Amnesty International Kenya director, Justus Nyang'aya gestures as he addresses the media in Nairobi on March 22, 2012. The latest Amnesty International report finds all five East African Community governments culpable of rising human rights abuses. File By FRED OLUOCH Posted Thursday, May 24 2012 at 16:17 The latest Amnesty International report finds all five East African Community governments culpable of rising human rights abuses. The study, released on May 24, fingers Burundi and Rwanda as the two countries in the region leading in human rights abuses in 2011, by clamping down on freedom of assembly and harassing the Opposition politicians. The report notes that government security forces in all the five countries are the main perpetrators of human rights abuse. It cites Burundi as the biggest abuser of rights, followed by Rwanda, Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania. In Burundi, the ruling party, the National Council for Defence of Democracy-Forces for Defence of Democracy, having won the 2010 elections, is accused of harassing, unlawfully killing and arresting members of the opposition party National Liberation Forces (FNL). Key opposition leaders, including Agathon Rwasa of the FNL and Alexis Sinduhije of the Movement for Solidarity and Democracy (MSD), to date remain in exile. The United Nations documented 57 unlawful killings by security forces in the country and another 42 murders, believed to have been politically motivated by unknown perpetrators. The government of Burundi however continues to deny its security forces are involved in unlawful killings. As extra-judicial executions and political killings increased, the judiciary is said to be politicised. In Rwanda, the report says there is less freedom of expression and harassment and arrests of journalist critical of the government is common. Agnes Nkusi Uwimana, editor of the privately-owned Kinyarwanda tabloid Umurabyo and her deputy editor Saidati Mukakibibi were sentenced to 17 and seven years in prison respectively, for opinion pieces critical of government policies published before the 2010 presidential election. Uwimana was found guilty of threatening state security, of spreading "genocide ideology", "divisionism" and defamation while Mukakibibi was found guilty of threatening state security. Again, the trial of Victoire Ingabire, leader of the opposition party United Democratic Forces (FDU-Inkingi), opened in September. She was charged with terrorism, creating an armed group, "genocide ideology", "sectarianism" and willingly disseminating rumours aimed at inciting the public against the existing leadership. Ingabire's "genocide ideology" charges were partly based on her public call for the prosecution of the RPF for war crimes. Freedom of expression in Rwanda has been unduly restricted for many years through regulatory sanctions, restrictive laws and criminal defamation cases. The Rwandan government has committed to review the laws which are commonly used to criminalise criticism of government, but ongoing trials of journalists and opposition politicians show that critics still face prosecution and imprisonment. There are concerns about violations of fair trial standards, as in Ingabire's case where the prosecution was allowed to present evidence which pre-dated the laws under which she was charged. In Uganda, the government in February imposed a general ban on all public protests, which mainly affected political activity and freedom of association and assembly. Those who organised the "Walk to Work" protest to highlight the rising cost of fuel and other essential commodities were accused of trying to "overthrow the government" and were violently dispersed. Opposition leader Dr Kizza Besigye, who led the "Walk to Work" protests suffered serious injuries during his violent arrest by police and unidentified law enforcement personnel. Government officials said that the excess use of force on Besigye was justified. (Read: 'Peaceful' Uganda is now a police besieged state) Progress was also made when the Ugandan Parliament passed the Anti-Torture Bill, criminalising torture in May 2012. In Kenya, the report cites extra-judicial killings by the police. There are also reported incidents of unlawful killings and torture and other ill-treatment by the police and other security personnel. The Kenyan authorities made no attempt to bring perpetrators of crimes and human rights violations --- including possible crimes against humanity --- during the 2007/08 post-election violence to justice. Thousands of people who were displaced during the post-election violence have still not been resettled. Despite Tanzania being adjudged the least abuser of human rights, the report still faulted security agencies for failing to prevent attacks on albinos, who were being killed for their body parts. Another blot on the country is the January 2012 killing of at least three people died in Arusha town after police used live ammunition to disperse supporters of opposition party Chadema, who were protesting the election of a ruling party CCM candidate as mayor.