Nahitaji ushauri wa kitaalamu juu ya kilimo cha Mapapai


Pilato2006

Pilato2006

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Pilato2006

Pilato2006

Senior Member
Joined Aug 25, 2008
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Wana JF, nataka kufanya kilimo cha mapapai ila nahitaji mbegu za muda mfupi kuzaa ili nianze kuvuna mapema. Naomba msaada wa yafuatayo

1 Wapi nitapata mbegu fupi za muda mfupi kuanza kuzaa?
2. Nikitaka kupanda spacing iwe kiasi gani toka mche hadi mche?

Asanteni sana hii ni katika kuhangaika kuongeza kipato maana hii nchi ukizubaa ukajikuta unanyong'onyea sana kwa wanayojili.

FURSA YA KILIMO CHA PAPAI

Papai ni MATUNDA ambayo wengi tunayafahamu. Ekari moja ya papai inachukua miche 1000-1200(elfu moja hadi elfu moja na mia mbili). Kwa maana ya mita mbili kwa mbili kutoka mti hadi mti na hii ni kwa ile mbegu fupi. Ukilima kwa kufuata utaalamu ni kwamba mti mmoja wa papai unaweza kutoa matunda 86 hadi 100 kwa msimu.Kutoka kupandikiza shambani hadi kuanza kuvuna mavuno ya kwanza, papai zinachukua miezi nane hadi kumi tu. Ikiwa unamwagilia papai ni tunda lisilo na msimu, yaani unavuna mfululizo......

Nimesema mti mmoja unatoa matunda 86 hadi 100 sasa kwa ajili ya kustandadaizi tuchukulie kwamba mti umekupatia matunda 80 pekee. Tunda moja la papai, kwa pale sokoni linauzwa kuanzia 1000, hadi elfu 4,000 kutegemea na ukubwa, lakini ni nadra kupata papai chini ya shilingi 1,000 kule sokoni, si ndio jamani?

Sasa wewe ukilima chukulia kwamba unauza 5,00 (mia Tano tu) kila tunda kwa bei ya kujumlishia pale pale shambani(yaani hutaki mausumbufu ya kupeleka sokoni, unawaita wajumuaji wanunulie hapo hapo shambani). Ikiwa mti mmoja unatoa papai 80 maana yake kila mti utakupatia shilingi elfu arobaini, 40,000/=. Tunakwenda sawa mpaka hapo?

Sasa chukua elfu 40 zidisha mara miti elfu moja(hapa napo nimeashumu kwamba uliingiza miti elfu 1, 000 pekee). Hii itakupa hesabu ya shilingi milioni arobaini 40,000,000/= keshi! Sawa sawa?

Turejee kwenye gharama za uwekezaji, yaani tunajiuliza ni shilingi ngapi unatakiwa kutumia ili kupata hii milioni arobaini keshi? Twende na hesabu hizo.

Kitaalamu inashauriwa kwamba miti ya mipapai inatakiwa kukaa shambani kwa miaka isiyozidi mitano na baada ya hapo ing'olewe na kubadilishwa mingine. Pia inaelezwa kwamba mavuno makubwa zaidi(maximum production) unaipata kuanzia mwaka wa pili wa mavuno. Maana yake ni kwamba shamba la papai unaweza kukodi ama kununua.

Kukodi ni gharama zaidi ukilinganisha na kununua. Mathalani kukodi ekari moja katika MASHAMBA ya kumwagilia kule Ruaha Mbuyuni Iringa (ambako ndio nyumbani kwa mapapai) ni shilingi laki moja kwa mwezi hivyo kwa mwaka utalipa 1.2Milioni kukodi.

Wakati kununua shamba maeneo ya mahenge huko huko Iringa haitakugharimu zaidi ya milioni 2.5 kushuka chini. Lakini pia kuna maeneo mengi Tanzania ambako papai zinastawi na unaweza kununua shamba lako ekari moja hata kwa chini ya laki tano. Kwa hiyo gharama ya shamba inategemea ni wapi unakwenda kuwekeza kilimo hili. Twende sasa gharama zingine..

Kulima shamba na kuandaa mashimo, ni mambo ambayo hayawezi kukugharimu zaidi ya laki tano, yaani namaanisha ni pungufu ya hapo. Miche ya papai unaweza kuiandaa mwenyewe kwa kiwatika kwenye Kitaru ama unaweza kuinunua kwa wawatikaji. Kama ukiamua kuiandaa mwenyewe unafanya hivi: nenda sokoni ununue papai lako la buku, buku mbili au buku nne; chagua lile zuri na tamu, kisha ukishalikata chukua zile mbegu.

