Astronomy and Tourism in Tanzania


How can you know that the Earth is NOT flat?

  • I know that the Earth is flat

    Votes: 0 0.0%
  • I have seen the Earth curve when travelling by sea

    Votes: 0 0.0%
  • I have seen a boat appearing over a horizon

    Votes: 0 0.0%
  • I have seen the sun set twice on same day

    Votes: 0 0.0%
  • I have seen pictures of earth from space

    Votes: 1 100.0%

  • Total voters
    1
  • Poll closed .
njiwaji

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njiwaji

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Astronomy and Tourism in Tanzania
Date: 01 Dec 2016 – Thursday
Time: 2:00 pm to 4:00 pm
Venue: TANZANIA COMMISSION FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY (COSTECH)
Ali Hassan Mwinyi Road, Kijitonyama (Sayansi ) COSTECH Building

Dr. Gordon MacLeod, Research Fellow (Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory - HARTRAO), holds a PhD in Astronomy from Queen's University at Kingston, Canada (1990) and an MBA in Entrepreneurship from the University of Victory, Canada (1999).

Dr. MacLeod has worked in a range of environments from industrial to academic to governmental in several countries; the latter two focused on astronomy.

Dr. MacLeod has worked on astronomy build programmes in Mexico and South Africa and is presently working with a group to locate at least one millimeter telescope in Southern Africa. Dr. MacLeod's primary research focus is massive star-formation.


gordon-costech-trip-jpg.441440
 
njiwaji

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njiwaji

njiwaji

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Astronomy Highlights for Tanzania for 2017
Dr Noorali T Jiwaji



· Eclipses – Total four Eclipses. Three of these will be visible in Tanzania

1. Penumbral Lunar Eclipse on midnight of February 10 to 11 from 1:34 am to 5:53 am

2. Partial Solar Eclipse of February 26 from 6:32 pm to sunset 7:08 pm

3. Partial Lunar Eclipse of August 7 from 8:33 pm to 10:18 pm

· Planets

Five visible planets, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn

· Sun and Moon

1. Phases of the Moon, New Moon, Full Moon.

2. Equinoxes and Solstices

· Stars, Meteors, and Comets

1. Brightest stars visible during the year.

2. Moon occults (hides) stars on February 12, March 14, and May 31.

3. Meteor Showers. The two best ones for our position are a few days before and after 4. May 6 (Eta Aquarids) and December 14 (Geminid)

5. Comets – Three comets can become just bright enough to be seen in dark skies on February 11, May 15, and June 15, especially when seen through binoculars.

· Satellites

International Space Station (ISS) and other visible satellites many times during the year.


saturn-tilts-jpg.468368
Saturn tilt picture from:
Egg Moon Close To Saturn Tonight, Occults Theta Librae


Four eclipses
Four eclipses will occur during this year, with three of them visible from Tanzania. The first eclipse this year is a penumbral eclipse on midnight of February 10 to 11 from 1:34 am to 5:53 am. It will give us a similar challenge to the one we had last year on September 16. On February 26 from 6:32 pm to sunset 7:08 pm viewers in southern Tanzania will see a partial solar eclipse, though it will not be as spectacular as last year’s annular solar eclipse. The third eclipse is the Partial Lunar Eclipse of August 7 from 8:33 pm to 10:18 pm during which, a small part of the Moon will be covered by the Earth’s shadow. The last eclipse, a Total Solar Eclipse of August 21 will not be visible in Tanzania since it takes place across the whole of the USA. If you can visit there during the eclipse do not miss out on this spectacular event.

Planet viewing
For planet viewing, the year started with a close alignment of three bright objects, Crescent Moon, Venus, and Mars, prominently, for several days near the western horizon. The Moon-Venus-Mars triplet group is together again on January 31st and the line-up continues after that until February 3.

Again, at the end of February on the 28th, the triplet is together again though not so close together near the west horizon soon after sunset.

The Venus and Mars pair remains visible together in the evening sky for the whole of February with the pair shifting slightly rightwards over the days.

