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Lake belongs to Malawi, UK letters reveal

Discussion in 'Jukwaa la Siasa' started by R.B, Sep 30, 2012.

  1. R.B

    R.B JF-Expert Member

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    [h=1]Lake belongs to Malawi, UK letters reveal[/h] As Malawi and Tanzania grapple with finding solutions to the Lake Malawi boundary wrangle, Downing Street memos on the issue during the Hastings Kamuzu Banda era we have seen build a strong case for Malawi.

    The memos were written in the 1960s when the dispute first surfaced after then Tanzanian president Julius Nyerere wrote London, complaining about Banda’s “expansionist” policy that was claiming the whole of Lake Malawi when, according to Tanzania, it was supposed to be shared equally.
    Archived communication we have seen from Number 10 Downing Street—Britain’s Prime Minister’s office in London—asserts that Tanzania cannot apply international law to claim the lake.
    “The present border between Malawi and Tanzania was first defined and described in Anglo-German Agreement of July 1 1890, which established the limits of the British and German spheres of influence in the area.
    “By that agreement [and the Anglo-Portuguese Agreements of 1890-3], the whole of Lake Nyasa was deemed as belonging to the British sphere of influence and the border where it touched the lake, ran down the eastern shoreline,” reads a 1969 internal Downing Street background note clarifying the border issue.
    But Tanzania’s position, as outlined recently by president Jakaya Kikwete, is that the Anglo-German Treaty of 1890 that gave Malawi the sole ownership of Lake Malawi was flawed and Tanzania has every reason to demand this to be corrected.
    Kikwete, in his August end-of-the-month address to his country, said the Heligoland Treaty—the agreement between then colonial powers Germany and Britain—denies Tanzanians living on the shores of Lake Malawi “their given right to utilise proximate water and marine resources to earn their daily living”.
    Kikwete, according to a report in The Citizen newspaper of Tanzania published on September 2 2012, argued that the colonial treaty set an unfortunate precedent for Tanzanians yet, on the border between Malawi and Mozambique, boundaries were duly readjusted to give citizens of those countries equal rights of access.
    He said the treaty is erroneous because it contravenes international law that requires States to share adjoining water resources.
    The 1969 background note followed Nyerere’s letter to British Prime Minister at the time, Harold Wilson, dated October 21 1968, in which he expressed concern that Malawi’s president Banda had announced on September 16 1968 that he was putting patrol vessels on Lake Malawi.
    Nyerere had claimed in his letter that the press reported that Britain was supplying three gun boats for that purpose.
    He said Banda had also put a vessel on the lake fitted out with arms for him by the Portuguese.
    An internal letter to a superior by a Downing Street official, a Mr. Waitland, attached to the background note, said:
    “With reference to your letter to David Erighty of October 15, I enclose a redraft of the reply to President Nyerere’s letter to the Prime Minister of September 24 about the border dispute between Malawi and Tanzania.”
    The letter made two landmark conclusions, the first one being:
    “It is doubtful whether Tanzania’s assertion—as expressed in paragraph 4 [four] of Nyerere’s letter to the Prime Minister…that the boundary between the two countries is in the centre of Lake Malawi—could be sustained in law, since the principles of international law, to which Nyerere appeals, could hardly be applied, whereas in the Anglo-German Agreement of 1890 about this particular boundary, one of the riparian States concerned has agreed with the other that the lake lay outside its boundaries,” reads the letter.
