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Tanzania !!!

Discussion in 'Jukwaa la Elimu (Education Forum)' started by MaxShimba, Nov 5, 2008.

  1. MaxShimba

    MaxShimba JF-Expert Member

    Nov 5, 2008
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    Shortly after achieving independence from Britain in the early 1960s, Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged to form the nation of Tanzania in 1964. One-party rule came to an end in 1995 with the first democratic elections held in the country since the 1970s. Zanzibar's semi-autonomous status and popular opposition have led to two contentious elections since 1995, which the ruling party won despite international observers' claims of voting irregularities.

    Geography Tanzania

    Eastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Kenya and Mozambique
    Geographic coordinates:
    6 00 S, 35 00 E

    Map references:
    total: 945,087 sq km
    land: 886,037 sq km
    water: 59,050 sq km
    note: includes the islands of Mafia, Pemba, and Zanzibar

    Area - comparative:
    slightly larger than twice the size of California

    Land boundaries:
    total: 3,861 km
    border countries: Burundi 451 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 459 km, Kenya 769 km, Malawi 475 km, Mozambique 756 km, Rwanda 217 km, Uganda 396 km, Zambia 338 km

    1,424 km

    Maritime claims:
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

    varies from tropical along coast to temperate in highlands

    plains along coast; central plateau; highlands in north, south

    Elevation extremes:
    lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
    highest point: Kilimanjaro 5,895 m
    Natural resources:
    hydropower, tin, phosphates, iron ore, coal, diamonds, gemstones, gold, natural gas, nickel
    Land use:
    arable land: 4.23%
    permanent crops: 1.16%
    other: 94.61% (2005)
    Irrigated land:
    1,840 sq km (2003)
    Total renewable water resources:
    91 cu km (2001)
    Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
    total: 5.18 cu km/yr (10%/0%/89%)
    per capita: 135 cu m/yr (2000)
    Natural hazards:
    flooding on the central plateau during the rainy season; drought
    Environment - current issues:
    soil degradation; deforestation; desertification; destruction of coral reefs threatens marine habitats; recent droughts affected marginal agriculture; wildlife threatened by illegal hunting and trade, especially for ivory
    Environment - international agreements:
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note:
    Kilimanjaro is highest point in Africa; bordered by three of the largest lakes on the continent: Lake Victoria (the world's second-largest freshwater lake) in the north, Lake Tanganyika (the world's second deepest) in the west, and Lake Nyasa in the southwest
    People Tanzania Top of Page
    note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2008 est.)
    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 43.5% (male 8,763,471/female 8,719,198)
    15-64 years: 53.7% (male 10,638,666/female 10,947,190)
    65 years and over: 2.8% (male 502,368/female 642,269) (2008 est.)
    Median age:
    total: 17.8 years
    male: 17.6 years
    female: 18.1 years (2008 est.)
    Population growth rate:
    2.072% (2008 est.)
    Birth rate:
    35.12 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
    Death rate:
    12.92 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
    Net migration rate:
    -1.48 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)
    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
    under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
    15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 70.46 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 77.51 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 63.19 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 51.45 years
    male: 50.06 years
    female: 52.88 years (2008 est.)
    Total fertility rate:
    4.62 children born/woman (2008 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
    8.8% (2003 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
    1.6 million (2003 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - deaths:
    160,000 (2003 est.)
    Major infectious diseases:
    degree of risk: very high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: malaria and plague
    water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2008)
    noun: Tanzanian(s)
    adjective: Tanzanian
    Ethnic groups:
    mainland - African 99% (of which 95% are Bantu consisting of more than 130 tribes), other 1% (consisting of Asian, European, and Arab); Zanzibar - Arab, African, mixed Arab and African
    mainland - Christian 30%, Muslim 35%, indigenous beliefs 35%; Zanzibar - more than 99% Muslim
    Kiswahili or Swahili (official), Kiunguja (name for Swahili in Zanzibar), English (official, primary language of commerce, administration, and higher education), Arabic (widely spoken in Zanzibar), many local languages
