Tafadhali naomba nitumie vyanzo vyovyote ambavyo vitanisaidika kuandika shahada.


Jan 16, 2011
Habari , Nategemea kuandika research katika ngazi ya ''bachelor's degree'' katika uchumi .



Natanguliza shukrani, Arkad ,K.



JF-Expert Member
Nov 1, 2008
sasa degree unatakiwa upewe wewe kwanini sisi tukusaidie kusoma? lazima uumize kichwa mkuu kutafuta hivyo vyanzo sisi tukikuletea sidhani kama itakuwa na maana


JF-Expert Member
Feb 21, 2012
"vyanzo vyovyote ambavyo
vitanisaidika kuandika shahada"
Mimi sio msomi sana, ila hapo umeniacha njia panda kidogo.
Je shahada ni nini na inaandikwaje?


JF-Expert Member
Jul 18, 2011
Ndio elimu yetu imefikia hapo. Mtu anapokuwa hajui hata kitu anachohitaji!

Kama unataka kuandika shahada kuna njia mbili tu.

Njia ya kwanza ni kuandika wa herufi ndogo: s-h-a-h-a-d-a!

Njia ya pili ni kuandika kwa herufi kubwa: S-H-A-H-A-D-A!

Ukikamilisha hilo,unakuwa umehitimu elimu yako ya chuo kikuu.Wala huhitaji vyanzo,vya kazi gani tena?

Father of All

JF-Expert Member
Feb 26, 2012
Hata ukipewa hivyo "vyanzo" hutaweza kuandika chochote kwa vile huna cha kuandika. Nadhani unachoandika ni research paper ya kawaida kwa under grads. Ni ajabu unaitwa mwanafunzi wa chuo kikuu hata hujui kuandika research paper. Kweli elimu ya Bongo imegeuka voda fasta. Sijui ungesoma Ulaya ua Amerika si lingekuchwea! Kijana acha upuuuzi kasome au achana na chuo ukauze nyanya. Kila kitu unataka kudesa! Shame on you!


JF-Expert Member
Sep 30, 2010

An Introduction to Research Techniques
A research paper presents the results of your investigations on a selected topic. Based on your own thoughts and the facts and ideas you have gathered from a variety of sources, a research paper is a creation that is uniquely yours. The experience of gathering, interpreting, and documenting information, developing and organizing ideas and conclusions, and communicating them clearly will prove to be an important and satisfying part of your education.​
Revisions to this Guide were made in May 2004 to reflect recommendations in the MLA Handbook's sixth edition (2003) and on the MLA's own Web pages.​

There are many approaches to research - an essential part of every business and profession - and many ways to document findings. The library has books which will help you, and most English composition textbooks contain chapters on research techniques and style. It is important to follow consistently and accurately a recommended format that is clear and concise and that has been approved by your teacher.

The formatting of citations recommended in this guide is based on Modern Language Association recommendations. If your instructor requires another format, you can ask that instructor how such a format will be different from the recommendations we have made and make the appropriate adjustments. (Pay special attention to the material on "Footnotes and Endnotes" appearing in the section called "Parenthetical Documentation.")

This guide may suffice for most students' needs for most academic purposes in Humanities disciplines, but for advanced research projects it is by no means a substitute for the Modern Language Association Handbook for Writers of Research Papers Sixth Edition (2003). That handbook can be purchased in most bookstores and copies should be available in every college and municipal library. A Guide similar to this one, but based on the APA style, is also available online (see link on the navigation bar). Your best source of advice on all these matters is, of course, your instructor and library professionals.
Gathering Materials​

Once your topic has been approved, begin to gather information from authoritative reference sources: pertinent books, encyclopedias, and articles in magazines, journals, and magazines. Librarians will be happy to show you how to use the various research tools within the library and may suggest other sources of information. Important new resources are now available to you through electronic services which provide many learning and reference tools as well as access to the Internet, where you can often discover an abundance of information.
We recommend the Capital Community College online Library and Information Skills Workbook as an introduction to using library and online resources. The workbook has chapters on finding books and journal articles, using CD-ROM databases, discovering resources on the internet, developing critical thinking skills, and designing a search strategy. It would be a good idea to go through the Workbook (and take its computer-graded quizzes) before beginning a major research project.​

Depending on the resources available and the length requirements of your assignment, you may find it necessary to widen or restrict the scope of your topic.

