Suala la Mkaguzi Mkuu wa Hesabu za Serikali (CAG) na Vipengele kadhaa vya Kisheria

Chige

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Chige

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Nafahamu kwamba watu wengi wameanzisha threads wakijaribu kuelezea suala la CAG Kisheria! Hata hivyo, wengi wao kama sio wote walichofanya ni kurundika vifungu vya kisheria bila kutoa ufafanuzi!

Mbaya zaidi, hawatoi ufafanuzi wa matumizi ya neno SHALL kwa mujibu wa sheria zetu! Nimelazimika kuanzisha uzi huu ili kuondoa mapungufu yote hayo.

Tuendelee.

Bila kujaza vifungu vingi, Katiba yetu Ibara ya 144 (1) inasema wazi kwamba:-
Controller and Auditor-General of the United Republic shall be obliged to vacate office upon attaining the age of sixty or any other age which shall be prescribed by a law enacted by Parliament.
Kwamba, CAG ATALAZIMIKA kuachia ofisi akifikisha miaka 60 au umri mwingine wowote utakaotajwa na sheria zilizotengenezwa na Bunge!

SWALI 1: Je, Profesa Mussa Assad amefikisha miaka 60?! Jibu HAPANA kwa sababu kumbukumbu zinaonesha amezaliwa Oktoba 06, 1961... kwa maana nyingine, atafikisha miaka 60 Oktoba 5, 2021.

SWALI 2: Je, Bunge limetaja huo UMRI MWINGINE WOWOTE?!

Jibu linapatikana kwenye Sheria ya Ukaguzi wa Hesabu za Umma, yaani Public Audit Act ya mwaka 2008, Ibara ya 6(2)(a) inayosema:-
Unless the question of removal becomes the subject of investigation in terms of Article 144(3) of the Constitution, the Controller and Auditor-General shall vacate office upon attaining the age of sixty five years;
Kumbe, Bunge likatunga sheria kwamba badala ya miaka 60, hatimae CAG ATALAZIMIKA kuachia ofisi akifikisha miaka 65. Tumeona Prof Assad ndo kwanza ana miaka 58.

SWALI 3: Nini hutokea CAG akimaliza miaka 5 ya kwanza?!

Hapa tena jibu linapatikana kutoka Public Audit Act 2008 Ibara ya 6 (1) inayosema:-
The Controller and Auditor-General shall hold office for the fixed term of five years and shall be eligible for renewal for one term only.
Hapo kwenye neno SHALL ndipo panapozua mgogoro!!

Watetezi wa uamuzi wa Rais wanasema neno SHALL sio shuruti! Kwa bahati mbaya sana, tafsiri yao wanaitoa kichwani na sio kwa mujibu wa sheria zetu!

Kwa mujibu wa sheria zetu, na kwa kuangalia Interpretation of Laws Act Ibara ya 53 (1&2) inasema kwamba:-
(1) Where in a written law the word "may" is used in conferring a power, such word shall be interpreted to imply that the power so conferred may be exercised or not, at discretion.

(2) Where in a written law the word
"shall" is used in conferring a function, such word shall be interpreted to mean that the function so conferred must be performed.
Kumbe, kwa mujibu wa sheria zetu, pasipo na SHURUTI hutumika neno MAY lakini linapotumika neno SHALL, hiyo ni SHURUTI!

Kwa maana nyingine, Public Audit Act inaposema "...and shall be eligible for renewal for one term only. Hapo suala la renewal ni SHURUTI kama ilivyosema Interpretation of Laws Act 53 (2).

Itakuwa sio SHURUTI either kama ameshafikisha miaka 65, au kama ambavyo 2008 Public Audit Act Ibara ya 6(2)(a) inavyosema kwamba:-
Unless the question of removal becomes the subject of investigation in terms of Article 144(3) of the Constitution, the Controller and Auditor-General shall vacate office upon attaining the age of sixty five years;
Kwa maana nyingine, kwavile Prof Assad hajafikisha miaka 65, hapo tafsiri yake ni kwamba AMETUMBULIWA na sio kwamba muda wake umeisha!!

