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Scientists crack 20-year Aids puzzle that could revolutionise latest HIV medicines.

Discussion in 'JF Doctor' started by Sonara, Feb 3, 2010.

  1. Sonara

    Sonara JF-Expert Member

    Feb 3, 2010
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    Scientists crack 20-year Aids puzzle that could revolutionise latest HIV medicines

    By Daily Mail Reporter
    Last updated at 3:26 PM on 01st February 2010
    Scientists say they have solved a crucial puzzle about the Aids virus after 20 years of research and that their findings could lead to better treatments for HIV.
    British and U.S. researchers said they have grown a crystal that enabled them to see the structure of an enzyme called integrase. The enzyme is found in retroviruses like HIV and is a target for some of the newest HIV medicines.
    It took more than 40,000 trials for them to come up with one a crystal of sufficiently high quality to allow them to see the three-dimensional structure.


    Scientists performed more than 40,000 trials before they came up with a high-quality crystal of enzyme integrase. It is found in viruses like HIV (right)

    'Despite initially painstakingly slow progress and very many failed attempts, we did not give up and our effort was finally rewarded,' said co-researcher Peter Cherepanov of Imperial College London.
    Scientists from Imperial and Harvard university said that having the integrase structure means researchers can begin fully to understand how integrase inhibitor drugs work, how they might be improved, and how to stop HIV developing resistance to them.
    Jason Warriner, Clinical Director for Terrence Higgins Trust, said: 'This is a step in the right direction. All of these things add to our knowledge, and hopefully this will lead to new and better treatments, but we're still a long way off the final answer.

    'The only way we will get there is by sustained investment in HIV research.'

    When the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infects someone, it uses the integrase enzyme to paste a copy of its genetic information into their DNA.

    Some new drugs for HIV - like Isentress from Merck & Co - work by blocking integrase, but scientists are not clear exactly how they work or how to improve them.
    The only way to find out was to obtain high-quality crystals - a project that had defeated scientists for many years.
    'We went back to square one and started by looking for a better model of HIV integrase which could be more amenable for crystallization,' Cherepanov said.

    The researchers grew a crystal using a version of integrase borrowed from another retrovirus very similar to its HIV counterpart.
    They tested the Merck and experimental Gilead drugs on the crystals, and were able to see for the first time how the medicines bind to, and block, integrase.
    An estimated 63,500 adults aged over 15 were living with HIV in the UK by the end of 2005. Of these, one third did not know they were infected.
    Worldwide almost 60 million people have been infected with HIV and 25 million have died of HIV-related causes since the beginning of the AIDS epidemic. There is no cure and no vaccine, although drug cocktails can keep patients healthy.
    United Nations data for 2008 show that 33.4 million people had HIV and 2 million people died of AIDS. The worst-affected region is sub-Saharan Africa, accounting for 67 percent of all people living with HIV.
    The study was published in the Nature journal yesterday.

    How HIV and Aids developed

    [​IMG] Ronald Reagan, pictured here in 1984, did not mention Aids publicly until 1986. He apologised for neglecting the epidemic in 1990

    1884-1924: HIV transfers to humans from chimps in Africa

    1966: HIV reaches Haiti

    Mid 1970s: Aids enters America

    1981: First official cases are diagnosed in the U.S. among five gay men

    1982: The name 'Aids' is created. Illness is reported in several European countries

    Terry Higgins dies at St Thomas' Hospital in the UK. The Terry Higgins Trust is set up

    1983: French scientists find the virus HIV. Aids is reported among non-drug using women and children

    1985: An HIV test is licensed for screening blood supplies

    1986: President Reagan mentions Aids in public for the first time

    The World Health Organisation (WHO) launches its global AIDS strategy

    1987: AZT is the first drug approved for treating AIDS

    1988: Health ministers meet to discuss AIDS and establish World Aid's Day

    1990: Around eight million people are living with Aids

    [​IMG] Freddie Mercury, who died at the age of 45, was a high profile victim of Aids

