Maswali na Majibu, Questions and Answers (Science, Engineering, Accounting and Management)


JF-Expert Member
Aug 28, 2020
Habarini za leo ndugu na marafiki.
Kwa majina naitwa Ellyskywilly na mawasiliano yangu ni

Uzi huu utakua maalumu kwa maswali na majibu, ya science, engineering, accounting na management.

Nimeandaa maswali na majibu mengi tu ambayo yanafaa kwa uma wa Watanzania kwaajili ya kujifunza mambo mbalimbali. Natumai sasa ndugu na marafiki wataweza kupata ufumbuzi wa baadhi ya mwaswali yao kupitia jukwaa hili la elimu huko walipo.

Karibuni sana.


1) What are the different categories of Oil found worldwide?

There are about 161 different types of Oil found worldwide. The different categories of Oil found worldwide is classified into different types of crude oil like Brent, Dubai Crude, West Texas, Intermediate, etc. Classification is done according to their sulphur content.

2) Explain what is OPEC?

Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries is also known as OPEC.

3) What is the purpose of forming OPEC?

It is a collection of countries which produces crude oil and is founded in 1960, in order to regulate the process of export of their crude oil to the other countries of the world and to decide the crude oil prices. Together OPEC’s 12 member countries supplies about 40% of the world’s oil supply.

4) Who are the members of OPEC currently?

• Iran
• Iraq
• Kuwait
• Venezuela
• Saudi Arabia
• Qatar
• Indonesia
• Libya
• U A E
• Algeria
• Nigeria
• Angola

5) On what basis Crude Oil prices are determined?

Crude oil is a commodity, and the prices depend on the demand and supply.

6) Who controls or decides the Oil prices?
OPEC does not decide the crude oil prices, though it influence the market prices. It is following exchange market that decides global crude oil prices

• New York Mercantile Exchange ( NYMEX)
• International Petroleum Exchange in London (IPE)
• Singapore International Monetary Exchange (SIMEX)

7) How U.S dollar contribute to the rising Oil prices?

On the world market, oil is priced in U.S dollars. So, when dollar becomes weaker, foreign currency becomes stronger, which means foreign countries can buy more oil at same amount of money. As people in other countries start buying more, demand rises, and it drives up the price in dollars, which again influence the price of oil in the global market.

8) Explain how much do you pay for a gallon of regular gasoline?

On a regular gallon of gasoline, you will pay about

• Crude Oil: About 67% of what you pay goes to the cost of crude oil
• Refining costs and profits: About 14%
• Distribution, Marketing and Retail costs and profits: 8%
• Taxes: 12%

9) Mention what is the amount of ethanol present in gasoline?

Approximately about 10% -15 % of ethanol is present per gallon of gasoline, and it is denoted by E10.

10) Explain what is PowerShares DB Energy Fund?

In the energy commodities, this fund is the most rounded investment in the energy commodities. This fund is invested in the energy futures contract like heating oil, Brent crude oil, RBOB gasoline and natural gas.

11) What are the factors that decide the retail price of Gasoline?

The gasoline retail price is determined by following factors

• Transportation costs
• Location (Urban/ Rural)
• Average volume pumped
• Competitive mix ( Concentration of major oil companies and independent marketers)

12) What are the taxes you have to pay on your gasoline in U.S?

There are State taxes and Federal taxes that is levied on your gasoline, though taxes changes from one state to another. You are paying approx. 23% of state taxes per gallon of your gasoline that may vary to 40% depending upon the state. While, federal government excise tax is about 18 percent per gallon.

13) Mention what are the factors that can fluctuate in gasoline price?

The factors that can fluctuate the gasoline price are

• Changes to the price of crude oil
• Major supply disruption in any area of the country
• Increased consumer demand
• Expected or unexpected outages of any refinery
• Activity on the commodities market

14) Who analyse and does research of the Oil and Natural gas supply in U.S?

EIA (Energy Information Administration) is an independent agency of the United States Department of Energy, which gives all the weekly detail or data of the supply of oil and natural gas in U.S. It schedules weekly publications known as WEEKLY PETROLEUM STATUS REPORT and THE WEEK IN PETROLEUM.

15) Explain how many gallons of gasoline does one barrel of oil can be made?