Na CAG atatumbuliwa "...Unless the question of removal becomes the subject of investigation in terms of Article 144(3) of the Constitution."

Hiyo Ibara ya 144(3) ya Katiba yetu inasemaje? Jibu ni hili:-If the President considers that the question of the removal of the Controller and Auditor-General from office under the provisions of this Article needs to be investigated, then the procedure shall be as follows:
(a) the President shall appoint a Special Tribunal which shall consist of a Chairman and not less than two other members. The Chairman and at least half of the other members of that Special Tribunal shall be persons who are or have been Judges of the High Court or of the Court of Appeal in any country within the Commonwealth;
Kama tulivyoona hapo juu, CAG atalazimika kuachia ofisi endapo atakuwa amefikisha miaka 65, kinyume chake anaweza KUTUMBULIWA kabla ya huo umri ikiwa ametenda jambo linalohitaji investigation.

Hivyo basi, ni ama Rais atengue uamuzi wake wa awali wa kuteua CAG mwingine, au tuone akiunda Tume ya Kijaji ya Kumchunguza CAG kwa kosa analojua yeye na timu yake!!

CAG akiongezewa miaka mingine 5, ataimaliza akiwa na umri wa miaka 63... umri halali kwa mujibu wa Sheria ya Ukaguzi wa Hesabu za Umma ya mwaka 2008!![/QUOTE]


Aliyewahi kuwa Mkurugenzi wa FBI nchini Marekani, James Comey, ameandika katika kitabu chake A HIGHER LOYALTY maneno ya kuleta tafakuri kubwa. Amendika _“it is very hard to leave a group of people who are committed only to doing the right thing”_. Alikuwa anaeleza ugumu wanaopata watu waadilifu katika utumishi wa umma kutenda mambo kwa kufata sheria na taratibu. Mara nyingi hujikuta wapo peke yao. Athari ya wanayokutana nayo ni kuzidisha hofu kwa wengine wenye ujasiri na hatimaye kuendelea kuporomoka kwa maadili ya utendaji wa umma.

Katika hili la CAG, imeonyesha wazi kwamba wanasheria katika ngazi mbali mbali hawakutimiza wajibu wao.

Ibara ya 144 ya Katiba ya Jamhuri ya Muungano imeeleza wazi kama ifuatavyo:

*_"144 (1) bila ya kuathiri masharti mengine yaliyomo katika ibara hii, Mdhibiti na Mkaguzi Mkuu wa Hesabu za Jamhuri ya Muungano atalazimika kuacha kazi yake atakapotimiza umri wa miaka siti au umri mwingine wowote utakaotajwa na Sheria iliyotungwa na Bunge”_*

*_“(2) Mdhibiti na Mkaguzi Mkuu wa Hesabu aweza tu kuondolewa katika madaraka ya kazi yake kwa sababu ya kushindwa kutekeleza kazi zake(ama kutokana na maradhi au sababu nyingine yoyote) au kwa sababu ya tabia mbaya, au kwa kuvunja masharti ya Sheria ya Maadili ya Viongozi wa Umma, na hataweza kuondolewa kazini ila kwa mujibu wa masharti ya ibara ndogo ya [4] ya ibara hii”_*

Ibara hiyo ya Katiba inaeleza wazi kwamba umri wa kuacha kazi wa Mdhibiti na Mkaguzi Mkuu ni miaka 60. Hata hivyo Bunge limepewa uwezo wa kubadili umri na sio muda wa kazi wa Mdhibiti na Mkaguzi. Ni kanuni ya msingi ya kutafsiri sheria kwamba neno linapokuwa na maana mahsusi, haliwezi kutaftiwa tafsiri nyengine mbadala inayopingana na maana mahsusi ya neno hilo. Ibara ya
144 (1) ilikusudia kuweka umri wa kustaafu wa Mdhibiti na Mkaguzi Mkuu kama ulivyowekwa umri wa kustaafu wa Majaji chini ya ibara ya 110 ya Katiba ambao nao ni miaka 60.