Mbegu zile zitie kwenye maji ya vuguvugu kisha uzipekeche kwa ajili ya kuondoa ule utando. Baada ya hapo zianike kivulini lakini pawe na hewa kwa siku tatu hadi Tano; kisha zipande kwenye viriba vipana(vile vikubwa).

Katika kujaza udongo kwenye viriba, hakikisha unachagua udogo wenye rutuba na uchanganye na udongo wa mchanga kwa pale juu, yaani juu ya udongo ule wenye rutuba. Baada ya wiki mbili miche itaanza kuota na baada ya miche kuota unaweka mbolea ya kuku kwa ajili ya kubusti mimea....

Hii ni kwamba ukiandaa miche mwenyewe; miche ya ekari moja itakugharimu chini ya laki moja tu (kwa maana ya kulipia maji ya kumwagilia, viriba, na mengine). Lakini pia unaweza kununua miche ambapo bei standadi kama unanunua miche mingi ni mia tano kwa mche, miche elfu moja ni shilingi laki tano. Mengine madogo madogo kama usimamizi na ufuatiliaji wewe jumlishia tu hapo.

Nini NATAKA ukione hapa?
Ni kwamba unaweza kuwekeza ekari moja ya papai kwa chini ya milioni 3 na ukawa na uwezo wa kupiga milioni 40 ndani ya muda wa mwaka mmoja tu. Hapa unachokosa wewe sio hela isipokuwa ni taarifa na miongozo, uwongo kweli? Twende tu, utaelewa kwa nini tunasema unatakiwa upate milioni 890.

Sasa tuone milioni 890 inafikiwaje.
Tuseme mwaka wa kwanza umejichanga weee ukalima hiyo ekari moja na ukakamata hizo milioni 40. Mwaka unaofuatia chukua milioni 15 nenda kaongeze ekari 5(kwa maana gharama za eka moja tumeona ni kama 3M kwa hiyo eka 5 ni milioni 15). Kwenye zile 25 zinazobaki mimi nakuruhusu kwa moyo mweupe ukitaka kuzitumbua zitumbue tu(ila ukikutwa na Mh. Naibu Spika, usinitaje).

Okei, kama mwaka unaofuata utalima ekari zingine 5 maana yake utakuwa na ekari 6 jumla na kwa hesabu ya milioni 40 kwa ekari maana yake utavuna milioni 240, sawa sawa? Mwaka wa tatu chukua milioni 60 nenda kalime ekari 20 ambazo kwa hesabu za milioni 40 kwa ekari maana yake utapiga milioni 800 cash jumlisha na zile za ekari sita uone kama hutapata bilioni moja na ushehe! Na hapo ndio kwanza unakuwa mwaka wa NNE, hata mitano haijaisha unakuwa umeshakamata bilioni, je ikifika mitano?

Ukishamiliki shamba la MATUNDA ekari 26 wewe ni level zingine kabisa, hatuongelei tena uende kuuza sokoni Tandale hapo sasa tunaongelea habari ya wewe kupeleka MATUNDA Comoro, Ufaransa, Ujerumani, Zanzibari, Ushelisheli na kwingine kwingi ambako kuna masoko ya kumwaga na kumwagika! Mpo mpaka hapo?

Kuna watu huwa wanaleta saundi za kwamba ohooo, matunda yamekosa masoko, mara ohoo yanaoza kwa kukosa wateja! Ukimsikia mtu anasema hivyo hata kama ni kwenye TV mzomee kabisa halafu jiulize maswali haya: wanaposema MATUNDA yamekosa soko ni matunda gani? Je, hayo matunda yalipandwa kitaalamu kwa wazo la kuja kuuza kisasa ama ndio ile miti ya matunda iliyojiotea tangu enzi za mababu?

Sikilizeni niwaambie:
MATUNDA yana soko kubwa na soko hilo haliwezi kupotea leo wala kesho. Kuna mbunge tunae hapa bungeni amepata kunieleza kwamba kama kuna mtu ama kikundi cha watu ambacho kinaweza kujaza matunda kiwango cha kontena la futi 40 kila wiki; basi kuna wajerumani ambao wanakuja kuyavuna hayo matunda shambani. Maana yake kwenye hii nchi kunaupungufu mkubwa sana wa watu wanaolima matunda siriazi, kwa wingi na kwa misimu yote(sio tu kutegemea mvua).

Mbunge mwenzetu huyu ambae ni mtaalamu na anafanya usafirishaji MATUNDA nje ya nchi, amekuwa akinisisitiza kwamba kama kuna jambo la maana tunaweza kufanya ni wabunge kulima MATUNDA siriazi kisha tukaunganisha nguvu na kuyasafirisha nje ya nchi. Kabla hujasema matunda hayana soko, hebu lima kwanza.