From one barrel (42 gallons) U. S refineries make about 19 gallons of motor gasoline. The residue yields other refined products such as distillate and residual fuel oil.

16) Which states are among the high paying price for gasoline in U.S?

Some of the states that are paying more price for gasoline other than other states are

• California
• New York
• Alaska
• Connecticut
• Michigan
• Pennsylvania
• Indiana
• Maine

17) Explain how much do oil companies make on each dollar you spend on gas?

Oil and natural gas industry make 8.6% for every dollar of sales.

Choose the correct answer.

Question 1 : For gasoline, the flash point (<50°C) is determined by the
1. Saybolt chromometer.
2. Abel apparatus.
3. none of these.
4. Pensky-Marten's apparatus.

Question 2 : Pick out the wrong statement about the smoking tendency of various hydrocarbon constituents of kerosene.
1. Smoking tendency of naphthenes decreases with its increasing molecular weight & also on addition of double bond.
2. Smoking tendency of paraffins increases with decrease in its molecular weight.
3. Smoking tendency of aromatics decreases with increase in its molecular weight.
4. Smoking tendency of hydrocarbons increases in the order : paraffins ? isoparaffins ? naphthenes ? aromatics.

Question 3 : Flash point of an oil is determined by the
1. Pensky Martens apparatus.
2. Ramsbottom apparatus.
3. Saybolt viscometer.
4. Conradson apparatus.

Question 4 : Straight run naphtha is converted into high octane number petrol (gasoline) by catalytic
1. cracking
2. reforming
3. isomerisation
4. polymerisation

Question 5 : Antioxidants are added in petrol to
1. minimise the gum formation.
2. impart colour to it, for easy identification.
3. prevent the lead build up in engines.
4. prevent icing of the carburettor.

Question 6 : Which of the following categories of gasoline has the highest lead susceptibility ?
1. Platinum reformed gasoline
2. Catalytical cracked gasoline
3. Straight run gasoline
4. Polymer gasoline

1. With increase in the number of carbon and hydrogen atoms in hydrocarbon molecules, the density of petroleum products
(A) Decreases
(B) Increases
(C) Remain same
(D) Unpredictable from the data

2. Which is the most ideal feed stock for 'coking' process used for the manufacture of petroleum coke?
(A) Naphtha
(B) Vacuum residue
(C) Light gas oil
(D) Diesel

3. Feedstock for the production of biodiesel is
(A) Herbal plants
(B) Used vegetable oils
(D) Bagasse

4. Which of the following has maximum hydrogen/carbon ratio (by weight)?
(A) Naphtha
(B) Gasoline
(C) Diesel
(D) Fuel oil

5. A fuel oil consists of 4 fractions A, B, C and D. Their molar compositions and vapor pressures are given below: The vapor pressure of the fuel oil will be __________ mm Hg.
Practice Set 01 - Question No. 05
(A) 736
(B) 727.5
(C) 512
(D) 767.8

6. Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), a high octane (octane no. = 115) gasoline blending component is produced by the simple additive reaction of isobutylene with
(A) Methyl alcohol
(B) Ethyl alcohol
(C) Methane
(D) Ethane

7. The first crude oil refinery of India is located at
(A) Naharkatiya
(B) Digboi
(C) Kochi
(D) Madras

8. CnH2n is the general formula for

(A) Olefins
(B) Naphthenes
(C) Both (a) and (b)
(D) Neither (a) nor (b)

9. The general formula of naphthenes is
(A) CnH2n + 2
(B) CnH2n-6 (where, n = 6)
(C) CnHn-4
(D) Same as that for olefins i.e. CnH2n

10. Carbon percentage (by weight) in crude petroleum may be about
(A) 65
(B) 75
(C) 85
(D) 95

11. Solvent used for dewaxing of petroleum products are
(A) Furfural
(B) Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK)
(C) Propane
(D) Both (b) & (c)

12. In catalytic cracking, the
(A) Gasoline obtained has a very low octane number
(B) Pressure & temperature is very high
(C) Gasoline obtained has very high aromatic content
(D) Gasoline obtained has very high amount of gum forming compounds