    This position notwithstanding, the memo points out that it might be argued that the definitions of the agreement of 1890 are in terms of “spheres of influence and that these may not necessarily entail definitive territorial boundaries.”
    The second conclusion was “that the Tanzanians would have a stronger case for a redefinition of the boundary if they had based this on grounds not of international law, but of equity.”
    The communication we have seen further shows that the 1890 Anglo-German Agreement was maintained when the Protectorate of Nyasaland districts was formed in 1891 and also in 1893 when the protectorate was renamed British Central Africa and in 1907 when it was renamed again as the Nyasaland Protectorate.
    According to the communication, when the British role was established in German East Africa and renamed Tanganyika after the treaty of Versailles in 1918, under mandate from the League of Nations, Tanganyika’s border on Lake Nyasa on the eastern shoreline continued to be of the former German colony.
    “This continued to be the case when the British mandate over Tanganyika was continued in the form of a United Nations Trusteeship,” reads the communication.
    In the documents, Britain also highlighted sources of confusion over lake’s boundary.
    “All the above territorial definitions rest on the terms of the Anglo-German Agreement of 1890, since subsequent Orders in Council, etc. have tended to describe the territories as “bounded by German East Africa” [for Malawi] and the “Nyasaland Protectorate” [for Tanzania],” says the communication.
    It adds that further confusion arises out of German and British maps of the area which are inconsistent.
    “The German maps of 1904 and 1913 show the boundary running along the eastern shore of the lake, but one of 1918 shows it as being the median of the lake. The Colonial Office Map Supplement of 1948 gives the border on the shoreline for its map of Nyasaland, and the middle of the lake for its Tanganyikan counterpart,” reads the communication.
    The most blatant error, according to the communication, is contained in the map included in the White Paper issued in 1953 on the conference on the Federation of Southern Rhodesia, Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland, which shows the border running down the median of Lake Nyasa between Nyasaland and Tanganyika.
    The Malawi-Tanzania border resurfaced this year following Capital Hill’s licensing of a firm to explore oil on Lake Malawi.
    Tanzania now wants a chunk of the water body, which led to negotiations—first in Tanzania then in Malawi last month. The talks were inconclusive.
    Malawi now wants to take the matter to the UN International Court of Justice after the talks in Mzuzu last month failed to resolve the matter, according to Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation Minister Ephraim Chiume.
    But Chancellor College international law expert, Dr. Mwiza Nkhata, said in an interview soon after the talks that the world court would not automatically decide on the matter because Tanzania did not give compulsory jurisdiction to the court on interpretation of treaties and questions on international law.
    On the Tanzania side, the Mzuzu talks were led by Chiume’s counterpart, Bernard Membe. That meeting resolved that they should try diplomacy to end the wrangle and that the Attorney Generals of the two countries should interpret Article 1 (2) (IV) of the Anglo-Germany Treaty.
    The two countries were expected to meet in Tanzania this month for more talks.
    But on Thursday this week, Information Minister Moses Kunkuyu said the meeting the two countries were scheduled to have this September have not yet taken place.
    Kunkuyu said there is no latest development on the mater.
    He supported the memo’s content, saying it has been Capital Hill’s conviction that the whole lake belongs to Malawi.
  2. Lekanjobe Kubinika