Hii sasa sikupigii hesabu ila nakuachia swali:
Ikiwa ukiuzia mapapai yako kwa wachuuzi wa Tandale unapata mia tano kwa kila tunda; je, unadhani ukisafirisha kwenda Comoro ama Ujerumani utapata hiyo hiyo mia tano? Bila shaka hapana hata kidogo! Ukitoa manauli, maushuru, makodi na mazagazaga mengine kibao, nina uhakika huwezi kupata chini ya elfu 2 kwa kila papai moja.

Bila shaka hiyo simu yako ina kalukuleta, kwa hiyo nenda kwenye hesabu zangu hapo juu, katika kila penye mia Tano, weka elfu 2 halafu hayo mahesabu kaa nayo mwenyewe!

Nafahamu unasubiria strawberries, usiwe na hofu, ninakuja huko baadae. Sasa nieleze hali ya hewa na msimu uaofaa kulima mapapai. Kimsingi mapapai yanastawi katika hali mbalimbali za hewa, lakini matokeo makubwa ya kimavuno unayapata ikiwa utayalima maeneo yenye joto na yenye maji ya kutosha iwe ni kwa mvua ama kwa kumwagilia.

Unapopanda papai unatakiwa kuchimba shimo pana na refu, futi 2*2 linafaa zaidi ambapo ndani yake unaweka samadi na udongo na pale juu unatandaza vigunzi ama majani kwa ajili ya kuhifadhi unyevu. Wakati wa kiangazi unaweza kumwagilia mara nne kwa mwezi ama mara mbili kwa mwezi na bado ukapata matokeo mazuri.

Sio lazima upate maeneo yenye maji ama mito, isipokuwa unaweza kuchimba kisima kidogo tu na kikatosha kumwagilia ekari nzima. Nawafahamu vijana fulani wanaoweza kusafiri mahali poppte nchini, ambao wanauwezo wa kuchimba kisima na kikatoa maji kwa chini hata ya milioni moja.

Msimu mzuri wa kupanda papai ni katika wakati huu wa mvua ambapo inarahisisha miche kushika haraka, ingawa ukiwa na maji ya uhakika unaweza kupanda muda wowote.

Changamoto zinazokabili kilimo hiki. Kwanza kabisa kuna magonjwa. Kuna ugonjwa unaitwa wa ukungu, huwa unashambulia miche ikingali midogo. Hata hivyo kuna dawa zake na unatakiwa kupiga dawa wiki ya tatu hadi NNE.

Ukichelewa unadumaza miche na hata kama utaenda kununua kwa wanaowatika hakikisha kwamba unafuatilia ikiwa walipiga dawa hii. Pia wakati wa kubeba MATUNDA, yaani ule muda wa maua kuna dawa ya kuzuia madoa kwenye matunda unatakiwa uwahi kupiga mapema maana bila hivyo habari ya MATUNDA 100 kwa mti utaisikia kwenye bomba.

Changamoto nyingine ni kutopata mavuno tarajiwa ikiwa utazembea kumwagilia walau mara mbili au moja hata moja kwa mwezi ukikwama kabisa. Changamoto nyingine ni ikiwa utashindwa kuungana na masoko mapema maana yake matunda yanaweza kuozea shambani. Changamoto zingine zitategemea mahali unakolimia.

Umbali wa mche na mche nimetaja pale juu kuwa ni mita 2 kwa mbili ikiwa shamba hilo linaingia papai pekee pasipo kuchanganya na zao jingine lolote .

Duu! Kumbe imeshafika saa sita na mimi hapa upako haujakwisha, loooh! Hadi hapa naamini nimeshafanya kazi kubwa ya kwanza ya kukufanya uamini kwamba suala la kukamata milioni 890 ndani ya miaka mitano linawezekana na kupitiliza.

Nilipanga kushusha data za strawberries kwa kina kama nilivyofanya papai, lakini muda umesonga na matirio ya papai yamefurika mno vichwani mwenu. Naona ni busara niwaache muendelee kuperuzi kwa kina kuhusu mapapai nami nitarejea wakati mwingine kwa strawberries.

Ambapo ninataka kuzindua kampeni kwamba kila mbunge ni lazima alime strawberries maana hesabu zake zitakushangaza na kukuhamasisha pengine mara 10 ya hizi za mapapai. Pamoja na strawberries pia nitakuja na mikokotoo ya MATUNDA aina ya passion.

Niwashukuru kwa kunifuatilia kwa umakini. Kama kuna mtu haamini kuwa inawezekana kupata milioni 890 ndani ya hii miaka mitano basi anione haraka nimkabidhi kwenye kamati ya maombi ya bunge wamuombee ajazwe Imani!