Ibara ya 144 haitoi mwanya kwa Bunge kutunga Sheria ya kuweka muda wa kuendelea na kazi kwa Mdhibiti na Mkaguzi Mkuu wa Hesabu ambao utamfanya aondolewe kazini kabla ya muda uliowekwa na Katiba au kuongezwa na Sheria [miaka 65].
Hili linathibitishwa zaidi na ibara ya 144 (6) ya Katiba inayosema:

*_“ Mtu ambaye ni Mdhibiti na Mkaguzi Mkuu wa Hesabu au aliyepata kuwa Mdhibiti na Mkaguzi Mkuu wa Hesabu hawezi kuteuliwa kushika au kushikilia madaraka ya kazi nyingine yoyote katika utumishi wa Serikali ya Jamhuri ya Muungano”_*

Kwa ibara hiyo, Profesa Musa Assad hawezi hata kukaimu nafasi yoyote katika utumishi wa umma, na hivyo atakuwa amestaafishwa katika utumishi wa umma kabla ya umri wa kustaafu. Hakuna kiumbe cha namna hiyo katika utumishi wa umma. Ikitokea hivyo, tafsiri sahihi ni kuwa mtu huyo amefukuzwa au kukatishwa utumishi wake. Na hilo, ni batili ya wazi kwa vile inakiuka masharti ya ibara ya 144(2) na (3) ya Katiba.

Sheria au tafsiri inayotoa mwanya kwa Mdhibiti na Mkaguzi Mkuu wa Hesabu kuondolewa kabla ya kufikisha umri wa kustaafu kisheria na kwa matakwa ya Rais bila ya kufuata masharti ya wazi ya utaratibu wa kumuondoa kabla ya kufikiksha umri wa kustaafu chini ya ibara ya 144(3) na (4), inavunja msingi wa kinga ya kikatiba [security of tenure].

Inasikitisha sana unapoona wanasheria katika mazingira kama haya, ambapo kuna mgongano baina ya Katiba na Sheria, wanaanza kutafsiri Sheria kuipindua Katiba na sio kutafisiri Katiba ili kuipindua Sheria inayopingana na Katiba kama inavyoelekezwa na ibara ya 64(5) ya Katiba ya Jamhuri ya Muungano.

Mwanasheria yeyote aliyemshauri Rais kumuondoa Mdhibiti na Mkaguzi Mkuu wa Hesabu za Serikali kwa kutumia Sheria inayoweka masharti ya vipindi bila kuzingatia masharti ya wazi ya ibara ya 144(1) ya Katiba amemkosea sana Rais, amewakosea sana Watanzania na ameifedhehesha sana taaluma ya Sheria.

Fedheha kubwa zaidi kwa taaluma ya sheria ni pale wanasheria watapoanza kutofautiana katika kutafsiri masharti hayo ya wazi ya Katiba kwa itikadi au mirengo ya kisiasa au kwa baadhi kufanya hivyo kwa kupotosha ili kumfurahisha mteuzi.

Athari ya jambo hili haitokuwa kwa Profesa Mussa Assad. Athari kubwa ni katika mfumo wetu wa kikatiba, utawala wa sheria na matumizi ya mamlaka ya umma.

Zaidi soma:

 

Careem

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Zile posts 5 za juu za executives, CDF, Director wa TISS, Director wa PCCB, IGP na CAG, baada ya utumishi wa ngazi, haruhusiwi kuhudumu kwenye executive position yoyote.
P
Kwa hili mkuu sidhani kama kuna ukweli, au sijamakinika mimi. Ila mbona aliyekuwa CDF Jenerali Mwamunyange baada ya kustaafu ameteuliwa kuwa Mwenyekiti wa bodi Dawasco, au mwenyekiti wa bodi sio Executive??
 