Venus
Venus is a spectacularly bright planet, now shining as an evening star. After reaching its highest elevation of 45 degrees in the sky above the western horizon, it has now entered the crescent phase and is visible as a broad crescent through a telescope. The crescent will grow thinner as well as more than double in size as the planet gets closer to Earth until mid-March, after which it will be hidden by the setting Sun. After this, Venus will enter the sky as a morning star, reaching its highest elevation above the eastern horizon in mid-May. It will remain visible before sunrise until mid-December. On November 17, Venus will form a triplet with a crescent Moon joined by bright Jupiter joining brilliant Venus to provide an attractive spectacle. After this, it will again enter the evening skies as an evening star from the beginning of February 2018. All during the year, Venus will provide many attractive views with the crescent Moon in the western sky at sunset or in the eastern sky at sunrise. Visit www.AstronomyinTanzaia.or.tz for individual events of Venus and other planets and stars during the year.

Mars
Mars is now seen as a red star with the steady shine of a planet compared to a star which twinkles. It is currently visible from soon after sunset, seen close to brilliant Venus half way up the western sky. It remains visible until mid-June when it will be too close to the sunset Sun. Then, from the end of August it will be seen in the morning sky above the eastern horizon, rising gradually. By the beginning of December, Mars will line up with Venus, Jupiter, Mars, crescent Moon, and star Spica from the beginning of December to mid-December. Mars will also provide other interesting events during the year.

Mercury
Mercury is an elusive planet not easy to detect since it always remains close to the Sun; it has to be caught when it is highest in the sky. This happens twice in the western sky at sunset on April 1 and July 30, and twice in the eastern sky at sunrise on May 17 and September 12. The highest elevations of 27 degrees on May 17 and July 30 are the best times to look out for Mercury in the sky. At other times, when it is close to crescent Moon or Venus, it can also be found at the Astronomy in Tanzania website.

Jupiter
Jupiter, the largest planet is also extremely bright and can be mistaken for Venus but they can be differentiated by noting that Venus is always seen near the Sun just after sunset or before sunrise. Venus can never be seen in overhead skies, while Jupiter can be. Currently, Jupiter is high overhead in the morning sky and will start to be seen rising in the east at late evening hours from the end of February. By April 7 Jupiter will rise in the east at sunset while the Sun is setting in the west. This means that the fully-lit face of Jupiter shines with light from the Sun. This situation on April 7 is called opposition and the planet is most brilliant. Jupiter will then be seen higher and higher in the east at sunset as it shifts slowly westwards. It will be lost in the sunset Sun from mid-October when it will be closest to the Sun on October 26, a phenomenon called conjunction. After this, from mid-November it will be seen in the morning sky close to the eastern horizon at sunrise. Jupiter will show many memorable events during the year as it comes close to the Moon, planets, and bright stars. See www.AstronomyinTanania.or.tz for details of dates, times and positions. Through a modest telescope, Jupiter shows parallel belts of clouds and four moons that change positions day by day and even hour by hour; at times the moons are hidden behind the planet and at other times the moons’ shadows can be detected on the face of the planet through a good telescope.

Saturn
Saturn the ringed planet is also clearly visible in the sky, shining with a steady light. Though not very bright, it is the most beautiful object to view through a telescope that shows the flat ring system. This year the rings are seen particularly well since they are inclined at a maximum angle facing us. Currently, Saturn is, in the morning, half way up the eastern sky. Saturn will begin to be seen in late evening hours rising in the evening from May onwards. It will reach opposition and be brightest on June 15 when it will rise in the east at sunset, while the Sun is setting in the west. At opposition we see the full face of the planet shining directly from light reflected from the Sun. Saturn will shift westwards during the following months, visible higher and higher in the eastern sky. By September it will be in the western sky and will end the year coming close to and disappearing behind the setting Sun in the west by the beginning of December. Once again it will provide many memorable events throughout the year when it is seen close to the Moon and various planets and these can be followed on www.AstronomyinTanzania.or.tz.