    note: Kiswahili (Swahili) is the mother tongue of the Bantu people living in Zanzibar and nearby coastal Tanzania; although Kiswahili is Bantu in structure and origin, its vocabulary draws on a variety of sources including Arabic and English; it has become the lingua franca of central and eastern Africa; the first language of most people is one of the local languages
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write Kiswahili (Swahili), English, or Arabic
    total population: 69.4%
    male: 77.5%
    female: 62.2% (2002 census)
    Education expenditures:
    2.2% of GDP (1999)
    Government Tanzania Top of Page
    Country name:
    conventional long form: United Republic of Tanzania
    conventional short form: Tanzania
    local long form: Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania
    local short form: Tanzania
    former: United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar
    Government type:
    name: Dar es Salaam
    geographic coordinates: 6 48 S, 39 17 E
    time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
    note: legislative offices have been transferred to Dodoma, which is planned as the new national capital; the National Assembly now meets there on a regular basis
    Administrative divisions:
    26 regions; Arusha, Dar es Salaam, Dodoma, Iringa, Kagera, Kigoma, Kilimanjaro, Lindi, Manyara, Mara, Mbeya, Morogoro, Mtwara, Mwanza, Pemba North, Pemba South, Pwani, Rukwa, Ruvuma, Shinyanga, Singida, Tabora, Tanga, Zanzibar Central/South, Zanzibar North, Zanzibar Urban/West
    26 April 1964; Tanganyika became independent 9 December 1961 (from UK-administered UN trusteeship); Zanzibar became independent 19 December 1963 (from UK); Tanganyika united with Zanzibar 26 April 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar; renamed United Republic of Tanzania 29 October 1964
    National holiday:
    Union Day (Tanganyika and Zanzibar), 26 April (1964)
    25 April 1977; major revisions October 1984
    Legal system:
    based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts limited to matters of interpretation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch:
    chief of state: President Jakaya KIKWETE (since 21 December 2005); Vice President Dr. Ali Mohammed SHEIN (since 5 July 2001); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
    head of government: President Jakaya KIKWETE (since 21 December 2005); Vice President Dr. Ali Mohammed SHEIN (since 5 July 2001)
    note: Zanzibar elects a president who is head of government for matters internal to Zanzibar; Amani Abeid KARUME was reelected to that office on 30 October 2005
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among the members of the National Assembly
    elections: president and vice president elected on the same ballot by popular vote for five-year terms (eligible for a second term); election last held 14 December 2005 (next to be held in December 2010); prime minister appointed by the president
    election results: Jakaya KIKWETE elected president; percent of vote - Jakaya KIKWETE 80.3%, Ibrahim LIPUMBA 11.7%, Freeman MBOWE 5.9%
    Legislative branch:
    unicameral National Assembly or Bunge (274 seats; 232 members elected by popular vote, 37 allocated to women nominated by the president, 5 to members of the Zanzibar House of Representatives; to serve five-year terms); note - in addition to enacting laws that apply to the entire United Republic of Tanzania, the Assembly enacts laws that apply only to the mainland; Zanzibar has its own House of Representatives to make laws especially for Zanzibar (the Zanzibar House of Representatives has 50 seats elected by universal suffrage to serve five-year terms)
    elections: last held 14 December 2005 (next to be held in December 2010)
    election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CCM 206, CUF 19, CHADEMA 5, other 2, women appointed by the president 37, Zanzibar representatives 5 Zanzibar House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CCM 30, CUF 19; 1 seat was nullified with a rerun to take place soon
    Judicial branch:
    Permanent Commission of Enquiry (official ombudsman); Court of Appeal (consists of a chief justice and four judges); High Court (consists of a Jaji Kiongozi and 29 judges appointed by the president; holds regular sessions in all regions); District Courts; Primary Courts (limited jurisdiction and appeals can be made to the higher courts)
    Political parties and leaders:
    Chama Cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo (Party of Democracy and Development) or CHADEMA [Bob MAKANI]; Chama Cha Mapinduzi or CCM (Revolutionary Party) [Jakaya Mrisho KIKWETE]; Civic United Front or CUF [Ibrahim LIPUMBA]; Democratic Party [Christopher MTIKLA] (unregistered); Tanzania Labor Party or TLP [Augustine Lyatonga MREME]; United Democratic Party or UDP [John CHEYO]
    Political pressure groups and leaders:
    International organization participation:
    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Ombeni Yohana SEFUE
    chancery: 2139 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 939-6125