Wenu katika kuzisaka milioni 890
Ushauri kutoka kwa wadau

MAHITAJI

Hali ya hewa inayofaa kwa mipapai ni ya kitropik ambayo haina baridi kali na joto kiasi . Udongo usiotuamisha maji maji yakisimama kwa masaa 48 tu mpapai unaweza kufa, wenye ruruba ya kutosha kwa sababu mipapai haina mzizi mkuu haihiyaji udongo wenye kina kirefu, kipindi cha jua kali mpapai usiachwe zaidi ya wiki 8 bila kumwagiliwa maji kama hakuna mvua ingawa wakati wa mapapai kuiva kama kuna ukame basi hii huongeza ubora wa papai ikiwamo kutooza mapema sokoni

Mipapai ipandwe sehemu ambazo hazina upepo mwingi kwani huvunjika kirahisi, kama unashamba la mipapai itakubidi kupanda miti ya kukinga upepo kuzunguka shamba lako, miti kama miparachichi, migravilea, vibiriti (leucaena Spp) na miembe pia inafaa. Hakikisha miti ya kukinga upepo inakuwa mirefu kuzidi mipapai kwa mita 10 mpaka 20 juu zaidi.

Kuendelea kupanda mipapai kwenye shamba moja kunaweza kusababisha usugu wa magonjwa, nashauri baada ya miaka 3 &[HASHTAG]#8211[/HASHTAG]; 5 ubadilishe zao hili angalau kwa msimu mmoja ili kuua mzunguko wa magonjwa
Mipapai inaweza kuchanganganywa na miembe na mimea jamii ya michungwa, pia mazao ya msimu kama mahindi, mtama, ufuta , alizeti na mboga mboga yanaweza kulimwa

Kwa kaida kwenye mipapai kuna mipapai dume, majike na yenye jinsia zote (multiplesex/hermaphrodite) ambayo huwa na mapapai marefu zaidi, na pia kuna isiyoeleweka ambayo huwa na mapapai mafupi sana.

MBEGU
Kusanya mbegu toka kwenye mapai makubwa na yaliyo komaa na kuiva, kausha mbegu vizuri kbla ya kupanda, kama utapata mbegu za kununua ni vizuri zaidi, baada ya kukausha hakikisha unazipanda ndani ya wiki moja


Papai lililokomaa linaweza kutumika kama mbegu

KUOTESHA MBEGU
Kuna wanaopendelea kuotesha mbegu kwanza na kisha kuhamishia miche shambani, sehemu ya kuoteshea iandaliwe miezi miwili kabla, mbegu zioteshwe kwenye kina kati ya sentimeta 1 &[HASHTAG]#8211[/HASHTAG]; 2 chini ya udongo wenye rutuba au pakiti za plastiki, kiwango bora cha joto ni sentigredi 21 &[HASHTAG]#8211[/HASHTAG]; 27 na itachukua kati ya wiki 1 &[HASHTAG]#8211[/HASHTAG]; 4 kwa mbegu kuota, kwenye kila pakiti weka mbegu 2 &[HASHTAG]#8211[/HASHTAG]; 3. Panda mbegu zako kwenye kitalu kwa umbali wa sentimeta 3 toka shimo hadi shimo na sentimeta 15 kati ya mistari, hakikisha maji hayatuami kabisa, pia unaweza kupiga dawa ya copper oxychloride gramu moja katika lita moja ya maji ilikukinga miche yako na fangasi.

UOTESHAJI WA MOJA KWA MOJA
Kabla ya kupanda mbegu weka mchanganyiko wa majivu na mbolea ya kuku sehemu ya kupandia, mbolea husaidia ukuaji haraka na jivu husaidia kukinga mipapai na magonjwa. Panda mbegu 3 &[HASHTAG]#8211[/HASHTAG]; 5 kila shimo maana miche mingine inaweza kufa kwa magonjwa, kuliwa na wadudu au ikaota dume

KUHAMISHA MICHE TOKA KWENYE KITALU
Miche ihamishiwe shambani ikiwa na urefu wa sentimeta 20 &[HASHTAG]#8211[/HASHTAG]; 40, kama udongo unatuamisha maji panda kwenye matuta yenye urefu wa sentimeta 40 &[HASHTAG]#8211[/HASHTAG]; 60 mashimo yawe na ukubwa wa sentimeta 45 upana na sentimeta 30 kina na shimo lichanganywe na udongo na samadi bila kuacha kisahani cha maji, umbali ni mita 3 kwa 3 kwani mipapai inahitaji jua la kutosha.

