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Ijue sheria na hukumu ya kuua bila kukusudia

Discussion in 'Jukwaa la Sheria (The Law Forum)' started by Mandown, Apr 9, 2012.

  1. Mandown

    Mandown JF-Expert Member

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    Wanasheria Msaada hapo jamani
    -----

     
  2. Amavubi

    Amavubi JF-Expert Member

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    Kuna aina kuu mbili za hukumu ya kesi ya kuua


    1. Kuua kwa kusudia ambako mahakama lazima ijiridhishe bila shaka yoyote kwamba muuaji alikusudia (Prove beyond any any reasonable doubt) ndio maana makosa kama hayo huchukua muda mrefu sana...Hapa adhabu yake ni kifo kwa sheria za Tanzania (Murder case=death penalty)
    2. Ukipatikana na hatia ya Kuua bila kukusudia (Manslaughter) adhabu yake ni kifungo cha Maisha, (kukaaa jela kwa kipindi cha maisha yako yote yenye nguvu)

    Angalizo mni kwamba mambo ya sheria ni very technical and every case has its own merit. kwa mujibu wa Katiba ya Tanzania, Mahakama ndiyo imepewa mamlaka ya kutafsiri sheria na shauri....kwa kuangalia pia precedent (maamuzi mengine yanayofanana na shauri lililoko mbele yao katika mahakama za ndani au nje zinazotumia mfumo wa shria kama wa kwetu nk.
     
  3. C

    CHUAKACHARA JF-Expert Member

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    Amavubi, are sure manslaughter adhabu yake ni life imprisonment. Nenda kafanye rejea tena utujuvye.
     
  4. King Kong III

    King Kong III JF-Expert Member

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    Adhabu yake ni kifungo cha maisha au chini ya hapo,mara nyingi nyundo zaidi ya kumi.
     
  5. Amavubi

    Amavubi JF-Expert Member

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    dfn: the unlawful killing of a human being without maliceaforethought.


    hii nimetohoa fasta maana nina majukumu hapa

    someni kwa furaha
    Like murder, manslaughter requires that:

    • the victim has died, and
    • an act of the defendant's contributed significantly to their death.

    However, the final element that is required to establish murder, that is, that the defendant intended to cause death or grievous bodily harm or knew that their actions would result in death or bodily harm, is not present in a case of manslaughter [Criminal Law Consolidation Act 1935 s 13]. This is because the law recognises that there is a significant distinction to be made between a death caused as a result of a person's deliberate intent or recklessness and one that, although caused as a result of a person's actions, was not intended by them to result in such harm.
    Within the offence of manslaughter the common law recognises different categories of manslaughter. A distinction is often made between voluntary and involuntary manslaughter.
    Voluntary manslaughter occurs where all the elements for the offence of murder are met but liability is reduced due to mitigating circumstances such as provocation.
    Involuntary manslaughter involves the following categories:

    • Unlawful or dangerous act: death from an unlawful or dangerous act carrying with it an appreciable risk of serious injury is manslaughter where the defendant exposed the victim to an appreciable risk ofserious injury. A frequent example of this sort of case are the ‘single punch' assault cases, where the defendant's sole punch to the victim (intending to hurt but not to kill) results in their death. Where the victim has engaged willingly in the dangerous act, consent on the part of the victim to the dangerous act is not a defence. An example of this is R v Cato(1976) 1 All ER 260. In this case the victim engaged in injecting heroin with the assistance of the defendant. Both defendant and victim were responsible for measuring out their own doses with the agreement that they would then administer the shot to the other person.
    • Accidental death in the course of a felony: the death must be unintentional in the course of a non-violent illegal act, for example, when a person is killed in the course of a larceny. See R v Parmenter[1956] VLR 312 where the defendant shot and killed the victim whilst in his room intending to steal his gun. The defendant went into the victim's room believing him to be away from the premises. The victim was in fact in his room and a struggle ensued during which the gun was accidentally discharged, resulting in the victim's death. Because larceny is not a crime which a reasonable person would contemplate being likely to result in death, the offence was manslaughter by accidental death in the course of a felony. However, had the felony been armed robbery the appropriate offence would have been murder as this is a crime which could reasonably be expected to result in either death or grievous bodily harm.
    • Criminal Negligence: a very high degree of negligence is required – inattention or a simple lack of care is not sufficient. However, where behaviour is so reckless as to show a disregard for the life and safety of others this will generally meet the test of criminal negligence. For example, dangerous driving causing death (see Andrews v DPP (1937) AC 576). The negligent act must be a substantial factor in the cause of death, see R v Cato(1976) 1 All ER 260.
     