    1991: Freddie Mercury, lead singer of Queen, dies of an Aids-related illness

    1993: AZT is shown to be of no benefit to those in the early stages of HIV infection

    1994: AZT is shown to reduce the risk of mother to child transmission of HIV

    1995-6: Combination antiretroviral treatment is shown to be highly effective against HIV

    1997: Around 22million people living with Aids
    Aids deaths begin to decline in developed countries, due to the new drugs. In developing countries only a minority can access drugs

    2001: UK government launches the first national strategy for sexual health and HIV

    2002: The Global Fund is established to boost the response to AIDS, TB and malaria.

    Globally HIV is leading cause of death of those aged 15-59

    Aids drugs become more affordable for developing countries.

    2003: The first Aids vaccine candidate to undergo a major trial is found to be ineffective.

    T-20 (Fuzeon), the first in a new class of anti-HIV drugs called “fusion inhibitors” is licensed for use in advanced HIV in Europe and the USA

    2004: THT opens an HIV testing clinic in London that offers test results in one hour

    Truvada, a once-daily combination tablet containing two anti-HIV drugs, is licensed in the EU

    The FDA in the U.S approves a salive-based Aids test. Results within 20 minutes are over 99% accurate. Introduced in UK in 2009

    2006: Circumcision is shown to reduce HIV infection among heterosexual men.

    2007: Another major HIV vaccine trial is halted after preliminary results show no benefit.

    First one pill a day HIV medication Atripla is approved by EU
    2008: Around 33million people are living with Aids

    2009: Reports of a German HIV-positive man having his HIV 'cured' after receiving a bone marrow transplant from a donor with a genetic mutation that appears to protect against HIV.

  2. Kiranga

    Kiranga JF-Expert Member

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    Wabongo kwenye topics muhimu kama hizi huwapati, ungeweka Jerry Muro au Kova au Kikwete au ufisadi kwenye kichwa aaaah, wangejazana hapa kama nzi kwenye soko la samaki.

    Ahsante sana, natumai tutapata dawa au chanjo katika miaka michache ijayo.
  3. Saint Ivuga

    Saint Ivuga JF-Expert Member

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    rate ya mbmbukizi naoni kubwa. sipati picha world with aids treatment. hope wanasayansi watafanikiwa
  4. Naumia

    Naumia Member

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    Good article...Thanks for posting. Let’s hope they are on the right path in finding the cure.
  5. Bigirita

    Bigirita JF-Expert Member

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    Labda wamefurahishwa na topic lakini hawana cha kuchangia.
    Remeber that health profession is not something to mess with. Thats why we have jf drs bu no jf politicians.
    If tou knoe waht i mean. - of which i know u know.
  6. M

    Mayolela JF-Expert Member

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    that good article at all,we have to contributee as much as we can ,around 33 million are living with Hiv.Big up sonara.
  7. b

    bitimkongwe JF-Expert Member

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    My comments:
    Iliruka vipi kutoka Afrika mpaka Haiti?

    Nilisoma kwamba the zero patient alikuwa Mfaransa (gay) na alianza kuumwa alipokuwa kwenye ndege akirudi nyumbani kutoka holidays in Haiti (1981?)

    High profile victim wa kwanza alikuwa ni actor Rock Hudson aliefariki 1985. Freddy Mercury alifariki baadae.

    Kwa wale ambao hawafahamu historia ya Freddy Mercury alizaliwa Zanzibar.
  8. Sikonge

    Sikonge JF-Expert Member

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    Mzee wa Tigo yuko wapi?