Taking Notes
As you examine each source, make a separate note of each fact or quotation you might want to use in your paper. Unless you are really good at manipulating text with your computer or laptop, it might be wise to use index cards when preparing notes. Be sure to identify the source of the information on the listing (include the author's name and page number on which the information appears). Try to summarize the information in your own words (paraphrasing); use quotation marks if you copy the information exactly. (This rule should apply whether you are copying a great deal of material or only a phrase.) Give each listing a simple descriptive heading.​
note card​

Your listings - whether they appear on index cards or within some format on your computer - will now provide the authoritative basis for your paper's content and documentation. By arranging and rearranging the listings and using your descriptive headings, you may well discover a certain order or different categories which will help you prepare an outline. You may find that you need additional information, or that some of the listings may not be appropriate and should be set aside or discarded.

Using an outline can help you organize your material and can also help you discover connections between pieces of information that you weren't aware of when you first conceived the plan of your paper. It can also make you aware of material that is not really relevant to the purposes of your paper or material that you have covered before and should therefore be removed.

A Working Outline might be only an informal list of topics and subtopics which you are thinking of covering in your paper. Sometimes, however, an instructor might require that a working outline be submitted at the beginning of your work; then your instructor might suggest ways in which the work needs to be further developed or cut back. Your instructor might also see that you're trying to accomplish too much or too little for the scope of the assignment he or she has in mind. The working outline can be revised as you discover new material and get new ideas that ought to go into your paper. Most word processing programs have outlining features with automatic formatting that make it easy to create and revise outlines. It is a good idea to keep copies of old outlines in a computer folder in case new versions of the outline lead you in false directions that you will later have to abandon.

A Final Outline should enhance the organization and coherence of your research paper. Instructors sometimes require that a final outline be submitted along with the final version of your paper. Material that is not relevant to the purpose of your paper as revealed in your outline should be excised from the paper; if portions of your outline seem weak in comparison to others, more research may be required to create a sense of balance in your argument and presentation.
Outlines can be organized according to your purposes. Are you attempting to show the chronology of some historical development, the cause-and-effect relationship between one phenomenon and another, the process by which something is accomplished, or the logic of some position? Are you defining or analyzing something? Comparing or contrasting one thing to another? Presenting an argument (one side or both)?​

In any case, try to bring related material together under general headings and arrange sections so they relate logically to each other. An effective introduction will map out the journey your reader is about to take, and a satisfactory conclusion will wrap up the sequence of ideas in a nice package.
A final outline can be written as a topic outline, in which you use only short phrases to suggest ideas, or as a sentence outline, in which you use full sentences (even very brief paragraphs) to show the development of ideas more fully. If your instructor requires an outline, follow consistently whichever plan he or she prefers.​
The MLA Handbook suggests the following "descending parts of an outline":​

Logic requires that if you have an "A" in your paper, you need to have a "B"; a "1" requires a "2," and so forth.
The following sample of a topic outline is also taken from the 1994 MLA Handbook:​
sentence outline​

A Statement on Plagiarism
Using someone else's ideas or phrasing and representing those ideas or phrasing as our own, either on purpose or through carelessness, is a serious offense known as plagiarism. "Ideas or phrasing" includes written or spoken material, of course - from whole papers and paragraphs to sentences, and, indeed, phrases - but it also includes statistics, lab results, art work, etc. "Someone else" can mean a professional source, such as a published writer or critic in a book, magazine, encyclopedia, or journal; an electronic resource such as material we discover on the World Wide Web; another student at our school or anywhere else; a paper-writing "service" (online or otherwise) which offers to sell written papers for a fee.​

Let us suppose, for example, that we're doing a paper for Music Appreciation on the child prodigy years of the composer and pianist Franz Liszt and that we've read about the development of the young artist in several sources. In Alan Walker's book Franz Liszt: The Virtuoso Years (Ithaca: 1983), we read that Liszt's father encouraged him, at age six, to play the piano from memory, to sight-read music and, above all, to improvise. We can report in our paper (and in our own words) that Liszt was probably the most gifted of the child prodigies making their mark in Europe in the mid-nineteenth century - because that is the kind of information we could have gotten from a number of sources; it has become what we call common knowledge.

However, if we report on the boy's father's role in the prodigy's development, we should give proper credit to Alan Walker. We could write, for instance, the following: Franz Liszt's father encouraged him, as early as age six, to practice skills which later served him as an internationally recognized prodigy (Walker 59). Or, we could write something like this: Alan Walker notes that, under the tutelage of his father, Franz Liszt began work in earnest on his piano playing at the age of six (59). Not to give Walker credit for this important information is plagiarism.

Some More Examples
(The examples below were originally written by the writing center staff at an esteemed college; that institution has asked us to remove its name from this Web page.) The original text from Elaine Tyler May's "Myths and Realities of the American Family" reads as follows:​

Because women's wages often continue to reflect the fiction that men earn the family wage, single mothers rarely earn enough to support themselves and their children adequately. And because work is still organized around the assumption that mothers stay home with children, even though few mothers can afford to do so, child-care facilities in the United States remain woefully inadequate.