  6. Amavubi

    Amavubi JF-Expert Member

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    dfn: the unlawful killing of a human being without maliceaforethought.


    hii nimetohoa fasta maana nina majukumu hapa

    someni kwa furaha
    Like murder, manslaughter requires that:

    • the victim has died, and
    • an act of the defendant’s contributed significantly to their death.

    However, the final element that is required to establish murder, that is, that the defendant intended to cause death or grievous bodily harm or knew that their actions would result in death or bodily harm, is not present in a case of manslaughter [Criminal Law Consolidation Act 1935 s 13]. This is because the law recognises that there is a significant distinction to be made between a death caused as a result of a person’s deliberate intent or recklessness and one that, although caused as a result of a person’s actions, was not intended by them to result in such harm.
    Within the offence of manslaughter the common law recognises different categories of manslaughter. A distinction is often made between voluntary and involuntary manslaughter.
    Voluntary manslaughter occurs where all the elements for the offence of murder are met but liability is reduced due to mitigating circumstances such as provocation.
    Involuntary manslaughter involves the following categories:

    • Unlawful or dangerous act: death from an unlawful or dangerous act carrying with it an appreciable risk of serious injury is manslaughter where the defendant exposed the victim to an appreciable risk ofserious injury. A frequent example of this sort of case are the ‘single punch’ assault cases, where the defendant’s sole punch to the victim (intending to hurt but not to kill) results in their death. Where the victim has engaged willingly in the dangerous act, consent on the part of the victim to the dangerous act is not a defence. An example of this is R v Cato(1976) 1 All ER 260. In this case the victim engaged in injecting heroin with the assistance of the defendant. Both defendant and victim were responsible for measuring out their own doses with the agreement that they would then administer the shot to the other person.
    • Accidental death in the course of a felony: the death must be unintentional in the course of a non-violent illegal act, for example, when a person is killed in the course of a larceny. See R v Parmenter[1956] VLR 312 where the defendant shot and killed the victim whilst in his room intending to steal his gun. The defendant went into the victim’s room believing him to be away from the premises. The victim was in fact in his room and a struggle ensued during which the gun was accidentally discharged, resulting in the victim’s death. Because larceny is not a crime which a reasonable person would contemplate being likely to result in death, the offence was manslaughter by accidental death in the course of a felony. However, had the felony been armed robbery the appropriate offence would have been murder as this is a crime which could reasonably be expected to result in either death or grievous bodily harm.
    • Criminal Negligence: a very high degree of negligence is required – inattention or a simple lack of care is not sufficient. However, where behaviour is so reckless as to show a disregard for the life and safety of others this will generally meet the test of criminal negligence. For example, dangerous driving causing death (see Andrews v DPP (1937) AC 576). The negligent act must be a substantial factor in the cause of death, see R v Cato(1976) 1 All ER 260.
     
  7. Amavubi

    Amavubi JF-Expert Member

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    The maximum penalty for manslaughter is life imprisonment. However, due to the many and varying range of circumstances that can occur in ...
     
  8. SMU

    SMU JF-Expert Member

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    Inategemea umeuwaje. Kuna mheshimiwa mmoja aliuwa watu wawili kwa gari lakini akapewa adhabu ya faini (kama nakumbuka vyema laki saba hivi!).
     