    Kijana njoo ushushe shule.......
  9. lm317

    lm317 JF-Expert Member

    Feb 3, 2010
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    Kweli wazungu hawakati tamaa!
    Sisi Wabongo hatuwezi kujaribu kitu mara zote hizo. Haraka twakata tamaa na kutafuta majibu rahisi kwa maswali magumu.
    hatufai hata kuwasindikiza wenzetu katika karne hii ya Sayansi na Teknolojia
  10. B

    Boney E.M. JF-Expert Member

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    Pamoja na jitihada zote hizo swali ninalojiuliza itakuwaje siku hiyo wakitangaza kuwa dawa ya HIV/AIDS imepatikana? Sipati picha...hebu niwazueni wana JF...
  11. Modereta

    Modereta Senior Member

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    Nasi JF tujenge utamaduni wa kufanya tafiti na wale wasio wataaluma katika hiyo wa FINANCE hizo research, Kuchangia JF tu shida tutachangia tafiti zenye majaribio 40,000???
    Basi tuanze kuhamasishana kuwa UTAFITI NI MUHIMU kwa maendeleo lakini pia UTAFITI UNA GHARAMA KUBWA na utashindwa mara 39,999 ndipo ufanikiwe mara ya 40,000.
  12. Dark City

    Dark City JF-Expert Member

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    Kwani HIV/AIDS imezuia nini? Kuna guest inakosa wateja kweli?

    Ni jambo zuri kwamba angalau matumaini yanaanza kuonekana. Kuna jamaa ambaye alikuwa karibu anakata roho uko USA mwaka 1998, lakini alipoanza kutumai ARV alipata nafuu na sasa anaendelea na shughuli zake. Kuimaliza HIV inawezekana. Tatizo ni kuwa hili gonjwa limekuwa linawasumbua Waafrika zaidi na ndiyo maana hakukuwa na pesa za kutosha kufanya utafiti ukilinganisha na kansa!
  13. Modereta

    Modereta Senior Member

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    We Acha tu, wengine wanafurahia TIBA wengine wanafurahia uhuru utakaopatikana, tujipe POLE jamii nzima

  14. Dark City

    Dark City JF-Expert Member

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    Msg sent and delivered.
  15. M

    Mshangaaji Member

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    Ni habari ya kutia moyo kuhusu cracking ya Aids puzzle lakini cracking ya chanzo cha AIDS nayo naona kama pia ni puzzle

    lakini Dr. Boyd Graves anatuleza vingine nenda
  16. Baba_Enock

    Baba_Enock JF-Expert Member

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    UFISADI NA RUSHWA vinaua wa-Tanzania wengi kuliko AIDS/HIV! Ndiyo maana wanakomaa sana kwenye Ufisadi/Rushwa related thread(s).
  17. T

    Tiger JF-Expert Member

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    Kwa kweli hii imenigusa sana.
    Asante mkuu.
  18. b

    bitimkongwe JF-Expert Member

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    Halafu munasema Wamarekani hawawezi kutengeneza artificial earthquake?
  19. Masanilo

    Masanilo JF-Expert Member

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    These kind of findings and others will only pave away for better understanding of the virus. Still far from vaccine, integrase naturally is highly polymorphic and mutations on it is associated with integrase inhibitor resistance.

    Crystallography structure of HIV-1 integrase protein will only shade some light on the pathology of this deadly virus. Vaccine bado sana maana hii protein ina play a central role kwenye kuambikiza huyu virus lakini vaccine itakayoilenga haitaweza fanya kazi kwa watu wote sababu ya variability yake among individuals.

    Identifying conserved target by Epitope Mapping within HIV genome is a nightmare

    Kumbukeni pia HIV has one of the highest mutation rates known, resulting in a virus with significant genetic diversity on its vital genes (pol, gag and env) is a major impediment toward vaccine development. Even if vaccine is proven effective for a specific subtype or clade, it is uncertain that the protection would extend to other strains within the clade and across different clades within even same subtype.

    Endeleeni kujikinga na kucheza salama HIV vaccine bado sana............!


    Antivir Ther. 2007;12(4):563-70

    J Antimicrob Chemother. 2008, 62(5):914-20
  20. N

    Nguruwe Pori New Member

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    "Si unajua tena wa Tz tutaanza kufanya tendo la ndoa bila kinga(Condomii)"