KUPUNGUZA MIPAPAI
Baada ya miezi 3 &[HASHTAG]#8211[/HASHTAG]; 5 baada ya kupanda mipapai itatoa maua na hapo jinsia ya mipapai itajulikana na mingine itabidi ipunguzwe na hasa midume, mipapai yenye jinsi zote inatakiwa isizidi asilimia 10 &[HASHTAG]#8211[/HASHTAG]; 20 na midume ibaki mmoja katika kila mijike 25, mimea yenye magonjwa pia inabidi ing'olewe


RUTUBA YA UDONGO
Weka kiasi chakilo 2 &[HASHTAG]#8211[/HASHTAG]; 5 za samadi kwenye kila mpapai kwa mwaka ili kuongeza ukuaji na uzazi, mabaki ya mimea yanaweza pia kuwekwa kama matandazo na h ii ni muhimu zaidi kipindi cha kiangazi ili kuzuia unyevu usipotee.

MAGUGU
Mipapai inapopandwa tu inaweza kuwekewa matandazo kuizunguka ili kuzuia uoataji wa magugu, magugu yang'olewe yakiwa machanga na epuka kuchimbua chini sana maana mizizi ya mipapai huwa juu juu, njia nzuri ni kuweka matandazo kwenye shamba lote ili kuzuia outaji wa maguguUANGALIZI


Baadhi ya wadudu hatari kwa mipapai

- Mipapai iangaliwe dhidi ya magonjwa, ing'olewe na kuchomwa au kufukiwa chini ikiwa itabainika kuwa na maonjwa, piga dawa dhidi ya magonjwa ya fangasi na virusi mara yanapoibuka ili kuongeza uzaaji nakipato chako.

- Ondoa matawi yote yatakayojitokeza pembeni ya mpapai wako, na hii ifanyike mapema kabla ya tawi kuwa kubwa.

- Ondoa mapapi yote ambayo yatakuwa hayakuchavuliwa vizuri na acha yale yenye afya tu.

- Weka miti ya kuegemea kama mpapai utazaa matunda mengi na hasa wakati wa upepo mwingi ili kuzuia mipapai isivunjike.

View attachment 185793
Mfanyabiashara wa mapapai akiwa na mteja.

- Mipapai ikitunzwa inaweza kuishi mika mingi, ila kwa ajili ya mazao bora ondoa mipapai na upande mingine baada ya kila miaka mitatu (3) kwani mpapai unapo kuwa mkubwa basi rutuba yote huishia kwenye mti wenyewe.

Credit: Mitiki
 
M

Mashurano

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Mashurano

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Nenda Chuo cha Kilimo SUA utapata ushauri wa kitaalam zaidi.




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Magonjwa mbalimbali ya mapapai

Papaya, Carica papaya, is an herbaceous perennial in the family Caricaceae grown for its edible fruit. The papaya plant is tree-like,usually unbranched and has hollow stems and petioles.

The leaves are palmately lobed, spirally arranged and clustered at the growing tip of the trunk. Papaya trees can be male, female or hermaphrodite and the type of inflorescence produced is reflective of this. Male trees produce many flowers on long, pendulous panicles while female trees produce either solitary flowers of clusters of a few flowers which are yellow-green in color.

Hermaphrodite trees produce bisexual flowers. The papaya fruit is a large fleshy berry with smooth green skin that ripens to yellow or orange. The flesh of the fruit is thick and succulent and ranges in color from yellow to red or orange.

The fruit contains many black wrinkled seeds. Papaya trees range in height from 2–10 m (6.6–33 ft) and can live for up to 25 years. Plantations are usually replaced every 3 years to ensure maximum productivity. Papaya may also be referred to as pawpaw and is believed to originate from the Caribbean region on Central America.


Ripening papaya fruits





Uses

Papaya fruits are commonly eaten fresh. The may also be processed into jams, jellies and juices are dried and candied. Green fruits and young leaves can be cooked and eaten as a vegetable.

Propagation


Papaya is a tropical plant and will grow optimally at temperatures between 21 and 33°C (69.8–91.4°F). Plants can be grown in a range of soils as long as there is adequate drainage. Optimum pH for papaya growth is between 5.5 and 6.5. Papaya is propagated from seed in small containers or nursery beds and transplanted to the field when the reach approximately 20 cm (8 in) in height. Seedlings are commonly planted on hills or ridges to aid drainage and should be spaced 2–3 m apart.