13. Petroleum liquid fuels having flash point greater than 66°C is considered as safe during storage and handling. Which of the following has flash point > 66°C?
(A) Naphtha
(B) Petrol
(C) Kerosene
(D) Heavy fuel oil
Correct Answer
14. Pressure & temperature maintained in catalytic cracking is about
(A) 2 atm & 500°C
(B) 10 atm & 500°C
(C) 30 atm & 200°C
(D) 50 atm & 750°C
Correct Answer
15. An upper limit of oil content is limited to about __________ percent for achieving efficient and satisfactory level of wax sweating.
(A) 5
(B) 15
(C) 40
(D) 60
Correct Answer
Question 7 : Gum formation in stored gasoline is mainly due to the
1. oxidation & polymerisation of unsaturates.
2. presence of sulphur.
3. alkylation of unsaturates.
4. higher aromatic content.

Question 8 : Butadiene is a/an
1. naphthene
2. di-olefin
3. olefin
4. aromatic

Question 9 : Equal volumes of aniline and diesel oil when mixed at room temperature (during summer) was found to be completely mis-cible. It means that the aniline point of the diesel is __________ the room temperature.
1. less than
2. more than
3. either more or less; depends on the room temperature
4. same as

Question 10 : Gasoline extracted from natural gas (by compression and cooling) is called the __________ gasoline.
1. casing head
2. unleaded
3. polymer
4. straight run

Question 11 : Sulphur content in lighter and heavier petroleum products is generally determined respectively by
1. lamp method and bomb method.
2. bomb method and lamp method.
3. bomb method and quartz tube method.
4. quartz tube method and lamp method.

Question 12 : Molecular weight of crude petroleum may be around
1. 1500
2. 250
3. 50
4. 5000

Question 13 : Petrolatum is
1. a mixture of microcrystalline wax in viscous hydrocarbon liquids.
2. same as petroleum ether.
3. petroleum coke.
4. none of these.

Question 14 : An upper limit of oil content is limited to about __________ percent for achieving efficient and satisfactory level of wax sweating.
1. 40
2. 15
3. 5
4. 60

Question 15 : Main boring diameter for petroleum well is 20-30 cms in diameter, while the depth of the oil well may be about __________ kms.
1. 5 to 5
2. 15-20
3. 0.1 to 0.5
4. 7.5 to 15

Question 16 : Preheating temperature of medium viscosity furnace oil for better atomisation through burner is about __________ °C.
1. 140
2. 50
3. 70
4. 90

Question 17 : The average boiling point of aviation turbine fuel is closest to that of
1. lubricating oils
2. LPG
3. Kerosene
4. diesel

Question 18 : Mercaptans is represented as (where R and R' are alkyl groups)
1. R-S-R'
2. R-S-R
4. R-S-H

Question 19 : The most widely used crude topping column in refineries is the __________ column.
1. bubble-cap
2. packed bed
3. fluidised bed
4. perforated plate

Question 20 : Crude oil is transported inland from oil field to refineries, mainly by the
1. rail tankers
2. underground pipelines
3. road tankers
4. none of these

Question 21 : Phenols are added in gasoline to
1. reduce its viscosity.
2. improve the octane number.
3. increase its pour point.
4. act as an antioxidant.

Question 22 : Which of the following is desirable in diesel and kerosene but is undersirable in gasoline ?
1. Mercaptans
2. Aromatics
3. Naphthenic acid
4. Paraffins

Question 23 : Name the hydrocarbon having the poorest oxidation stability.
1. olefin
2. paraffin
3. aromatics
4. naphthene

Question 24 : The first crude oil refinery of India is located at
1. Madras
2. Naharkatiya
3. Kochin
4. Digboi

Question 25 : Olefins are
1. unsaturated cyclic compounds (hydrocarbons).
2. saturated hydrocarbons.
3. present in substantially good quantity in crude petroleum.
4. none of these.

Question 26 : Testing of the knocking characteristics of petrofuels is done in a __________ engine.
1. Carnot
2. CFR (Co-operative fuel research)
3. diesel
4. Stirling

Question 27 : Octane number of gasoline produced by two stage fluidised catalytic cracking process is
1. 80
2. 92
3. 87
4. 97

Question 28 : Feedstock for the production of biodiesel is
1. used vegetable oils
3. herbal plants
4. bagasse

Question 29 : The proper arrangement of the petroleum fractions in order of their boiling points is
1. lubricating oil > diesel > petrol > LPG
2. petrol > lubricating oil > diesel > LPG
3. petrol > diesel > LPG > lubricating oil
4. lubricating oil > petrol > diesel > LPG

Question 30 : Pick out the wrong statement.
1. Iso-paraffin crack faster than n-paraf-fin.
2. Catalytic cracking is endothermic, but the regeneration of catalyst is exothermic.
3. None of these.
4. Rate of decomposition of olefins in catalytic cracking is slightly slower than the thermal cracking.

