Homa ya Mapafu (Pneumonia): Fahamu tiba na jinsi ya kujikinga


JF-Expert Member
Aug 19, 2012

  1. Hakikisha unapata chanjo ya homa ya mapafu: chanzo hizi hupatikana mahospitalini. Kabla hujapata chanjo ongea na Dactari wako akupe ushauri.​
  2. Hakikisha watoto wanapata chanjo ya homa ya mapafu: madactari wanashauri watoto wenye umri wa chini ya miaka miwili na wenye umri wa miaka miwili mapak mitano kupata chanjo kutegemeana na mazingira hatarishi ya kupata homa ya ini.​
  3. Weka mazingira ya kuishi katika hali ya usafi: hii itakusaidia kuzuia maambukzizi ya njia ya hewa ambayo huletekeza homa ya mapafu, osha mikono yako kila mara kwa sabuni na maji ya moto.​
  4. Usivute sigara: uvutaji wa sigara unaharibu tishu za mapafu na hivo kuzorotesha kinga ya mwili.​
How Is Pneumonia Treated?
When you get a pneumonia diagnosis, your doctor will work with you to develop a treatment plan. Treatment for pneumonia depends on the type of pneumonia you have, how sick you are feeling, your age, and whether you have other health conditions. The goals of treatment are to cure the infection and prevent complications. It is important to follow your treatment plan carefully until you are fully recovered.

Take any medications as prescribed by your doctor. If your pneumonia is caused by bacteria, you will be given an antibiotic. It is important to take all the antibiotic until it is gone, even though you will probably start to feel better in a couple of days. If you stop, you risk having the infection come back, and you increase the chances that the germs will be resistant to treatment in the future.

Typical antibiotics do not work against viruses. If you have viral pneumonia, your doctor may prescribe an antiviral medication to treat it. Sometimes, though, symptom management and rest are all that is needed.

Most people can manage their symptoms such as fever and cough at home by following these steps:
  • Control your fever with aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen or naproxen), or acetaminophen. DO NOT give aspirin to children.
  • Drink plenty of fluids to help loosen secretions and bring up phlegm.
  • Do not take cough medicines without first talking to your doctor. Coughing is one way your body works to get rid of an infection. If your cough is preventing you from getting the rest you need, ask your doctor about steps you can take to get relief.
  • Drink warm beverages, take steamy baths and use a humidifier to help open your airways and ease your breathing. Contact your doctor right away if your breathing gets worse instead of better over time.
  • Stay away from smoke to let your lungs heal. This includes smoking, secondhand smoke and wood smoke. Talk to your doctor if you are a smoker and are having trouble staying smokefree while you recover. This would be a good time to think about quitting for good.
  • Get lots of rest. You may need to stay in bed for a while. Get as much help as you can with meal preparation and household chores until you are feeling stronger. It is important not to overdo daily activities until you are fully recovered.
If your pneumonia is so severe that you are treated in the hospital, you may be given intravenous fluids and antibiotics, as well as oxygen therapy, and possibly other breathing treatments.

Source: American Lung Association

If a virus is causing your pneumonia, antibiotics won’t help, but your doctor may prescribe an antiviral medication.
  • If you have an influenza virus, your doctor may prescribe medications such as oseltamivir (Tamiflu), zanamivir (Relenza), or peramivir (Rapivab). These drugs keep flu viruses from spreading in your body.
  • If RSV is the cause of your pneumonia, your doctor may prescribe a medication such as ribavirin (Virazol). This helps to limit the spread of viruses.
When you have pneumonia, it’s important to get plenty of rest. Check back in with your doctor after treatment to make sure your lungs are clear.

The same steps you would take to try to prevent the flu also help lower your chance of pneumonia.
  • Wash your hands often. Scrub them with soap and water for at least 20 seconds before you eat or prepare food. When you are in public places, use sanitizer.
  • Get a flu vaccination each year at the beginning of flu season.
  • Stay away from people who are coughing or sneezing.
  • Keep your hands away from your eyes, ears, nose, and mouth
Source: Web MD

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