  9. VUTA-NKUVUTE

    VUTA-NKUVUTE JF-Expert Member

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    Achana na desa la Amavubi.Sheria yetu ya Tanzania inatamka kuwa kuuwa bila kunuwia kunaadhibiwa kwa kifungo chochote kile chenye ukomo wa kifungo cha maisha.Yaani,kifungo cha juu ni maisha..

    Mzee Tupatupa
     
  10. Amavubi

    Amavubi JF-Expert Member

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    mSISITIZO HAPO NI KWAMBA every case has its own meirt, nakubaliana na hoja (NA si desa la Amavubi) kwamba ni vigumu kujibu swali la sheria kama vile unajibu swali la HESABU
     
  11. Amavubi

    Amavubi JF-Expert Member

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    ni kweli ni desa, sidhani kama kuna mtu mwenye sheria yake bonafsi bila kudesa
     
  12. R

    RIZIKI JUMATATU Member

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    Kama ndio hivyo ni sheria gani iliyotumika ya kumwachia huru Ditopile Mzuzuri?
     
  13. C

    CHUAKACHARA JF-Expert Member

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    Asante kwa ufafanuzi.
     
  14. H

    Hute JF-Expert Member

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    ndiyo ni life imprisonment. however kila kesi huamuliwa kulingana na mazingira yake, hapo ndipo kwenye discretion ya majaji. kuna wengine wanapewa hadi mwaka mmoja, wengine miwili, mitatu, mitano, saba etc. sijawahi kuona manslaugter yeyote tz mtu kapewa life imprisonment. hapo ndipo utajua kuwa, kusoma sheria kama theory ni tofauti na kuifanyia sheria practice. professor wa law university of dsm atakwambia life imprisonment, lakini state attorney mwenye degree moja anayepractice haya kila siku anajua ambacho huwa kinaendelea mahakamani. studying law without practice is like getting married to a woman but you don't have sex with her.
     
  15. Amavubi

    Amavubi JF-Expert Member

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    Lawyers who knows the judges and who knows the laws
     
  16. Mandown

    Mandown JF-Expert Member

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    hapo sasa......!
     
  17. L'AMOUR

    L'AMOUR Senior Member

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    Kama tunakumbuka vizuri Ditopile hakuwahi kuachiwa huru ila kilichofanyika ni kubadili kosa lake kutoka kuua hadi kuua(murder) bila kukusudia(manslaugher) kosa ambalo linaruhusu dhamana. Hadi kifo kinamfika alikuwa nje kwa dhamana na si kwamba aliachiwa huru kwani kesi yake ilikuwa inaendelea. Nakumbushia tu!
     
  18. aleesha

    aleesha JF-Expert Member

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    Tumekuwa tukisikia fulani amepatikana na hatia ya kuua bila kukusudia au fulani ameua bila kukusudia, je unajua nini maana ya kuua bila kukusudia kisheria. Mara ya mwisho neno kuua bila kukusudia limesemwa sana baada ya hukumu katika kesi iliyohusu kifo cha mwanahabari Daudi Mwangosi. Yapo mengi ya kujua kuhusu kuua bila kukusudia.

    Kifungu cha 195,sura ya 16, Kanuni za adhabu ndicho huzungumzia kuua bila kukusudia.

    1.NINI MAANA YA KUUA BILA KUKUSUDIA.

    Katika sheria kuua bila kukusudia (manslaughter) kunatofautishwa na kuua kwa kukusudia(murder). Kuua bila kukusudia ni kuua ambako muuaji anatenda kitendo kinachopelekea kifo lakini hakuwa na nia,dhamira au lengo la kusababisha mtu afe.

    Wakati kuua kwa kukusudia ni pale mtu anapotenda tendo ambalo linapelekea mauaji ya mtu lakini amefanya hivyo akiwa amedhamiria kuua. Kwahiyo haraka utaona kuwa tofauti kubwa ya kuua kwa kukusudia na ile ya kuua bila kukusudia ni dhamira, nia au lengo.