    Lekanjobe Kubinika JF-Expert Member

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    Kwa hiyo ili kuvua mbasa kule Itungi lazima kupata kibali capitol hil Lilongwe sio? Wakisi wote ni wamalawi sasa? Vile vyungu vya Matema ni export goods from Malawi? Wajerumani na waingereza wako kwao wametulia, wala adha hii haiwahusu. Kwa hiyo kama wangesema maji yote ya Sumbi ni ya Tanzania, Malawi wangelichukuliaje hilo? Greedy does not empower anybody to survive, rather it innovates un-ending calamity.
  3. Return Of Undertaker

    Return Of Undertaker JF-Expert Member

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    Huu uhuni natamani sana kama mwalimu angukuwepo au issue hii ingeibuka enzi ya Mkapa tusingeumiza kichwa
  4. Jodoki Kalimilo

    Jodoki Kalimilo JF-Expert Member

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    Bado tunatawaliwa
  5. papason

    papason JF-Expert Member

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    Yaani apo adi tutandike mtu kama tulivyo fanya kwa iddi amin!

    Tukikalia longolongo ziwa linakwenda mchana kweupe!
  6. m

    mgomba101 JF-Expert Member

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    Mpaka uko katikati ya ziwa! Tusubili kauli ya Amiri jeshi Mkuu wetu.
  7. Ruttashobolwa

    Ruttashobolwa JF-Expert Member

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    Nasubiri kauli ya Lowasa kwe hili swala
  8. y

    yaya JF-Expert Member

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    Mkuu, hapo pamoja na kutokuelewa lugha hiyo vizuri nimeuona mkanganyiko wa andiko lipi hasa la kuegemea ili kupata suluhu.

    Taarifa inaanza na memo za mwaka 1960, wakati ati rais wa Tanzania alipoiandikia London kutaka ufafanuzi wa mpaka wa TZ na Malawi!!?? Ina maana kabla ya uhuru wa Tanganyika? na Rais ni Nyerere?

    Kisha tuanambiwa mpaka unaotumika sasa ambao Wamalawi hawautaki ni makubaliano ya Julai mosi, 1890 kati ya Wajerumani na Waingereza. Ambapo historia inatuambia mkutano wa Berlin ndio ulioigawa Afrika ki-mipaka na wakoloni.

    Baada ya hapo zimefuata blah blah nyingi hadi mwisho zenye kuegemea upande mmoja ukiacha mtazamo wa Dr. Mwiza Nkhata, kiasi cha kunifanya niamini chanzo cha habari hiyo ni Malawi.

    Mimi nadhani Malawi wakubali mpaka wa nusu kwa nusu kama ilivyo kati yao na Mozambique. Wasirejee chokochoko za Marehemu Banda, patachafuka washindwe pa kukimbilia.
  9. Kirode

    Kirode JF-Expert Member

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    Wachukue na victoria mlima kilimanjaro
  10. zaleo

    zaleo JF-Expert Member

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    Hilo ni wazo zuri Nkuu, lakini wamalawi vichwa maji, hawajajikomboa kifikra bado. Ndo maana walikuwa wanatamba kwamba scotland itawasaidia kuchakaza Tanzania. upeo wa akili zao kuona mbele ni mitre 2 tu. Zaidi ya hapo ni scotland au south africa. Ntu mwenye akili yeyote hawezi kusema mpaka na jirani yake ni mwisho wa barabara kwa upande wa jirani yake ili peke yake awe na hati miliki ya barabara hiyo japo anakuona na wewe jirani yake unapita humohumo. Halafu baadaye aje kuchimbachimba kwenye huo anaousema ni mpaka akidai anatafuta samaki nchanga. Kunkung'uta ni halali yake.
  11. Janjaweed

    Janjaweed JF-Expert Member

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    sometimes ni bora kuwa na mtu kama lowassa tu, vitu kama hivi vingeshaisha zamani sana

    kwa sasa tuna mtu ambaye hata sijui anaoperate kwa MS-DOS au nini
  12. jogi

    jogi JF-Expert Member

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    Kwani lowasa anakuzidi akili kiasi kwamba atakachoeleza ndiyo sahihi?
    Mimi nakwambia na uwe ndiyo msimamo wako toka leo kuwa "Mpaka wa tanzania na malawi unapita katikati ya ziwa nyasa" NO COMPROMISE!!!!!!

    kumbuka kuwa kampuni iliyopewa zabuni na wamalawi kuyasaka mafuta ziwa nyasa inatoka "ungreza" unatarajia serikali ya ungreza inaweza kusema nini kuhusu hilo ziwa, hasa ukizingatia mafuta yapo kipande ya tanzania, hapo ndipo ngoma inaponogea.
  13. Moshe Dayan

    Moshe Dayan JF-Expert Member

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    yani mtu kazaliwa mbamba bay, kakulia ziwani, maisha yake entirely yanategemea uvuvi, leo hii aambiwe kuvua eneo hilo anahitaji kibali toka lilongwe.., wht the fuc..k!