The Sun
The Sun shows its apparent motion throughout the year, moving 23.5 degrees north and south of the equator. It will be at the equator on March 20 and on September 22. These are called the equinoxes, since the length of day and night are equal on those dates, because the equator is directly along the plane of the solar system; so the Sun shines symmetrically on Earth. Due to the inclination of the Earth’s rotation axis that is inclined to the solar plane by 23.5 degrees, the Sun shines vertically on a latitude 23.5 degrees north (Tropic of Cancer) on June 21. This is called the northern solstice, when it is hot in the north and cold in the south. Similarly, the Sun shines vertically at latitude 23.5 degrees south (Tropic of Capricorn) on December 21, called southern solstice, causing the hot season in the south and cold in the north. Days are longer than nights in the north from March 20 to September 22, while in the south, nights are longer than days. The opposite happens between September 22 and March 20. For us living in Tanzania nights and days are almost the same number of hours and the temperatures are almost the same throughout the year.

The Moon
The Moon changes its phase (shape) from New Moon to half Moon to Full Moon to half Moon and back again to New Moon in each lunar cycle during the year. The first half Moon phase is called the First Quarter, while the second half Moon phase is called the Last Quarter, since they mark quarters of the lunar cycle. New Moons will be on January 28, February 26, March 28, April 26, May 25, June 24, July 23, August 21, September 20, October 19, November 18, and December 18. Full Moons will be on January 12, February 11, March 12, April 11, May 11, June 09, July 09, August 07, September 06, October 05, November 04, and December 03. The First Quarter and Last Quarter half Moons will occur between the respective New Moon and Full Moon days.
Public holidays
Public holidays that depend on the lunar cycles will also be decided on the basis of New Moon dates since the Moon is first sighted one or two days after the New Moon, depending on the elevation of the Moon above the setting Sun in the western horizon. Hence, the Idd ul Fitr dates can be expected to be on June 25 or June 26. Idd ul Hajj can be expected to be on September 1 or September 2, and Maulid can be on December 1 or December 2.

Meteor showers
Among the nine regular meteor showers that strike earth during the year two of these can be most suitable to watch for our location near the equator and south are on few days before and after May 6 (Eta Aquarids) and December 14 (Geminid). The best time to see meteor showers is after midnight and close to sunrise. At this time, the Earth’s revolution around the Sun faces and hits the dust particles left behind by comets. This causes the dust particles to strike the atmosphere and burn up to cause shooting stars called meteors. The Moon should also be below the horizon to have a good chance of seeing meteors. Lie flat on the ground on a mat and look comfortably at the region of the sky from which the dust strikes the atmosphere. For more details of directions and times see Astronomy in Tanzania website.

Comets
Comets become active when they come near the Sun from deep space in highly elliptical paths. The Sun evaporates the frozen water and releases dust, causing a bright blob. The dust is pushed away by the sunlight which produces a tail that faces away from the Sun. Three comets can become just bright enough to be seen in dark skies on February 11 (comet 45P/Honda), May 15 (comet C/2015 ER61 PanSTARRS) and June 15 (comet C/2015 V2 Johnson), especially when seen through binoculars. For details of positions and times and tips to view the comets visit the Astronomy in Tanzania website.

The Moon
The Moon hides (occults) stars when it passes in front of stars so that our line of sight is blocked and we cannot see the star for a short time. The star is eclipsed by the Moon. Three interesting occultations by the Moon occur this year on February 12 (star ZC1547 hidden), March 14 (stars X54027 and ZC1821 are hidden) and May 31 when star ZC1487 is hidden. On www.AstronomyinTanzania.or.tz you can find the exact times and positons for viewing the occultations.