Common Pests and Diseases


Anthracnose Colletotrichum gleosporoides

Anthracnose lesions on papaya fruit



Anthracnose lesions on papaya fruit




Symptoms

Small water-soaked lesions of fruit during ripening; circular sunken lesions with light brown margins
Cause

Fungus
Comments

Fungi spread by wind and rain; disease emergence favored by high temperature and humidity; disease can have a serious impact on refrigerated fruit for export
Management

Appropriate protective fungicides should be applied; dipping fruits in hot water at 48°C for 20 minutes reduces the incidence of the disease
Asperisporium black spot Asperisporium caricae

Symptoms of Asperisporium black spot on papaya



Symptoms of Asperisporium black spot on upper leaf surface



Symptoms of Asperisporium black spot on papaya



Symptoms

Circular water-soaked or brown lesions on older leaves; centers of lesions become bleached as they mature; leaves curling and turning brown; raised lesions on trunks; sunken circular lesions on fruit
Cause


Fungus
Comments

Disease spread by wind and rain; disease emergence favored by cool weather interspersed with moisture from dew or rain
Management

Disease may require applications of appropriate fungicides for adequate control
Black rot Mycosphaerella caricae

Black rot symptoms





Symptoms

Black sunken rot on young fruits originating from stem end or contact with a leaf; young fruit withering and dropping from plant; small, brown sunken lesions with light brown margins on ripening fruit
Cause

Fungus
Comments

Fungi enters fruit through wounds
Management

Appropriate protective fungicides should be applied; dipping fruits in hot water at 48°C for 20 minutes reduces the incidence of the disease
Phytophthora fruit rot (Stem rot) Phytophthora palmivora

Symptoms of Phytophthora infection on papaya fruits



Symptoms of Phytophthora infection on papaya fruit



Symptoms of Phytophthora infection on papaya fruit



Symptoms

Water-soaked lesions on unripe fruit that oozes latex; withering fruit; water-soaked lesions on leaf scars of fruit bearing stem; mature fruit covered in white mycelium
Cause

Oomycete
Comments

Fungi survive in soil and enter through wounds in stem; disease often emerges after hurricane damage
Management

Disease can be controlled through the use of appropriate protective fungicides such as mancozeb or copper sulfate; root rot in seedlings can be prevented by planting in holes filled with soil in which papaya has never been grown - by the time the roots extend out of the added soil the plant is no longer susceptible to the disease
Bacterial canker and decline Erwinia spp.
Symptoms

Angular water-soaked lesions on leaves; lesions coalesce and spread along leaf veins; witling leaves, particularly at top of canopy; water-soaked lesion and cankers on stem; cankers girdle stem and cause plant to collapse; small water-soaked lesions on green fruit
Cause

Bacteria
Comments

Bacteria survive in lesions and cankers
Internal yellowing Enterobacter cloacae
Symptoms

Flesh of ripe fruit discolored yellow; discolored areas soft with spreading margins; rotting odor
Cause

Bacterium
Comments

Disease found in Hawaii
Management

Dipping fruits in hot water at 48°C for 20 minutes reduces the incidence of the disease and is currently the only method of control
Bunchy top Likely caused by Rickettsia bacteria
Symptoms

Chlorosis of young leaves; water-soaked spots on petioles and stems; petioles rigid, horizontal and shortened; thickened leaf blades that cup downward; internodes shorten and growth stops resulting in a bunchy appearance to the plants
Cause

Bacteria
Comments

Transmitted by leaf hoppers
Management

Use of tolerant varieties of papaya is currently the only method of control recommended
Cercospora black spot Cercospora papayae

Symptoms of Cercospora black spot on papaya





Symptoms

Tiny black dots on fruit which enlarge to 3 mm across; spots are slightly raised and although indistinct on unripe green fruit, become visible on ripening to yellow; lesions on leaves are irregular in shape and gray-white in color; if infestation is severe, leaves may turn yellow and necrotic and drop from plant
Cause

Fungus
Comments

Disease usually enters orchard from infected papaya leaves in adjacent orchards
Management

Applications of appropriate protective fungicides at intervals of 14 to 28 days provide satisfactory control of the disease
Papaya ringspot Papaya ringspot virus (PRV)

Papaya ringspot symptoms on unripe fruit


Foliar symptoms of papaya ringspot



Papaya ringspot symptoms on unripe fruit



Papaya ringspot symptoms on unripe fruit



Symptoms

Dark green rings on fruit which may be slightly sunken and become less distinct as the fruit ripens; fruits may have uneven bumps; leaves often exhibit a bright yellow mosaic pattern and new leaves are small and plant growth is stunted
Cause

Virus
Comments

Virus is transmitted by several aphid species
Management

Infected plants should be removed and destroyed to prevent spread of the virus; new planting materials should be free of the virus; intercropping papaya with a non-host such as corn can help to reduce the incidence of the disease in papaya orchards by providing aphid vectors with an alternative feeding site
Papaya mealybug Paracoccus marginatus
Symptoms