Chige

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Lame. There was absolutely no justification for you getting personal with me.

I wasn’t relying on my personal understanding of English vocabularies. That is just your own preconception.

You just had to throw that personal dig. You couldn’t help it!!!

Oh well, whatever floats your boat and gives you hope. I’ll let it slide.
You were... because as I said earlier, you never provided any reference to support your argument. So, it's your personal judgment based on your personal English use!

Oh yes you can. Unless you don’t know how to say it.

That language can easily be tightened.

Once all other eligibility factors have been met, age included, I don’t see why I can’t say the tenure shall be renewed
You can but you must add more phrases unnecessarily! When you read a sentence with "...shall be eligible" the statement is fully explainable that, there're some eligibility requirements that need to be met.

In contrary, when you say "...shall be renewed", you must add more phrases like "...subject to other provisions of this article/act". Then a reader will be aware that the renewal is conditional!
You are wrong. If all other eligibility factors/ conditions have been met, age included, why can’t you say the CAG’s tenure ‘shall be renewed’.

Sorry, you are wrong on this one. Your reasoning just doesn’t cut it.
More often than not, these eligibility criteria are being outlined in different articles, and sometimes different acts, let alone the possibility of being mentioned in the constitution.

It's from that fact, that's why you can't use a hard sentence/phrase like "...shall be renewed" without adding other phrase like the one above; subject to...!!!
What??

You’re just not making any sense.

Figuring out someone’s age is not rocket science. It’s simple arithmetic.

I repeat, if all eligibility conditions have been met, including age, which can be figured out by subtraction, the language can be tightened instead of leaving a wrinke that adds another meaning to it.
It's not about figuring someone's age but it's about eligibility requirements which are also not static... they can be changed at any time, or some more criteria may also be added!
 

Chige

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Katiba imefanyiwa marekebesho na Raisi hivi sasa na itasema kuwa;

"HAKUNA ALIYEPEWA UWEZO WA KUTEUA AKANYIMWA WA KUTENGUA"

Kwa maana hiyo hata Chief Justice anaweza kutenguliwa tu.
Kapewa uwezo wa kutengua lakini pia kapewa taratibu za kutengua! Na kwa maana hiyo, sio tu CJ bali Jaji yeyote ingawaje Rais amepewa mamlaka ya kumtumbua lakini amewekewa utaratibu wa kumtumbua... na utaratibu huo ndo ule wa kumuundia tume dhidi ya tuhuma alizonazo rais dhidi ya muhusika!

Alternatively, labda amtake ajihudhuru! The problem with kumtaka ajihudhuru, muhusika anaweza kugoma na usimfanye chochote zaidi ya kurejea sheria inataka nini ili kumwondoa!
 

Chige

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Chige

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Hahahaa.

Naona kinachomsumbua ni uelewa tu wa lugha ya Kiingereza.
Look at you... yale yale, ingawaje ulijifanya kukana nilipokuambia hoja zako zime-base kwenye beliefs kwamba unajua Kiingereza!!!

Kuna siku utakuja kubishana hadi na Quantum Physicist wa Kirusi kuhusu masuala ya quantum mechanics kwa sababu tu mada husika imeandikwa kwa Kiingereza!!!
 

Chige

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Umetumia muda mwingi sana kukopi na kukatakata bila substance yoyote. Eligibility siyo kustahili ni kuwa na sifa. Assad ni eligible kuwa CAG kwa miaka mitano mingine na so Charles naye ni eligible kuwa CAG kwa miaka mitano ijayo. Sheria ingetaka astahili kuendelea miaka mingine mitano ingesema and shall deserve ..., ambayo pia bado haitoi guarantee kuwa ataendelea. Kama sheria ingetaka aendelee kwa vipindi viwili, ingesema explicitly kuwa
The Controller and Auditor-General shall hold office for two fixed terms of five years each.