Satellites
Satellites make an extremely good hobby to watch. If you watch carefully and scan the overhead skies soon after sunset once it is dark enough and sky is clear; you will often see one or two points of stars moving quite visibly against the background stars. These are satellites and they are seen because light from the Sun can reach high above us where the satellites orbit, and they reflect the sunlight. Some satellites are bright while others shine on and off as their surfaces come to be at the right angles to reflect sunlight towards us. The brightest of these satellites is the International Space Station (ISS) which orbits at a height of about 400 kilometres above the Earth’s surface. It shines as bright as a plane and even Venus but glides slowly across the sky. Other prominent satellites are the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and Iridium flares. The times and positions of viewing the satellites depends on your location and if you know your coordinates you can use websites on the Internet to find the exact times and directions of the satellites. Visit www.heavens-above.com for detailed information about all satellites and their viewing times and directions. For the ISS, which is the brightest satellite and really worth following and showing to your friends, you can use the Spot the Station NASA website which you can get from Google and follow the instruction on the NASA website after selecting the location nearest to you from Dar es Salaam or Mwanza. Visit www.AstronomyinTanzania.or.tz for regular details about when and where to see satellites stars, planets, and all other astronomy events.

Note:

A comprehensive listing of astronomy events from Universetoday website in a PDF book format can be downloaded here. It has been written for American audiences so the times and postions of events will not be correct for Tanzania and the east African region.

101 Astronomical Events for 2017 by David A. Dickinson

Have a most happy astronomical viewing during this year 2017.


==XXX==
 
adna yuzo

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diuuh ndef but ni vizur na muhim kwetu kwa utalii
 
njiwaji

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njiwaji

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Matukio Mahususi ya Astronomia Tanzania kwa Mwaka 2017

Dkt. Noorali T. Jiwaji


· Kupatwa kwa Jua na Mwezi – Jumla ya mara nne kutapatwa. Mara tatu kati ya hizo

zitaonekana hapa Tanzania kama ifuatayo:

1. Kupatwa kwa Mwezi wenye kivuli chepesi usiku wa manane tarehe 10 Februari kwenda Februrari 11, kuanzia saa 7:34 – 11:53 alfajiri.

2. Kupatwa kwa Jua Sehemu, tarehe 26 Februari kuanzia saa 12:32 jioni hadi saa 1:08 usiku.

3. Kupatwa kwa Mwezi Sehemu, tarehe 7 Agosti kuanzia saa 2:33 hadi saa 4:18 usiku.

· Sayari – Sayari tano zitaonekana kwa uwazi, ambazo ni Zebaki(Mercury), Zuhura(Venus), Mirihi(Mars), Mushtarii(Jupiter), na Zohali(Saturn)


· Jua na Mwezi:

1. Awamu za Mwezi, Mwezi Mwandamo na Mwezi Mpevu

2. Siku Mlingano(Equinox) na Solistasi – Jua linapokuwa utosini Ikweta na kuwa kaskazini na kusini kabisa mwa Ikweta.

· Nyota, Vimondo, Vimondo mkia

1. Nyota angavu zaidi za mwaka mzima.

2. Mwezi kufunika nyota tarehe 12 Februari, 13 Machi na 31 Mei.

3. Vimondo vya mfululizo – Matukio makubwa kwa anga letu ni siku chache kabla na baada ya tarehe 6 Mei (Eta Aquarids) na Desemba 14 (Geminids).

4. Vimondo mkia – Vimondo mkia vitatu vinaweza kuwa angavu na kuonekana tarehe 11 Februari, 15 Mei na 15 Juni katika sehemu zenye giza nene hasa kwa kuangaliwa kwa darubini

· Setelaiti

Chombo cha Anga cha Kimataifa (ISS) na satelaiti nyingi zinaonekana mara nyingi mwaka mzima.


zohali-mabadiliko-ya-muelekeo-wa-mfumo-wa-pete-za-zohali-jpg.468383

Picha ya mabadiliko ya pete za Zohali imetolewa kutoka tovuti ya:
Egg Moon Close To Saturn Tonight, Occults Theta Librae

KUPATWA
Kutakuwa na kupatwa mwaka huu, na tatu kati ya hizo zitaonekana Tanzania. Kupatwa kwa kwanza kutakuwa wa Mwezi wenye kivuli chepesi, usiku wa manane Februari 10 kuelekea Februari 11, kuanzia saa 7:34 hadi saa 11:53 alfajiri. Kutatupa changamoto ya kutambua uweusi wa kivuli chepesi cha Dunia kitakachofunika Mwezi. Tarehe 26 Februari kuanzia saa 12:32 jioni hadi kuchwa kwa Jua saa 1:08, watazamaji wa kanda za kusini wataona Jua likipatwa kwa sehemu ndogo ya Jua. Ingawa hakutakuwa na msisimko kama ule wa mwaka jana wa kupatwa kwa Jua Kipete, bado ni tukio la kupendeza kufuatiwa na waakazi wa kanda za kusini. Kupatwa kwa tatu utakuwa kupatwa kwa Mwezi Sehemu tarehe 7 Agosti kuanzia saa 2:3 usiku hadi saa 4:18 usiku ambapo sehemu ndogo ya Mwezi utafunikwa na kivuli cha Dunia. Kupatwa kwa mwisho mwaka huu ni kupatkwa Jua Kamilifu tarehe 21 Agosti ambako hakutaonekana hapa Tanzania, ila kutatokea Marekani kote. Iwapo utabahatika kutembelea huko wakati wa kupatwa usikose kuangalia tukio hili la kusisimua.

SAYARI
Kwa upande wa sayari, mwaka ulianza na mstari wa vitu angavu – Mwezi hilali, Zuhura na Mirihi. Vinavyoonekana dhahiri kwa muda wa siku kadhaa karibu na upeo wa magharibi. Mwezi, Zuhuru na Mirihi zimekusanyika pamoja tena 31 Januari, na mpangilio huo unaendelea mpaka tarehe 3 Februari. Halafu tena, mwisho wa mwezi wa Februari, tarehe 28, sayari hizi zinakusanyika pamoja ingawa si kwa ukaribu, karibu na upeo wa magharibi, mara baada ya machweo.


Jozi ya Zuhura na Mars inaendelea kuonekana kwa pamoja kwenye anga jioni upeo wa magharibi mwezi wote wa Februari, huku jozi ikisogea upande wa kulia siku hadi siku.

ZOHALI (Venus)
Kusema kweli Zuhura ni sayari ang’avu ya kupendeza wakati huu, iking’ara kama nyota ya jioni na kufikia mwinuko wa juu zaidi wa nyuzi 45 angani, juu ya upeo wa magharibi, sasa inaingia awamu ya Mwezi Mwandamo na kuonekana kwenye darubini kama hilali pana. Hilali hii ya Zuhura itazidi kuwa nyembamba na wa ukubwa wa zaidi ya mara mbili kadiri sayari hiyo inavyokaribia Dunia.


Baada ya hapo, Zuhura itaingia ukingoni kama nyota ya alfajiri na kufikia mwinuko wake wa juu kabisa juu ya upeo wa mashariki Mei katikati. Itaendelea kuonekana kabla ya mpambazuko mpaka katikati ya Desemba. Mwezi Novemba tarehe 17, Zuhura itaunda utatu wa pamoja na Mwezi Mwandamo (hilali), Mustarii ang’avu, na Zuhura inayong’ara. Utatu huu wa Mwezi, Mushtarii na Zuhura utatoa mwonekano wa kustaajabisha. Mwisho wa mwaka Zuhura itapotea katika mng’aro wa Jua la machweo na Februari mwakani itaanza tena kuonekana kama nyota ya jioni katika mbingu za magharibi. Kwa hiyo kwa kipindi cha mwaka mzima huu, Zuhura itakuwa katika mionekano mingi tofauti ya kuvutia pamoja na Mwezi Mwandamo katika anga ya magharibi wakati wa machweo na mwishoni katika mbingu ya mashariki wakati wa mawio. Tembelea www.AstronomyinTanzania.or.tz kwa tukio moja moja la Zuhura na sayari zingine na nyota kwa mwaka mzima.

MIRIHI (Mars)
Hivi sasa Mirihi inaonekana kama nyota nyekundu inayong’ara kama sayari ukiilinganisha na nyota ambyo humeremeta. Mirihi inaonekana mara baada ya machweo karibu sana na Zuhura inayong’ara nusu juu ya anga ya magharibi. Itaendelea kuonekana mpaka katikati ya Juni ambapo itakuwa karibu zaidi na Jua linalokuchwa. Kuanzia mwisho wa Agosti Mihiri itaonekana kwenye anga ya asubuhi juu ya upeo wa mashariki, ikiinuka polepole angani siku hadi siku. Ifikapo mwanzoni mwa Desemba Mirihi itajipanga mstari na Zuhura, Mushtarii, Mwezi Mwandamo hilali na nyota ya Spica kuanzia mwanzoni mwa Desemba hadi katikati ya Desemba. Kwa hiyo Mirihi pia itatoa vivutio vingi angani mwaka huu.

ZEBAKI (Mercury)
Zebaki ni sayari yenye utata na kujificha na si rahisi kuona bila kuazimia kwa vile daima inakuwa karibu sana na Jua, kwa hiyo ni lazima uitafute wakati iko juu sana angani. Hii itatokea mara mbili kwenye anga la magharibi wakati wa machweo, tarehe 1 Aprili na tarehe 30 Julai, na mara mbili kwenye anga la mashariki wakati wa mawio, tarehe 17 Mei na tarehe 22 Septemba. Mwinuko wa juu kabisa ni nyuzi 27. Mnamo tarehe 17 Mei na 30 Julai ni muda muafaka wa kuangalia Zebaki. Nyakati zingine inapokuwa karibu na Mwezi hilali, au Zuhura inaweza pia kuonekana kwa urahisi. Matukio hayo unaweza kupata kwa kutembelea tovuti ya “Astronomy in Tanzania”.

MUSTARII (Jupiter)
Mustarii ni sayari kubwa sana na angavu zaidi na unaweza kudhani ni Zuhura ukiiona angani. Namna ya kuzitofautisha yota hizi mbili angani ni kwa kuona kuwa Zuhura ama iko karibu na upeo wa magharibi mara Jua linapozama au karibu na upeo wa mashariki kabla tu ya Jua kuchomoza. Zuhura haiwezi kamwe kuonekana utosini mwa anga. Mustarii inaweza kuonekana upande wowote angani kati ya mashariki na magharibi, kwa hiyo Mustarii inaweza kuonekana utosini na hii hutumika kutofautisha kati ya Zuhura na Mushtarii.


Kwa sasa Mushtarii iko utosini kwenye anga la asubuhi na itaanza kuonekana jioni kuanzia mwisho wa Februari ikijichomoza usiku wa saa nne hivi katika anga ya mashariki. Ifikapo tarehe 7 Aprili, Mushtarii itajichomoza kwenye upeo wa mashariki wakati wa machweo, huku Jua likizama upande wa magharibi. Hii inamaanisha kwamba uso wa Jupita unaangazwa moja kwa moja na mwanga wa Jua. Hali hii huitwa “kukabiliana” (conjunction) na sayari ya Mushtarii inang’aa sana wakati huu ambayo utaona siku ya tarehe 7 Aprili.


Siku zitakavyo pita, Mushtarii itaonekana juu zaidi katika anga la mashariki kila baada ya machweo. Itaendelea kupanda juu siku hadi siku hadi kufikia utosini na baada ya hapo kwenda upande wa anga la magharibi. Kufikia mwezi Oktoba, Mushtarii itakuwa jirani na upeo wa magharibi na kufikia tarehe 26 Oktoba, itakuwa upeoni karibu kabisa na Jua linalozama ambayo huitwa “mwingiliano”. Baada ya hapo kuanzia katikati ya Novemba Mustarii itaonekana kwenye anga la asubuhi karibu na upeo wa mashariki wakati wa machweo. Mushtarii itanonesha matukio mengi ya kukumbukwa mwaka mzima huu, hasa itakuwa karibu na sayari zingine na Mwezi na nyota angavu. Angalia www.AstronomyinTanzania.or.tz kwa maelezo zaidi kuhusu tarehe, nyakati na mahali pakuangalia matukio haya.