Here are some possible uses of this text. As you read through each version, try to decide if it is a legitimate use of May's text or a plagiarism.

Version A:
Since women's wages often continue to reflect the mistaken notion that men are the main wage earners in the family, single mothers rarely make enough to support themselves and their children very well. Also, because work is still based on the assumption that mothers stay home with children, facilities for child care remain woefully inadequate in the United States.​

Plagiarism: In Version A there is too much direct borrowing of sentence structure and wording. The writer changes some words, drops one phrase, and adds some new language, but the overall text closely resembles May's. Even with a citation, the writer is still plagiarizing because the lack of quotation marks indicates that Version A is a paraphrase, and should thus be in the writer's own language.

Version B:

As Elaine Tyler May points out, "women's wages often continue to reflect the fiction that men earn the family wage" (588). Thus many single mothers cannot support themselves and their children adequately. Furthermore, since work is based on the assumption that mothers stay home with children, facilities for day care in this country are still "woefully inadequate." (May 589).

Plagiarism: The writer now cites May, so we're closer to telling the truth about the relationship of our text to the source, but this text continues to borrow too much language.

Version C:

By and large, our economy still operates on the mistaken notion that men are the main breadwinners in the family. Thus, women continue to earn lower wages than men. This means, in effect, that many single mothers cannot earn a decent living. Furthermore, adequate day care is not available in the United States because of the mistaken assumption that mothers remain at home with their children.

Plagiarism: Version C shows good paraphrasing of wording and sentence structure, but May's original ideas are not acknowledged. Some of May's points are common knowledge (women earn less than men, many single mothers live in poverty), but May uses this common knowledge to make a specific and original point and her original conception of this idea is not acknowledged.

Version D:

Women today still earn less than men - so much less that many single mothers and their children live near or below the poverty line. Elaine Tyler May argues that this situation stems in part from "the fiction that men earn the family wage" (588). May further suggests that the American workplace still operates on the assumption that mothers with children stay home to care for them (589).

This assumption, in my opinion, does not have the force it once did. More and more businesses offer in-house day-care facilities. . . .
No Plagiarism: The writer makes use of the common knowledge in May's work, but acknowledges May's original conclusion and does not try to pass it off as his or her own. The quotation is properly cited, as is a later paraphrase of another of May's ideas.
Penalty for Plagiarism​

The penalty for plagiarism is usually determined by the instructor teaching the course involved. In many schools and colleges, it could involve failure for the paper and it could mean failure for the entire course and even expulsion from school. Ignorance of the rules about plagiarism is no excuse, and carelessness is just as bad as purposeful violation. At the very least, however, students who plagiarize have cheated themselves out of the experience of being responsible members of the academic community and have cheated their classmates by pretending to contribute something original which is, in fact, a cheap copy. Within schools and colleges that have a diverse student body, instructors should be aware that some international students from other cultures may have ideas about using outside resources that differ from the institution's policies regarding plagiarism; opportunities should be provided for all students to become familiar with institutional policies regarding plagiarism.

Students who do not thoroughly understand the concept of plagiarism and methods of proper documentation should request assistance from their teacher and from librarians.
Working with Quotations​

Quotations that constitute fewer than five lines in your paper should be set off with quotation marks [ " " ] and be incorporated within the normal flow of your text. For material exceeding that length, omit the quotation marks and indent the quoted language one inch from your left-hand margin. If an indented quotation is taken entirely from one paragraph, the first line should be even with all the other lines in that quotation; however, if an indented quotation comes from two or more paragraphs, indent the first line of each paragraph an additional one-quarter inch.

If quotation marks appear within the text of a quotation that already has the usual double-quote marks [ " " ] around it (a quote-within-a-quote), set off that inner quotation with single-quote marks [ ' ' ] . Such a quote-within-a-quote within an indented quotation is marked with double-quote marks.
In the United States, the usual practice is to place periods and commas inside quotation marks, regardless of logic. Other punctuation marks - question marks, exclamation marks, semicolons, and colons - go where logic would dictate. Thus, we might see the following sentences in a paper about Robert Frost:​

The first two lines of this stanza, "My little horse must think it queer / To stop without a farmhouse near," remind us of a nursery rhyme.