    FAX: [1] (202) 797-7408
    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Mark GREEN
    embassy: 140 Msese Road, Kinondoni District, Dar es Salaam
    mailing address: P. O. Box 9123, Dar es Salaam
    telephone: [255] (22) 2666-010 through 2666-015
    FAX: [255] (22) 2666-701, 2668-501
    Flag description:
    divided diagonally by a yellow-edged black band from the lower hoist-side corner; the upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the lower triangle is blue
    Economy Tanzania Top of Page
    Economy - overview:
    Tanzania is one of the poorest countries in the world. The economy depends heavily on agriculture, which accounts for more than 40% of GDP, provides 85% of exports, and employs 80% of the work force. Topography and climatic conditions, however, limit cultivated crops to only 4% of the land area. Industry traditionally featured the processing of agricultural products and light consumer goods. The World Bank, the IMF, and bilateral donors have provided funds to rehabilitate Tanzania's out-of-date economic infrastructure and to alleviate poverty. Long-term growth through 2005 featured a pickup in industrial production and a substantial increase in output of minerals led by gold. Recent banking reforms have helped increase private-sector growth and investment. Continued donor assistance and solid macroeconomic policies supported real GDP growth of nearly 7% in 2007.
    GDP (purchasing power parity):
    $51.07 billion (2007 est.)
    GDP (official exchange rate):
    $16.18 billion (2007 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate:
    7.3% (2007 est.)
    GDP - per capita (PPP):
    $1,300 (2007 est.)
    GDP - composition by sector:
    agriculture: 42.5%
    industry: 18.9%
    services: 38.5% (2007 est.)
    Labor force:
    20.04 million (2007 est.)
    Labor force - by occupation:
    agriculture: 80%
    industry and services: 20% (2002 est.)
    Unemployment rate:
    Population below poverty line:
    36% (2002 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: 2.9%
    highest 10%: 26.9% (2000)
    Distribution of family income - Gini index:
    34.6 (2000)
    Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    7% (2007 est.)
    Investment (gross fixed):
    23.2% of GDP (2007 est.)
    revenues: $3.561 billion
    expenditures: $3.594 billion (2007 est.)
    Public debt:
    19.6% of GDP (2007 est.)
    Agriculture - products:
    coffee, sisal, tea, cotton, pyrethrum (insecticide made from chrysanthemums), cashew nuts, tobacco, cloves, corn, wheat, cassava (tapioca), bananas, fruits, vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats
    agricultural processing (sugar, beer, cigarettes, sisal twine); diamond, gold, and iron mining, salt, soda ash; cement, oil refining, shoes, apparel, wood products, fertilizer
    Industrial production growth rate:
    9.5% (2007 est.)
    Electricity - production:
    1.88 billion kWh (2005)
    Electricity - consumption:
    1.199 billion kWh (2005)
    Electricity - exports:
    0 kWh (2005 est.)
    Electricity - imports:
    136 million kWh (2005)
    Oil - production:
    0 bbl/day (2005 est.)
    Oil - consumption:
    25,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
    Oil - exports:
    0 bbl/day (2004)
    Oil - imports:
    24,800 bbl/day (2004)
    Oil - proved reserves:
    0 bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
    Natural gas - production:
    0 cu m (2005 est.)
    Natural gas - consumption:
    0 cu m (2005 est.)
    Natural gas - exports:
    0 cu m (2005 est.)
    Natural gas - imports:
    0 cu m (2005)
    Natural gas - proved reserves:
    21.73 billion cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
    Current account balance:
    -$1.856 billion (2007 est.)
    $2.227 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
    Exports - commodities:
    gold, coffee, cashew nuts, manufactures, cotton
    Exports - partners:
    China 9.9%, India 9.3%, Netherlands 6.2%, Germany 6.1%, UAE 4.7% (2007)
    $4.861 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
    Imports - commodities:
    consumer goods, machinery and transportation equipment, industrial raw materials, crude oil
    Imports - partners:
    China 11.9%, Kenya 7.9%, South Africa 7.6%, India 6.8%, UAE 5.8% (2007)
    Economic aid - recipient:
    $1.505 billion (2005)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
    $2.91 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
    Debt - external:
    $4.382 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
    Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
    Market value of publicly traded shares:
    $587.9 million (2005)
    Currency (code):
    Tanzanian shilling (TZS)
    Exchange rates:
    Tanzanian shillings per US dollar - 1,255 (2007), 1,251.9 (2006), 1,128.93 (2005), 1,089.33 (2004), 1,038.42 (2003)
    Fiscal year:
    1 July - 30 June
    Communications Tanzania Top of Page
    Telephones - main lines in use:
    165,013 (2008)
    Telephones - mobile cellular:
