Siasa za Mafuta na Gesi: A Performance Audit Report On Produced Graduates in Oil and Natural Gas Industry in Tanzania

Meneja Wa Makampuni

JF-Expert Member
Jul 7, 2020

All personnel either directly or indirectly employed by International Oil and Natural Gas companies have to meet certain professional standards and levels of qualifications. Therefore, there is a need to invest in the education system for the purpose of developing the required human capital. Unfortunately, the education and training system in Tanzania has not been able to supply the required skills in the oil and natural gas sector.

The reality is that Tanzania faces a serious gap between the skills the economy needs and the skills delivered by the education system. Actually the limited capacity on the part of Learning Institutions in Tanzania to meet the demands of skills needed is considered to be the challenge facing the Oil and Natural Gas sector in the country. Currently, the technical part of oil and natural gas industry is mainly practiced by the foreign experts through the International oil companies.

The establishment of the National Oil Company (NOC) through the Petroleum Act 2015 should have been an eye opener on the need of enhancing the required skills and ensure that the company is staffed with the majority of the local experts. However, this goal has not yet been fulfilled.

The overall objective of the audit was to assess whether the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology has the mechanism in place to ensure the number and quality of graduates produced meet the needs established in the Oil and natural Gas Industry.

The objective was responded by focusing on whether the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology has a system to ensure; the produced graduates are of the required quality and number needed; and assessing if the Learning Institutions in the country have the capacity to produce the skills needed in the Oil and natural Gas Industry.

The audit focused mainly on planning, implementation of plans and monitoring and supervision activities by the Ministry of Education to the learning institutions. The audit used criteria from laws and regulations, policies, strategies, plans and good practices. The audit covered the period from 2011/12 to 2015/16. The audit further assessed Tanzania Commission for Universities, National Council for Technical Education and Learning Institutions with programs related to preparing Tanzanians to engage in the natural gas value chain process.

Ineffective system for managing activities for producing skills needed in oil and gas

The plans developed by the Ministry of Education were found not to be effective. This was due to inadequate planning and implementation of activities for producing skills.

Skills need analysis was not done effectively and efficiently, despite being an important prerequisite in the planning process as a result some of important skills needed were left.

The Ministry of Education did not adequately involve actors from the private sector such as oil companies in preparing and implementation of plans.

Lack of effective coordination mechanism made each stakeholder to work separately without involving the Ministry of Education, especially on the issues of building capacity in Oil and natural Gas. Hence developed plans failed to capture the needed skills in the Oil and natural Gas industry.

There are Limited funds provided to Universities and Colleges. Funds allocated to support skills production activities were inadequate.

Further the funds released for skills enhancement activities were less than the approved budget. As a result, several important educational activities in the learning institutions were not implemented. This hinders the production of required skilled personnel needed in the oil and natural Gas industry in line with the plans.

Inadequate Monitoring and Evaluation of activities for producing needed skills

The Ministry of Education did not conduct adequate monitoring and evaluation on skills enhancement activities.

Ministry of Education, National Council for Technical Education and Tanzania Commission for Universities did not conduct regular monitoring of skills enhancement activities.

Further Ministry of Education did not report on performance of planned strategic activities.

Inadequate allocation of resources and monitoring tools hindered the monitoring activities of Ministry of Education, National Council for Technical Education and Tanzania Commission for Universities.

Existing Curricula in Universities and Colleges in Tanzania did not meet the Demand of the Industry

The curricula developed did not really cover the issues of oil and natural gas in detail.

Curricula are missing some important courses such as health and safety which are crucial for one to be employed in the Oil and natural Gas industry.

The gaps in the developed curricula were the results of inadequate involvement of all stakeholders in the preparation of curricula and failure of learning Institution to review the curricula.

Inadequate number of trainers with competency in Oil and natural Gas issues

Learning institutions did not have sufficient number of trainers who are capable to deliver oil and natural gas education as a result learning Institutions use part time trainers.

Trainers available are not updated with technology as they lack regular trainings.

Also it was revealed that most trainers are not specialized in oil and gas matters and they lack practical experience.

Insufficient training facilities to assist practical training.

The learning institutions did not have adequate training infrastructures such as laboratories; laboratory equipment and tools for conducting practical training.

The available laboratories have limited space to accommodate all students.

Also, there were shortage of reference books and scientific equipment e.g. Simulators.

Further, it was noted that the willingness of the oil and gas industries to provide practical experience through field attachment was low. As a results graduate lack practical aspect as required.

The overall conclusion of this audit is that the Ministry of Education has ineffective systems for managing the activities aimed at the production of needed skills in the Oil and Gas Industry.

Likewise the Learning Institutions have inadequate capacity to produce skills needed in the Oil and natural Gas Industry.

As result limited number of Tanzanians will benefit from the available opportunities emanating from Oil and natural Gas industry activities; regardless of the existing policies that call for education system to be responsive to the ever changing needs of people, government, industry, market and surrounding environment.

The audit recommends that the Ministry of Education Science and Technology should:

1. Prepare a comprehensive plan that governs the activities pertaining to skills enhancement. The plan produced should be effectively communicated and understood by the responsible stakeholders such as learning institutions, regulators and other
sectoral ministries who have roles in skills development in oil and natural gas sector;

2. Establish proper coordination and communication mechanism to all actors involved either directly or indirectly in the oil and gas industry. The mechanism should assist in identifying various skills in terms of number and quality that are needed in the Oil and natural Gas industry before developing strategies relating to skills enhancement in the Oil and natural Gas industry;

3. Develop system that will incorporate needs and views of various education stakeholders who have direct impact on the issues related to skills enhancement in the Oil and natural Gas industry in the country;

4. Ensure there is a sustainable funding mechanism for implementing Oil and natural Gas related education in both
Universities and colleges offering programmes/courses relating to Oil and Natural Gas issues;

5. Develop monitoring mechanisms with clear and well stated performance criteria that will guide monitoring and evaluation of
its activities effectively and efficiently;

6. Ensure that Tanzania Commission for Universities and National Council for Technical Education have in place effective tracking mechanism to ensure curricula of the Learning Institutions are effectively developed to cover all skills needed at each level of oil and natural gas value chain. The curricula should be reviewed and updated timely;

7. Ensure Learning Institutions have training facilities such as equipped laboratories, chemical and consumables, simulators,
teaching aids and adequate teaching capacity for providing training on Oil and natural Gas sector. Learning Institutions should be equipped with all necessary tools to ensure practical activities are conducted effectively; and

8. Ensure Learning Institutions’ programs facilitate adequate practical training to students.


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JF-Expert Member
Dec 15, 2013
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