsibility.