Ijue Mahakama ya Mwanzo na Sheria zinazotumika Mahakama ya Mwanzo (Primary Court)

Apr 26, 2022
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Mahakama ya Mwanzo na Sheria zake:

Mwandishi: Zakaria - Lawyer by profession).

Watu wengi hata waliosoma sheria huwa wanachanganya kati ya sheria zinazotumika Primary Court na Sheria zinazotumika Mahakama zingine kama District Courts, Courts of Resident Magistrate, High Court n.k., hii ni kwa sababu Primary Court inafundishwa kidogo sana. *

Si ajabu kabisa kukuta Mwanafunzi wa sheria anakwambia Civil Procedure Code au Evidence Act inatumika Primary Court.

Sasa mimi leo nataka nikupitishe kwa haraka haraka juu ya Mahakama ya Mwanzo na sheria zake zile muhimu zaidi.

Kiufupi, Mahakama ya Mwanzo (Primary Court), ndio Mahakama ya chini kabisa katika mhimili wa Mahakama na inapatikana kila Wilaya, pia ina mamlaka ya kusikiliza kesi ndani ya wilaya husika tu ambapo imejengwa au ilipoanzishwa. (Soma kifungu cha 3 cha Sheria ya Mahakama za Mahakimu/The Magistrates’ Courts Act, [CAP 11 R.E. 2019] hereinafter referred to as MCA).

Na Mamlaka ya Mahakama ya Mwanzo kusikiliza kesi yoyote (iwe ni jinai, madai, ndoa/talaka, mirathi n.k.) ni pale tu ambapo SHERIA INAYOTUMIKA NI YA KIMILA AU KIISLAM.

Ingawa kuna exceptions ukisoma proviso ya kifungu cha 18(1)(a)(i) cha MCA, Mahakama ya Mwanzo imepewa pia mamlaka ya kusikiliza migogoro mingine. Ila kwa ujumla, mamlaka yake yanaishia tu kwenye migogoro ambayo inahusu mambo ya KIMILA au dini ya KIISLAMU.

✓ IDADI YA HAKIMU NA WAZEE WA BARAZA (ASSESSORS) KATIKA MAHAKAMA YA MWANZO:

Kesi katika Mahakama ya Mwanzo inaweza kusikilizwa na Hakimu mmoja (na walau assessors/wazee wa baraza) wawili, hapo benchi la Mahakama ya Mwanzo linakuwa limekamilika. (Sections 6(1) of the MCA). Ingawa hiyo ni kwenye nadharia tu, in practice, kesi Mahakama ya Mwanzo inaweza kusikilizwa na Mahakimu hadi wawili au zaidi kama kesi hiyo itakuwa ni nzito/ngumu. (Section 6(3) of the MCA).

NB: KWA SASA SIO LAZIMA ASSESSORS WAWEPO Mahakama ya Mwanzo, na hata wakiwepo maoni yao hayamfungi/kumbana Hakimu. Soma section 7(1) of the MCA, as amended by section 52(a) of the Written Laws (Miscellaneous Amendments) (No. 3), Act 2021.

✓ LUGHA INAYOTUMIKA MAHAKAMA YA MWANZO:

Lugha inayotumika Mahakama ya Mwanzo siku zote ni Kiswahili. (Hii iko hivyo kabla hata ya Rais Hayati Magufuli kupendekeza matumizi ya kiswahili katika Mahakama zote). Soma Section 13(1) of the MCA.

✓ SHERIA ZINAZOTUMIKA MAHAKAMA YA MWANZO (PRIMARY COURT): 📚

Nimezigawa katika makundi matatu.

1: Sheria zinazotumika Mahakama ya Mwanzo kwenye kesi za madai (Civil cases).

2: Sheria zinazotumika Mahakama ya Mwanzo kwenye mashauri/kesi za jinai (Criminal cases) na

3: Sheria zinazotoa PROCEDURES AU UTARATIBU wa kufuata katika kusikiliza mashauri Mahakama ya Mwanzo.

PART A: Tuanze na SHERIA ZINAZOTUMIKA MAHAKAMA ya MWANZO KWENYE KESI ZA MADAI.

1: MCA (The Magistrates’ Courts Act, CAP 11, R.E 2019). Sheria hii ndio inataja na kufafanua Mamlaka ya Mahakama ya Mwanzo kwenye kesi za madai, ikiwemo mirathi, migogoro ya ndoa/talaka n.k. Soma kifungu cha 18(1) na 19(1)(b) & (c). Pia soma jedwali la 4 na la 5 la sheria hiyo hiyo (the Fourth and Fifth Schedules to the MCA).

2: Kwa kuwa Mahakama ya Mwanzo ina mamlaka ya kusikiliza kesi za madai pale ambapo sheria inayohusika ni ya Mila au Dini ya Kiislamu (where the law applicable is CUSTOMARY LAW or ISLAMIC LAW), basi Sheria nyingine inayotumika Mahakama ya Mwanzo ni ‘Sheria ya Kimila (Customary law)’ ya kwenye mipaka ya lile eneo ambapo hiyo Mahakama ya mwanzo ipo. Soma kifungu cha 19(1)(b) na paragraph 2 of the Fourth Schedule to the MCA.

3: Sheria nyingine ni ‘the Judicature and Application of Laws Act, [Cap 358 R.E 2019] (JALA)’, Kwa sababu hii Sheria ndio inaruhusu na kufafanua jinsi ya kutumia sheria za kimila nchini Tanzania.

4: Sheria nyingine ni the Local Cutomary Law (Declaration) Orders 1963 and 1967 [GN No. 279 of 1963 and GN No. 219 of 1967 respectively].

5: Sheria zingine ni sheria za Kiislam (Islamic law). Hii inatumika kwa wanaoamini imani ya dini hiyo (Waislamu).

SHERIA ZINGINE ZINAZOTUMIKA MAHAKAMA YA MWANZO KWENYE KESI ZA MADAI.

{i}: KWENYE KESI ZA MIRATHI:

- Kwa ujumla sheria kuu inayotumika kwenye migogoro ya mirathi Tanzania, ni The Probate and Administration of Estates Act (PAEA), CAP. 352 (Sheria ya Uthibitisho wa Wosia na Usimamizi wa Mirathi) na Rules zake. Sheria zingine ni kama the Administrator-General (Powers and Functions) Act na Indian Succession Act of 1865.

- Lakini PAEA, Administrator-General (Powers and Functions) Act, na Indian Succession Act hazitumiki Primary Court. Soma Paragraph 1(2)(a) of the Fifth Schedule to the MCA.

- Kwenye Mirathi Specifically, Primary Court inatumia the ‘Primary Courts (Administration of Estates) Rules G.N. No.49 of 1971’ (Mashauri ya mirathi katika Mahakama ya Mwanzo yanaongozwa na Tangazo la Serikali Na. 49 la mwaka 1971) pamoja na sheria zingine za Primary Court nilizotaja awali huko juu.

{ii}: KWENYE EVIDENCE:

-(Generally, sheria ya ushahidi Tanzania, ni Tanzania Evidence Act (TEA), Lakini TEA haitumiki Primary Court. (Soma section 2 of the Evidence Act [CAP. 6 R.E. 2019])

- Primary Court inatumia the ‘Magistrates’ Courts (Rules of Evidence in Primary Courts) Regulations G.N. 22 of 1964 and G.N. No. 66 of 1972.’ (Soma section 19(2) of MCA).

{iii} KWENYE UKOMO WA KUFUNGUA KESI ZA MADAI (LIMITATIONS OF ACTIONS:

- Generally, relevant law kwenye ukomo wa muda wa kufungua kesi ni, The Law of Limitation Act [CAP. 89 R.E. 2019]

- Lakini Primary Court inatumia The Magistrates’ Courts (Limitation of Proceedings under Customary Law) Rules (Pia niongelee Limitation of time kwenye baadhi ya kesi za criminal Primary Court, unaweza soma paragraph 20 of the Primary Court Criminal Procedure Code (PCCPC).

{iv} NAMNA YA KUTOA HUKUMU:
Primary Court inatumia The Magistrates’ Courts (Primary Courts) (Judgment of Court) Rules, 1987 GN No. 2 of 1988, hii inahusu jinsi ya kutoa hukumu za Mahakama ya Mwanzo.