Question 31 : Glycol added to petrol acts as a/an __________ agent.
1. anti-icing
2. anti-knocking
3. anti-gum forming
4. dewaxing

Question 32 : Catalytic cracking compared to thermal cracking of residue of vacuum distillation of crude oil
1. gives higher yield of petrol.
2. lower octane number of petrol.
3. higher sulphur content in the product.
4. higher gum forming material in petrol.

Question 33 : Which one is used to determine the colour of petroleum products ?
1. Saybolt chromometer
2. Cleveland apparatus
3. Colour comparator
4. None of these

Question 34 : Which is almost absent in crude petroleum?
1. Mercaptans
2. Olefins
3. Naphthenes
4. Cycloparaffins

Question 35 : Illuminating characteristics of kerosene is expressed by its
1. luminosity number
2. aniline point
3. smoke point
4. aromatic content

Question 36 : Naphthenic acid is a/an __________ compound.
1. nitrogen
2. oxygen
3. sulphur
4. none of these

Question 37 : Choose the correct statement regarding thermal cracking.
1. Increased residence time results in the decreased severity of cracking.
2. Moderate changes in operating temperature does not change the depth of cracking.
3. At low pressure, the yield of lighter hydrocarbons are more.
4. Greater depth of cracking gives lower octane number gasoline.

Question 38 : A typical yield of diesel in straight run distillation of crude oil may be about __________ percent.
1. 35
2. 38
3. 28
4. 8

Question 39 : The coking process normally mostly used in Indian oil refineries is the __________ coking process.
1. delayed
2. flexi
3. fluid
4. contact

Question 40 : Which of the following constituents present in petroleum is responsible for ash formation?
1. Organometallic compounds
2. Sulphur compounds
3. Nitrogen compounds
4. Oxygen compounds

Question 41 : Furfural solvent extraction is used for upgrading (by dissolving aromatics)
1. wax
2. lubricating oils
3. naphtha
4. cracking feedstock

Question 42 : The colour of gasoline is an indication of its
1. octane number.
2. lead susceptibility.
3. none of these.
4. gum forming tendency & thoroughness of refining.

Question 43 : The octane number of aviation gasoline may be
1. 87
2. 97
3. 79
4. >100

Question 44 : __________ converts n-paraffins to i-paraffins.
1. Isomerisation
2. Alkylation
3. none of these
4. Polymerisation

Question 45 : In the atmospheric pressure crude distillation, the content of __________ from lighter fraction to heavier ones.
1. sulphur increases
2. sulphur decreases
3. nitrogen decreases
4. none of these

Question 46 : Flash point of motor gasoline may be around __________ °C.
1. 10
2. 100
3. 45
4. 150

Question 47 : Solution used in Doctor's treatment for the removal of mercaptans is
1. sodium plumbite
2. sodium hydroxide
3. cupric chloride
4. potassium isobutyrate

Question 48 : True boiling point apparatus is used for the
1. determination of characterisation factor.
2. determination of true vapour pressure.
3. evaluation of oil stocks.
4. none of these.

Question 49 : Paraffin base crude oil as compared to asphalt base crude gives
1. lower viscosity index lube oil.
2. higher yield of straight run gasoline.
3. higher octane number gasoline.
4. poorer yield of lube oil.

Question 50 : Octane number of gasoline is a measure of its
1. knocking tendency.
2. ignition temperature.
3. ignition delay.
4. smoke point.