    9.358 million (2008)
    Telephone system:
    general assessment: telecommunications services are inadequate; system operating below capacity and being modernized for better service; small aperture terminal (VSAT) system under construction
    domestic: fixed-line telephone network inadequate with less than 1 connection per 100 persons; mobile-cellular service, aided by multiple providers, is increasing; trunk service provided by open-wire, microwave radio relay, tropospheric scatter, and fiber-optic cable; some links being made digital
    international: country code - 255; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean, 1 Atlantic Ocean)
    Radio broadcast stations:
    AM 12, FM 11, shortwave 2 (1998)
    Television broadcast stations:
    3 (1999)
    Internet country code:
    Internet hosts:
    20,757 (2007)
    Internet users:
    400,000 (2007)
    Transportation Tanzania Top of Page
    124 (2007)
    Airports - with paved runways:
    total: 10
    over 3,047 m: 2
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
    914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2007)
    Airports - with unpaved runways:
    total: 114
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 17
    914 to 1,523 m: 63
    under 914 m: 34 (2007)
    gas 287 km; oil 891 km (2007)
    total: 3,690 km
    narrow gauge: 969 km 1.067-m gauge; 2,721 km 1.000-m gauge (2006)
    total: 78,891 km
    paved: 6,808 km
    unpaved: 72,083 km (2003)
    Lake Tanganyika, Lake Victoria, and Lake Nyasa principal avenues of commerce with neighboring countries; rivers not navigable (2005)
    Merchant marine:
    total: 9
    by type: cargo 1, passenger/cargo 4, petroleum tanker 4
    registered in other countries: 1 (Honduras 1) (2008)
    Ports and terminals:
    Dar es Salaam
    Transportation - note:
    the International Maritime Bureau reports the territorial and offshore waters in the Indian Ocean are high risk for piracy and armed robbery against ships; numerous commercial vessels have been attacked and hijacked both at anchor and while underway; crews have been robbed and stores or cargoes stolen
    Military Tanzania Top of Page
    Military branches:
    Tanzanian People's Defense Force (Jeshi la Wananchi la Tanzania, JWTZ): Army, Naval Wing (includes Coast Guard), Air Defense Command (includes Air Wing), National Service (2007)
    Military service age and obligation:
    18 years of age for voluntary military service (2007)
    Manpower available for military service:
    males age 16-49: 9,108,177 (2008 est.)
    Manpower fit for military service:
    males age 16-49: 5,278,833 (2008 est.)
    Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
    male: 478,812
    female: 479,557 (2008 est.)
    Military expenditures:
    0.2% of GDP (2005 est.)
    Transnational Issues Tanzania Top of Page
    Disputes - international:
    Tanzania still hosts more than a half-million refugees, more than any other African country, mainly from Burundi and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, despite the international community's efforts at repatriation; disputes with Malawi over the boundary in Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) and the meandering Songwe River remain dormant
    Refugees and internally displaced persons:
    refugees (country of origin): 352,640 (Burundi); 127,973 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (2007)
    Illicit drugs:
    growing role in transshipment of Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin and South American cocaine destined for South African, European, and US markets and of South Asian methaqualone bound for southern Africa; money laundering remains a problem

    This page was last updated on 23 October 2008

  2. MaxShimba

    MaxShimba JF-Expert Member

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    Good infor
  3. MaxShimba

    MaxShimba JF-Expert Member

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    I can read all about Tanzania. Wooow.

  4. MaxShimba

    MaxShimba JF-Expert Member

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    Information worth to know. Very statistical.

  5. Freetown

    Freetown JF-Expert Member

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  6. Akthoo

    Akthoo JF-Expert Member

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    Thank you very much Max. It very essential information to have it in hand!
    Can you please give us its source just in case we need updated or to query any doubtful information?
  7. Akthoo

    Akthoo JF-Expert Member

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    Thank you Freetown for the link, I have just asked Max for this!
  8. Akthoo

    Akthoo JF-Expert Member

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    [​IMG] [​IMG]
    mainland - Christian 30%, Muslim 35%, indigenous beliefs 35%; Zanzibar - more than 99% Muslim
    So it means the majority of Tanzanian are Muslim!!!
  9. MaxShimba

    MaxShimba JF-Expert Member

    Nov 6, 2008
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