    Dhamira,nia au lengo likiwa ni kuua, basi huko ndiko kuua kwa kukusudia. Na dhamira,nia au lengo likiwa sio kuua lakini bahati mbaya mtu akafa basi hiyo itakuwa ndio kuua bila kukusudia.

    2. UTAJUAJE HUYU ALIUA KWA KUKUSUDIA NA HUYU HAKUKUSUDIA.

    Yapo mambo ambayo hutizamwa na mahakama ili kujua iwapo kulikuwa na dhamira ya kuua au haikuwepo. Moja ya jambo kubwa ambalo huangaliwa ni mazingira kabla ya tukio, mazingira wakati wa tukio na baada ya tukio.
    Kwa mfano A alimkashifu B kwa matusi mabaya . B akakasirika sana . Baadae B akaenda kwake akaja na panga ambalo alilitumia kumuua A . Hapa B atakuwa ameua kwa kukusudia kwasababu alisafiri kutoka eneo la tukio , akatembea mpaka nyumbani kwake, akatafuta panga, akaanza safari ya kurudi, akamtafuta tena A, akampata ndipo akamuua. Hatua zote hizi za kwenda,kurudi nk. zinathibitisha dhamira, nia au lengo. Hakuna bahati mbaya inayopitia hatua hizi zote.

    Lakini ingekuwa palepale baada ya kukashifiwa kwa hasira akampiga na kumuua, ingekuwa kuua bila kukusudia kulikotokana na joto la hasira(heat of passion).

    Kwahiyo ushahidi wa mazingira ya tukio kama hayo ndio utaifanya mahakama iamue kama mtuhumiwa ameua kwa kukusudia au hakukusudia.

    Upande unaosema aliua bila kukusudia utaleta ushahidi kuonesha mazingira ya tukio na upande unaosema alikusudia nao utaleta ushahidi kuonesha mazingira ya kusudi, nia au dhamira.

    3. AINA MBILI ZA KUUA BILA KUKUSUDIA.

    Kwanza ni kuua bila kukusudia lakini kwa tendo linalotokana na hiari(voluntary manslaughter). Hii ni pale ambapo ni kweli kuwa fulani alidhamiria kumpiga fulani au alimsukuma lakini hakutaka afe. Kwa mfano mzazi anamchapa mwanae kwa kosa fulani lakini katika kumchapa mtoto anakufa. Au askari anapiga bomu la machozi ili watu wakimbie lakini katika kufanya hivyo bomu linampata raia na kumuua.Hii ni aina ya kwanza ya kuua bila kukusudia.

    Aina ya pili ni kuua bila kukusudia kwa tendo ambalo si la hiari( involuntary manslaughter). Kwa mfano breki za gari zinakatika na gari inamuua mtu. Au bunduki imeshikwa vibaya inajifyatua na kuua mtu.

    Ni matendo ya uzembe lakini hayakutokana na hiari kama ilivyo hiari kuamua kumchapa mwanao.
    Aina hizi zote mbili ni za kuua bila kukusudia.

    MWANDISHI WA MAKALA HAYA NI MWANASHERIA NA MWANDISHI WA MAKALA YA SHERIA KUPITIA GAZETI LA JAMHURI KILA JUMANNE. ”
     
  19. jozzeva

    jozzeva JF-Expert Member

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    Ni kuua bila kukusudia.
     
  20. aggyjay

    aggyjay JF-Expert Member

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    je mazingira kama hayakuonekana na pia tukio walikua wawili tu. tutaamini vipi aliua bila kukusudia or alisababisha kifo bila kuwa na dhamiri ya kuua?
    refer kesi ya lulu na kanumba.walikua wenyewe chumbani..
    vipimo hosp vikaonyesha marehemu ubongo umeshuka nyuma..hii haiwez kutokea hivihivi bila kujigonga au kusukumwa ukutani kwa nguvu.
     
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