Mengine yote uliyoandika ni projo tu; hakuna substance yoyote; sheria iko wazi kabisa.
Wow! Seems umekuwa disappointed baada ya kuamini sijasoma katiba na ukakuta nimekuwekea vifungu vya katiba!!! Unajua kwanini unaona nimekatakakata bila substance yoyote kama ulivyodai?! The difference between me, and you guys ni kwamba wakati nyinyi mnaongea kwa kutoa kichwani, kwa kawaida, sio kwa mjadala huu tu, huwa siandiki bila kutoa reference to support my argument.

All in all, naomba unijibu swali ambalo nimekuuliza mara mbili lakini hutaki kujibu! Toa mifano hai ya ku-support madai yako kwamba Prof Assad alikuwa anatumia madaraka yake ku-favor vyama fulani vya siasa!!!
Kilio kingi hapa ni kwa sababu jamaa alikuwa ni political na akawa ana propagate mawazo ya vyama fulani hata pale data ziliku siyo upande wake. Ukipitia ripoti zote alizotoa miaka mitatu iliyopita zote ziko clean, lakini akisha kuwa mbele ya maikrofoni tu anaanza kutunga ngonjera.
 

Kichuguu

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Wow! Seems umekuwa disappointed baada ya kuamini sijasoma katiba na ukakuta nimekuwekea vifungu vya katiba!!! Unajua kwanini unaona nimekatakakata bila substance yoyote kama ulivyodai?! The difference between me, and you guys ni kwamba wakati nyinyi mnaongea kwa kutoa kichwani, kwa kawaida, sio kwa mjadala huu tu, huwa siandiki bila kutoa reference to support my argument.

All in all, naomba unijibu swali ambalo nimekuuliza mara mbili lakini hutaki kujibu! Toa mifano hai ya ku-support madai yako kwamba Prof Assad alikuwa anatumia madaraka yake ku-favor vyama fulani vya siasa!!!
no kama unasoma basi ama unasoma ukiwa na mindset Fulani au unasoma lakini huelewi unachosoma.

inaelekea unaposoma katiba hujui kuwa iliacha open bunge kutunga sheria kuhusu CAG na sheria iliyopo ni ile ya hesabu za serikali ya mwak 2008. ndiyo maana katiba inasema ukomo wa CAG kiumri ni miaka 60 lakini sheria ya bunge inasema miaka 65. huo ni ukomo kiumri, lakini pia sheria utumishi wa CAG ni kipindi cha miaka mitano, baada ya hapo anaweza kuongezewa kipindi kingine cha miaka mitano ambapo baada ya hapo hawezi kuendelea tena. kifungu hicho kiko kama ilivyo kwa vipindi vya uraisi. kama magufuli asipochaguliwa tena 2020 hawezi kulalamika kuwa katiba imevunjwa. kuendelea kipindi cha pili siyo automatic.

hilo swali bold nalo linaonyesha kuwa unaposoma post nyingine hap pia huzielewi badala yake unazitafsiri kijuujuu tu
 

General Mangi

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General Mangi

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So, what is the point of a five year contract?
Point ya miaka mitano ni kuweka ukomo wa kustaafu.
Pengine mtu alikuwa na miaka 59, alafu akateuliwa kuwa CAG, automatiki atamaliza kipindi cha miaka 5 akiwa na miaka 64.

Sasa hapo Rais hawezi kumpa mkataba mwingine kwa kuwa tayari umri uliotafsiriwa na sheria/ katiba ni miaka 65.
 

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Point ya miaka mitano ni kuweka ukomo wa kustaafu.
Pengine mtu alikuwa na miaka 59, alafu akateuliwa kuwa CAG, automatiki atamaliza kipindi cha miaka 5 akiwa na miaka 64.