Flattened oval to round disc-like insect covered in cottony substance on tree; chlorosis, plant stunting, leaf deformation, early leaf and fruit drop insects attract ants which may also be present; insect colony may also be associated with growth of sooty mold due to fungal colonization of sugary honeydew excreted by the insect
Cause

Insect
Comments

Insects have a wide host range; often tended by ants which farm them for their sugary honeydew secretions; transmit Cocoa swollen shoot virus
Management

Mealybugs can potentially be controlled by natural enemies such as lady beetles but are commonly controlled using chemicals; chemical pesticides may also decrease populations of natural enemies leading to mealybug outbreaks
Scale insects (White peach scale) Pseudaulacaspis pentagona
Symptoms


Scale insects cause damage by feeding on twigs, branches and fruit, injecting toxins into the plant as they do so; if the infestation is heavy, gumming may occur on the bark and twigs or entire branches can be killed; insects are flattened discs, or "scales" with no visible legs; scales produce a white waxy coating which eventually turns black (black cap stage)
Cause

Insect
Comments

Scale insects overwinter in the black cap stage; winged adult males mate with females which retain their eggs inside the body until they hatch
Management

Populations are often kept in check by natural enemies, including predacious beetles and some wasps - although broad-spectrum insecticides may result in outbreaks of scale by killing off populations of beneficial insects; trees can be sprayed with horticultural oils when dormant which effectively kill scales without damaging natural enemies.
 
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wenye taarifa zaidi, wapi MALILA, KANYAGIO......????
 
Ben40

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Hivi hicho kilimo kinalipa kweli?
 
Pilato2006

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Wakuu natafuta miche ya Mapapai makubwa. Nataka kulima. Wapi nitapata ushauri wa kitaalam (Nipe contacts)
 
Mohammed Shossi

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Mohammed Shossi

Mohammed Shossi

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Very easy nunua mapapai size unayoitaka then toa mbegu upande naona umeamua kuingia kwenye kilimo kwanza.
 
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Very easy nunua mapapai size unayoitaka then toa mbegu upande naona umeamua kuingia kwenye kilimo kwanza.
anatafuta miche ya mipapai wewe unamwelekeza akatoe mbegu .... kuna tofauti sana kati ya mbegu na miche .... miche inakuwa tayari imeshakuwa-selected kupata mbegu bora na kutunzwa kwa ubora na muda muafakakwa ajili ya kuihamisha (transplantation)

mbegu huoteshwa .... na miche huhamishwa
 
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King Kong III

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Aiseee bora ufate ushauri wa shossi,mche m1 wa mpapai ni kama buku hivi mikubwa ila ukinunua unaweza ukakuta yote mipapai dume haizai inatoa maua tu na huku uswazi wanasema unafunga bunzi la muhindi zen unabadilika sijui kama it works!
 
Mohammed Shossi

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anatafuta miche ya mipapai wewe unamwelekeza akatoe mbegu .... kuna tofauti sana kati ya mbegu na miche .... miche inakuwa tayari imeshakuwa-selected kupata mbegu bora na kutunzwa kwa ubora na muda muafakakwa ajili ya kuihamisha (transplantation)

mbegu huoteshwa .... na miche huhamishwa
Sawa mkuu lakini kumbuka mipapai sio mayai! ukinunua mayai makubwa unauhakika kifaranga kikitotolewa kitakuwa kikubwa unaweza kuuziwa miche ukaambiwa ni mapapai makubwa kumbe ni watoto wa papai! ndio maana njia sahihi ni kununua size uitakayo halafu ukapanda mwenyewe unless unataka kupanda uawani lakini kama ni kwa kilimo cha biashara hiyo ndio njia mwafaka.

Pilato:

Study zinaonyesha sisi wakulima tunapenda kulima tunavyopenda sisi na sio vinavyopendwa na soko sijui umefanya utafiti ukajua ni mapapai gani yanapendwa? na yapi ni economy to grow?
 
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Naona upo kimya mkuu ila ningekushauri utafute mbegu ambayo inavumilia kupata ugongwa hasa wa virus wanaoitwa rig worms, kama ni kwa biashara tafuta mipapai inayozaa mapapai mengi ili ikupatie mapapai 3 kwa wiki kila mche mmoja i.e 3 papaya per tree assume you have 2000 trees you will have 6000 papaya uza bei ya chini shs 300 kwa papaya moja!
 

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Kweli kilimo kwanza kigumu na hakitekelezeki!
 