    hawa wazungu ni wapuuzi sana.., waliigawa afrika kwa maslahi yao bado sasa hivi wanataka kuleta maamuzi ambayo hayana common sense, na mkumbuke UK haiwezi kuitetea tanzania afterall, previously, we were under germany authority,

    This is typical neo-colonialism
  14. K

    KipimaPembe JF-Expert Member

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    This article has nothing new! It is just a continuation of Malawi's illusion on the ownership of this lake. Quoting Downing street memoirs and concluding that the lake belongs to Malawi is a blatantly flawed line of argument. The same Heligoland contract which always Malawians are basing their claims on has been proved on a number of times that it was inconclusive and it left the matters to responsible partners (powers sharing the boarder) to make a final decision - which was never made during colonial era and an attempt to do it after independence has always met resistance from Malawians.

    This matter can only be decided by international court, which Malawians are not ready to go to, since they know that the principles of international law cannot grant them the whole lake. Let the Malawians dream on, but truth remains to the fact that they own a part of Lake Nyasa that falls only on their side. The other parts are owned by Tanzania and Mozambique.
  15. Ileje

    Ileje JF-Expert Member

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    Swala hili la mkataba kuhusu mpaka za Ziwa Nyasa halina tofauti na mkataba uliowekwa na Uingereza na Misri na Sudan kuhusu matumizi ya maji katika Ziwa Victoria na Mto Nile! Mkataba huo wa kishenzi unazipa haki Misri na Sudan kutumia maji hayo na kuzizuia nchi zote za Afrika Mashariki!

    Liwalo na liwe lazima Tanzania tutumie kila busara tulizonazo ikiwa pamoja na logic, sheria na nguvu kuhakikisha kuwa tunabaki na haki yetu ya kibinadamu kutumia maji ya Ziwa Nyasa!
  16. Bujibuji

    Bujibuji JF-Expert Member

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    Ndio faida za kuwa na rais sharobaro
  17. Thanda

    Thanda JF-Expert Member

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    Hadi tuandikiwe barua au memo...kwani huo ndio uhakika wa mipaka tukichapa mtu adabu itarudi
  18. K

    KipimaPembe JF-Expert Member

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    Watu wa Malawi wanaendelea na inaelekea wanapenda kujidanganya. Suala la huo mkataba wanaoung'ang'ania limeshazungumzwa na iko wazi kuwa mkataba ule haukulimaliza suala la mpaka. Sasa hapa wanataka kudanganya watu au wanadanganyana wao kwa wao kwa kusema kile wale wanaokubaliana nao wanachokisema.

    Heligoland haiwapi wamalawi ziwa Nyasa lote na hilo wanalijua vizuri. Ndo maana sasa wanatafuta chochote cha kujiridhisha nacho. Kama wameona ngoma nzito waende kwenye Mahakama ya kimataifa, mbona wanajikanyaga kanyaga kila wakati?? Malawi wanajua siku wakienda kwenye mahakama ya kimataifa Ndoto yao ya kumiliki ziwa lote itakuwa imesambaratika, kwani hakuna sehemu yoyote duniani ambapo mahakama hiyo imeshaamua kuwa mpaka wa nchi na nchi uwe ufukweni mwa ziwa!!
  19. Bitabo

    Bitabo JF-Expert Member

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    Kwa style hii ya Membe na JK hili ziwa lishachukuliwa.
    Mtu pekee anayeweza kulirejesha baada ya 2015 kama sio CDM kuchukua nchi ni Lowasa kama CCM watampitisha
  20. Jay One

    Jay One JF-Expert Member

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    We are not governed by UK letters.....
    LAKE Nyasa belongs to Tanzania... TZ letter revealed...
    Alafu ww Mmalawi sie tutakupiga.... just wait... Mods for Our lovely country National Interests mpige ban ya Maisha huyu Mmalawi.....