Question 51 : Which of the following has the lowest viscosity (at a given temperature) of all?
1. Naphtha
2. Kerosene
3. Diesel
4. Lube oil

Question 52 : __________ determination is not a very significant and important test for gasoline.
1. Octane number
2. Gum & sulphur content
3. Reid vapor pressure
4. Viscosity

Question 53 : __________ test is done to find out the softening point of bitumen.
1. Impact
2. Viscosity
3. Ball and ring
4. Flame

Question 54 : Cetane number of diesel used in trucks may be about
1. 85
2. 35
3. 14
4. 5

Question 55 : Catalyst used in catalytic reforming is
1. nickel
2. platinum on alumina
3. aluminium chloride
4. iron

Question 56 : Pick out the additive property of a lube oil out of following.
1. Specific gravity
2. °API gravity
3. Viscosity
4. Flashpoint

Question 57 : Tanks used for the storage of petroleum products (which are inflammable) should be painted with a __________ paint.
1. white
2. red
3. yellow
4. black

Question 58 : Stabilisation of gasoline (petrol) means
1. increasing its oxidation stability.
2. improving its lead susceptibility.
3. increasing its vapour pressure.
4. removal of dissolved gases from it.

Question 59 : In petroleum refining, the process used for conversion of hydrocarbons to aromatics is
1. catalytic reforming
2. alkylation
3. catalytic cracking
4. hydrotreating

Question 60 : The main use of heavy gas oil produced by the vacuum distillation unit is as a
1. blending component for petrol.
2. feedstock for fluid catalytic cracking unit.
3. none of these.
4. blending component for kerosene.

Question 61 : Visbreaking process is used mainly for making
1. smoke free kerosene
2. fuel oil
3. high octane gasoline
4. high cetane diesel

Question 62 : Complete removal of __________ from gasoline is done by Unisol process using caustic soda and methyl alcohol.
1. mercaptans
2. asphalt
3. waxes
4. diolefins

Question 63 : Crude oil is pumped by a __________ pump.
1. screw
2. gear
3. centrifugal
4. reciprocating

Question 64 : A good lubricant should have high
1. volatility
2. viscosity index
3. none of these
4. pour point

Question 65 : Solvent used in the deasphalting process is
1. furfurol
2. hexane
3. propane
4. phenol

Question 66 : Casing head gasoline is the liquid
1. butane
2. natural gas.
3. propane
4. gasoline separated from wet natural gas by compression.

Question 67 : Viscosity index of a lubricating oil
1. is the measure of variation of viscosity with temperature.
2. none of these.
3. is the measure of its flash point.
4. should be low.

Question 68 : Most commonly used crude heater before the fractionation tower in a refinery is the __________ heater.
1. none of these
2. pipestill
3. electric immersion
4. steam coil

Question 69 : Which is the most undesirable component in kerosene ?
1. n-paraffins
2. i-paraffins
3. Naphthenes
4. Aromatics

Question 70 : Pour point and freezing point is equal for
1. diesel
2. petrol
3. water
4. crude petroleum

Question 71 : Smoke point of a test sample of kerosene is found to be 15 mm. On removal of __________ from it, the smoke point rises to 25 mm.
1. olefins
2. aromatics
3. n-paraffins
4. none of these

Question 72 : Maximum sulphur percentage in low sulphur heavy stock (LSHS) furnace oil is about
1. 1
2. 0.1
3. 5
4. 5

Question 73 : Which of the following tests is not done for transformer oil ?
1. Aniline point.
2. Flash point and acid value.
3. Copper strip corrosion test.
4. Dielectric strength.

Question 74 : __________ is not an important refinery process for upgrading the quality of lubricating oil.
1. Clay treatment
2. Deoiling
3. Hydrotreatment
4. Solvent refinging

Question 75 : Solvent used in duo-sol extraction for lube oil upgradation is a mixture of
1. phenol & furfural.
2. propane & phenol-cresol mixture.
3. methyl ethyl ketone & glycol.
4. propane & liquid sulphur dioxide.

Question 76 : Which of the following fractions of a crude oil will have the maximum gravity API (i.e. °API) ?
1. Atmospheric gas oil
2. Diesel
3. Gasoline
4. Vacuum gas oil

Question 77 : Diesel used in naval applications has a minimum cetane number of
1. 45
2. 25
3. 35
4. 65

Question 78 : Flash point of atmospheric distillation residue is determined by __________ apparates.
1. Cleveland (open cup type)
2. Abel.
3. Pensky-Martens (closed cup type).

By ellyskywilly


Aug 17, 2020
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