PART B: SHERIA ZINAZOTUMIKA MAHAKAMA YA MWANZO KWENYE MASHAURI/KESI ZA JINAI (CRIMINAL CASES):

1: MCA (The Magistrates’ Courts Act, CAP 11, R.E 2019). Sheria hii pia ndio inataja na kufafanua Mamlaka ya Mahakama ya Mwanzo kwenye kesi za ‘JINAI’. Soma Jedwali la kwanza (the First Schedule to the MCA). Sehemu ya kwanza ya jedwali hilo inataja orodha ya baadhi ya makosa ya kwenye Penal Code ambayo Mahakama ya Mwanzo ina mamalaka ya kusikiliza. Pia inaorodhesha sheria zingine ambazo zinaipa Mahakama ya Mwanzo mamlaka ya kusikiliza kesi nyingine mbalimbali.

NB: Kule kwenye kesi za madai tuliona Mahakama ya mwanzo ina mamlaka kwenye migogoro ya madai ambayo inahusu mambo ya KIMILA au dini ya KIISLAMU. Kwenye jinai hakuna makosa ya jinai ya kimila (no any customary law offences).

PART C: SHERIA ZINAZOTOA PROCEDURES AU UTARATIBU WA KUFUATWA KATIKA USIKILIZAJI WA KESI MAHAKAMA YA MWANZO

1: Procedures upande wa kesi za madai:

Generally, Civil Procedure Code (CPC) ndio framework/basic law inayotoa procedures kwenye kesi za madai Tanzania.

- Lakini CPC haitumiki Mahakama ya Mwanzo. (Section 2 of the Civil Procedure Code [CAP. 33 R.E. 2019]).

- Mahakama ya Mwanzo inatumia, The Magistrates’ Courts (Civil Procedure in Primary Courts) Rules. G.N. No. 310 of 1964 and G.N. No. 119 of 1983.

- Sheria nyingine ni, The Civil Procedure (Appeals in Proceedings Originating in Primary Courts) Rules, 1964 (GN No. 312 of 1964).

2: Procedures upande wa kesi za jinai.

Generally Utaratibu ambao Mahakama zinatakiwa kuufata kwenye kesi za JINAI upo kwenye Criminal Procedure Act (CPA), CAP 20. (Sheria ya Mwenendo wa Makosa ya Jinai).

- Lakini CPA haitumiki Mahakama ya mwanzo (Soma section 3(1) of CPA).

- Mahakama ya Mwanzo inatumia Primary Courts Criminal Procedure Code (PCCPC). However, kuna exception, ambapo kuna baadhi ya vifungu vya CPA, vina-apply hadi primary courts. (Soma section 3(2) of CPA).

Pia kuna The Judicature and Application of Laws (Criminal Appeals and Revisions in Proceedings Originating from Primary Courts) Rules, 2021. The Rules regulates the procedure in criminal appeals and revision to the District Court and High Court in matters originating in the primary court.

Labda unajiuliza hizi sheria sasa utazipata wapi? Most of these laws/rules/regulations are either the schedule to the MCA or subsidiary legislation of the Magistrates’ Court Act, CAP 11 R.E 2019 and any other Parent Acts. Mfano hiyo PCCPC ipo ndani ya jedwali la tatu la MCA.

Generally, the laws which govern Primary Courts are scattered in several documents. But the main document is the MCA and its subsidiary legislations.

Mwisho, MAHAKAMA YA MWANZO INAWEZA PIA KUTUMIA SHERIA ZINGINE IKIWA ZIMEIPA MAMLAKA SPECIFIC YA KUFANYA HIVYO.

Zingatia maelezo haya ni kwa mujibu wa sheria zilizokuwa zinatumika mpaka siku ya kupost hili andiko. (Hivyo unaposoma leo andiko hili soma na marekebisho ya sheria yaliyopo sasa hivi).

Kama una maoni au swali karibu.

Imeandaliwa na kuletwa kwako nami Zakaria (0754575246) lawyer.
 

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