Mohammed Shossi

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Mo, vipi tena hahahahahah kwa nini hakitekelezekei, kwa kuwa muuliza swali hatekelezeki? hahahahahah
Mkuu kilimo kinalipa sana ila kinahitaji uvumilivu, mimi naweka mambo sawa nikimaliza najikita kwenye kilomo maana huko watu wa kodi hawasumbui na mazao (unprocessed) hayana kodi.
 
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bluetooth

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Naona upo kimya mkuu ila ningekushauri utafute mbegu ambayo inavumilia kupata ugongwa hasa wa virus wanaoitwa rig worms, kama ni kwa biashara tafuta mipapai inayozaa mapapai mengi ili ikupatie mapapai 3 kwa wiki kila mche mmoja i.e 3 papaya per tree assume you have 2000 trees you will have 6000 papaya uza bei ya chini shs 300 kwa papaya moja!

Mohammed Shossi

mkuu ... hii aina ya zao hili la papai inaitwaje kwa kitaaluma ya kilimo ...specie
 
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Mohammed Shossi

mkuu ... hii aina ya zao hili la papai inaitwaje kwa kitaaluma ya kilimo ...specie
Kuna mbegu nyingi zilizofanyiwa utafiti duniani kama F1 Hybrid Taiwan Princess mbegu hii sio genetic kwahiyo inaweza kulimwa nchini na ni nzuri kwasababu shelf time yake ni kubwa kulinganisha na papai zetu za kienyeji na zinaweza kuuuzika nje ya nchi (Ideal for export)
 
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Kuna mbegu nyingi zilizofanyiwa utafiti duniani kama F1 Hybrid Taiwan Princess mbegu hii sio genetic kwahiyo inaweza kulimwa nchini na ni nzuri kwasababu shelf time yake ni kubwa kulinganisha na papai zetu za kienyeji na zinaweza kuuuzika nje ya nchi (Ideal for export)
great ... je soko la papai unalionaje ... zaidi ya local fresh fruit market and vending ...je kuna soko zaidi ya hilo? .... au supermarkets kama shoprite au shoppers plaza pia wanaweza kununua once unakuwa na zao bora

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Naona upo kimya mkuu ila ningekushauri utafute mbegu ambayo inavumilia kupata ugongwa hasa wa virus wanaoitwa rig worms, kama ni kwa biashara tafuta mipapai inayozaa mapapai mengi ili ikupatie mapapai 3 kwa wiki kila mche mmoja i.e 3 papaya per tree assume you have 2000 trees you will have 6000 papaya uza bei ya chini shs 300 kwa papaya moja!
Juzikati nilikuwa Nzega mjini, wakati nasubiri mhudumu wa ofisi ya M-pesa afike nikawa naangaza macho, nikamuona jamaa anashusha tenga la mapapai makubwa ajabu kutoka kwenye basikeli. Sikuvumilia, nikamsogelea na kumuuliza
mbegu alizipata wapi, akasema yeye alikula papai akamwaga mbegu zake na matokeo ndiyo hayo.

Kusema kweli papai zile zina ukubwa wa kufikia kilo 7 hivi kwa kukadilia, ulefu wake haupungui futi moja na nusu na unene wa chini kama inchi 8 hivi.(niko vizuri kwenye kukadilia)
Kwa namna lilivyo, nusu tu inatosha kuliwa na familia ya watu sita. Papai ninaloliona hapo kwenye miti yako Mohamed, kwa sasa hapa Dar ni kama Tshs.1000/=. Ninalozungumzia, changanya hayo matatu na nusu ndiyo unapata moja, pengine kuliuza inaweza kuwa tabu kidogo.
 
Mohammed Shossi

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great ... je soko la papai unalionaje ... zaidi ya local fresh fruit market and vending ...je kuna soko zaidi ya hilo? .... au supermarkets kama shoprite au shoppers plaza pia wanaweza kununua once unakuwa na zao bora

share your opinion
Soko lipo lakini sio la mapapai ya kienyeji ambayo ni very perishable hiyo mbegu niliyokutajia ikiiva kabisa papai lake linakuwa na ugumu fulani ambao unaweza kulifanya limudu kukaa more than 7 days kwa maana hiyo ni papai ambayo inaweza kuuzwa nje ya nchi!

Serikali kama ina mipango madhubuti ingewaelimisha wananchi wakazane kwenye kilimo cha matunda na mboga mboga na kusafirisha kwenda nje! Ni aibu kushindwa kutumia mashirika ya ndege yanayotua na kuruka daily from Tanzania to 100 different destinations bila ya mazao kutoka Tanzania.

Ukifika nchi kama Saudia ndege nyingi hushusha matunda ya aina mbalimbali kutoka nchi tofauti duaniani na hata ukienda dubai hali ni hiyo hiyo hawalimi lakini tunda lolote ukilitaka unapata!
 

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