(Note, also, the slash mark / (with a space on either side) to denote the poem's line-break.) But observe the placement of this semicolon:
There is a hint of the nursery rhyme in the line "My little horse must think it queer"; however, the poem then quickly turns darkly serious.​

Pay close attention to the placement of commas and periods in the use of citations.
For further help with the use of quotation marks, see the appropriate section in the Guide to Grammar and Writing and our English faculty's Suggestions for Writing Papers for Literature Courses​
Your Research Paper's Format​

Recommendations here are based on the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. It is important to note, however, that individual instructors and institutions or departments may vary from these recommendations somewhat and that it is always wise to consult with your instructor before formatting and submitting your work.


Use white, twenty-pound, 81/2- by 11-inch paper. Erasable paper tends to smudge and should be avoided for a final draft. If you prefer to use erasable paper in the preparation of your paper, submit a good photocopy to your instructor.

Except for page numbers (see below), leave one-inch margins all around the text of your paper -- left side, right side, and top and bottom. Paragraphs should be indented half an inch; set-off quotations should be indented an inch from the left margin (five spaces and ten spaces, respectively, on standard typewriters).

The MLA Guide says that "the research paper must be double-spaced," including quotations, notes, and the list of works cited.
Heading and Title:​
Your research paper does not need a title page. At the top of the first page, at the left-hand margin, type your name, your instructor's name, the course name and number, and the date -- all on separate, double-spaced lines. Then double-space again and center the title above your text. (If your title requires more than one line, double-space between the lines.) Double-space again before beginning your text. The title should be neither underlined nor written in all capital letters. Capitalize only the first, last, and principal words of the title. Titles might end with a question mark or an exclamation mark if that is appropriate, but not in a period. Titles written in other languages are capitalized and punctuated according to different rules, and writers should consult the MLA Guide or their instructors.​

Page Numbers:
Number your pages consecutively throughout the manuscript (including the first page) in the upper right-hand corner of each page, one-half inch from the top. Type your last name before the page number. Most word processing programs provide for a "running head," which you can set up as you create the format for the paper, at the same time you are establishing things like the one-inch margins and the double-spacing. This feature makes the appearance and consistency of the page numbering a great convenience. Make sure the page-number is always an inch from the right-hand edge of the paper (flush with the right-hand margin of your text) and that there is a double-space between the page number and the top line of text. Do not use the abbreviation p. or any other

mark before the page number.
[Sample Title Page]​
Tables and Figures:​
Tables should be labeled "Table," given an arabic numeral, and captioned (with those words flush to the left-hand margin). Other material such as photographs, images, charts, and line-drawings should be labeled "Figure" and be properly numbered and captioned.​

Generally, the simpler the better. Why spend money on gimmicky, unwieldy, slippery binders, when instructors prefer nice, flat stacks of papers they can stuff into their briefcases and backpacks? A simple staple in the upper left-hand corner of your paper should suffice, although the MLA Guide suggests that a paper clip can be removed and this facilitates reading (which suggests to us that it's been a long time since the people at MLA have had to deal with stacks of student papers). Your instructors or their departments may have their own rules about binders, and you should consult with them about this matter.

A sample research paper (with embedded commentary) is available in the Principles of Composition section of the Guide to Grammar and Writing. The same essay is available on the Guide to Grammar and Writing Forms of Communication page in an Acrobat Reader (.pdf) format.​


JF-Expert Member
Sep 28, 2008
Ombi lake sio baya...
nathani anaomba msaada wa changamoto tuu, sio afanyiwe research yote.


JF-Expert Member
May 24, 2008



JF-Expert Member
Mar 25, 2011
Hata ukipewa hivyo "vyanzo" hutaweza kuandika chochote kwa vile huna cha kuandika. Nadhani unachoandika ni research paper ya kawaida kwa under grads. Ni ajabu unaitwa mwanafunzi wa chuo kikuu hata hujui kuandika research paper. Kweli elimu ya Bongo imegeuka voda fasta. Sijui ungesoma Ulaya ua Amerika si lingekuchwea! Kijana acha upuuuzi kasome au achana na chuo ukauze nyanya. Kila kitu unataka kudesa! Shame on you!

Yaelekea ndo wale wa O LEVEL -F5 akajidanganya kusoma vyuo vya VICHOCHORONI kwa kudanganywa kuwa atakwaa SHAHADA.sasa hawez kuunda sentensi hata 1 kwa lugha ya UGHAIBUNI.KAPLAN pakutokea ni JF! kaaazi kwelikweli


JF-Expert Member
May 24, 2008

mtoa mada na ww ndo unasoma UD au uko shallow mbaya,,,ni PM nikuandikie bure hiyo tafiti yko


JF-Expert Member
Jan 2, 2015
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Anyone who can help me with best website to search and download books for free...am interested with construction books to assist me in accomplishing my dissertation work...

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