Sasa hapo Rais hawezi kumpa mkataba mwingine kwa kuwa tayari umri uliotafsiriwa na sheria/ katiba ni miaka 65.
Katiba inapingana na habari hizi za miaka mitano.

Inasema kama CAG hajaumwa, hajajiuzulu na hajaundiwa jopo la kumtoa, hakuna namna nyingine ya kumtoa.

Habari za CAG kuondolewa baada ya miaka mitano ni kinyume na katiba.
 

Chige

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no kama unasoma basi ama unasoma ukiwa na mindset Fulani au unasoma lakini huelewi unachosoma.

inaelekea unaposoma katiba hujui kuwa iliacha open bunge kutunga sheria kuhusu CAG na sheria iliyopo ni ile ya hesabu za serikali ya mwak 2008. ndiyo maana katiba inasema ukomo wa CAG kiumri ni miaka 60 lakini sheria ya bunge inasema miaka 65. huo ni ukomo kiumri, lakini pia sheria utumishi wa CAG ni kipindi cha miaka mitano, baada ya hapo anaweza kuongezewa kipindi kingine cha miaka mitano ambapo baada ya hapo hawezi kuendelea tena. kifungu hicho kiko kama ilivyo kwa vipindi vya uraisi. kama magufuli asipochaguliwa tena 2020 hawezi kulalamika kuwa katiba imevunjwa. kuendelea kipindi cha pili siyo automatic.

hilo swali bold nalo linaonyesha kuwa unaposoma post nyingine hap pia huzielewi badala yake unazitafsiri kijuujuu tu
Jibu swali, manake hakuna kipya ulichoandika kipya!!
 

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lembu

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Kwa maana nyingine, Public Audit Act inaposema "...and shall be eligible for renewal for one term only. Hapo suala la renewal ni SHURUTI kama ilivyosema Interpretation of Laws Act 53 (2).





Zaidi soma:

Umemislead watu
Shall inashurutisha eligibility na sio renewal
Ukiisha weka eligibility maana yake anaweza pewa mkataba mwingine au asipewe
Neno au phrase ya "shall be eligible for renewal for one term only" ina maana sawa na "May be reappointed"
Kama hiyo sentensi ingekuwa na maana uliyotaja kusingekwua na maana ya kuphrase kwa naman hiyo badala yake ingeandikwa tu hivi
"shall be re-appointed for one term only" kitu ambacho haikukusudiwa hivyo
Nenda kaboreshe kimombo chako ndugu
 

Chige

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Chige

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Umemislead watu
Shall inashurutisha eligibility na sio renewal
Ukiisha weka eligibility maana yake anaweza pewa mkataba mwingine au asipewe
Neno au phrase ya "shall be eligible for renewal for one term only" ina maana sawa na "May be reappointed"
Kama hiyo sentensi ingekuwa na maana uliyotaja kusingekwua na maana ya kuphrase kwa naman hiyo badala yake ingeandikwa tu hivi
"shall be re-appointed for one term only" kitu ambacho haikukusudiwa hivyo
Nenda kaboreshe kimombo chako ndugu
Again... kaboreshe kimombo wakati hapa tunazungumzia sheria, na ndio maana umeshindwa kuoanisha ibara mbili tofauti kwenye mada na kujikita kwenye ibara moja huku ukisahau mimi nimeweka ibara mbili!

Ni kutokana na umuhimu wa ibara mbili tofauti, ndio maana hata Profesa Shivj na mwenyewe alikiri kwamba mwanzoni alikuwa amechemka kwa sababu alitumia ibara moja tu:-
Shivji.png


Ila kwa watu aina yako, sitashangaa ukimbishia hata Shivji kwa hoja ya Viingereza vyenu mlivyojifunzia ukubwani wakati mjadala hapa ni wa kisheria!!

Halafu angalia unavyojichanganya mwenyewe! Unasema "Shall inashurutisha eligibility" halafu tena unasema "Ukishaweka eligibility maana yake anaweza pewa." Shurutisha = Anaweza?
 

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