Kwa kutumia darubini ya kawaida tu, Mustarii inaonesha mikanda sambamba ya mawingu na miezi minne inayobadilisha nafasi kila siku na hata kila saa. Wakati mwingine miezi hiyo hufichwa nyuma na tufe la sayari na nyakati nyingine vivuli vya miezi vinaweza kuonekana kwenya uso wa sayari kwa kutumia darubini nzuri.

ZOHALI (Saturn)
Zohali ni sayari yenye pete. Nayo huonekana kwa uwazi mzuri angani, iking’ara kwa mwanga si mkali sana, ni sayari inayopendeza mno kuangalia kupitia darubini, na kuonesa mfumo wa pete bapa. Mwaka huu pete hiyo inaonekana vizuri zaidi kwa sababu pete imeinama kuelekea kwetu na kujionesha kiasi cha kuridhisha sana. Zohali kwa sasa inaonekana wakati wa asubuhi nusu juu angani kutoka upeo wa mashariki kabla ya machweo. Zohali itaanza kuonekana nyakati za usiku ikichomoza kuanzia saa nne hivi mwanzoni mwa Mei na kuendelea. Itafikia hali ya “kukabiliana” na Jua na kuonekana kwa ung’avu zaidi tarehe 15 Juni. Siku hiyo Zohali itachomoza upande wa mashariki nyakati za machweo, Jua linapokuchwa upeo wa magharibi. Katika kukabiliana uso kamili wa Zohali unamulikwa na Jua na kufanya ionekane vizuri zaidi. Baada ya hapo Zohali itapanda pole pole juu ya anga la mashariki na kwenda utosini hadi kufikia upande wa magharibi katika siku na miezi inayofuata. Ifikapo Septemba itakuwa kwenye anga la magharibi na kumaliza mwaka ikiwa karibu zaidi na upeo wa magharibi jirani na Jua. Mwanzoni mwa Desemba itapotea nyuma ya mng’aro mkali wa Jua. Kwa hiyo Zohali nayo itakuwa na matukio mengi ya kukumbuka mwaka mzima wakati itakapoonekana karibu na Mwezi na sayari mbali mbali. Maelezo kamili ya matukio hayo ya Zohali unaweza kupata kwenye tovuti ya www.AstronomyinTanzania.or.tz..

JUA
Jua ni nyota iliyojirani zaidi kuliko zingine, nalo litaonesha mwendo wake dhahiri mwaka mzima, likienda nyuzi 23.5 kaskazini na kusini mwa Ikweta. Litakuwa juu ya anga za maeneo ya Ikweta tarehe 20 Machi na 22 Septemba. Tarehe hizo hujulikana kuwa ni “siku mlingano” na muda wa usiku na wa mchana hulingana kutokana na kwamba Ikweta iko moja kwa moja kwenye ubapa wa Mfumo wa Jua, kwa hiyo Jua linaangaza kwa ulinganifu kwenye Dunia.


Kutokana na mwinamo wa mhimili wa mzunguko wa Dunia kwenye ubapa wa Mfumo wa Jua kwa nyuzi 23.5, Jua huangaza wima kwenye latitude 23.5 kaskazini (Tropic of Cancer) Juni 21. Hii inafahamika kuwa ni “solistasi ya kaskazini”, wakati inapokuwa joto kaskazini na baridi kusini mwa Dunia. Halikadhalika Jua linawaka wima kwenye latitude 23.5 kusini (Tropic of Capricorn) Desemba 21, na kuitwa “solistasi ya kusini”, na kusababisha msimu wa joto kusini na msimu wa baridi kaskazini. Kuanzia Machi 20 hadi Septemba 22, mchana ni masaa mengi kuliko usiku sehemu za kaskazini wakati upande wa kusini usiku ni masaa mengi kuliko mchana. Kinyume chake hutokea kuanzia Septemba 22 hadi Machi 20. Hapa Tanzania maeneo tunayoishi sisi hakuna tofauti kubwa kati ya muda wa mchana na wa usiku kwa vile tuko jirani sana na Ikweta, kwa hiyo usiku na mchana ni karibu muda sawa mwaka mzima na hali ya joto pia inkuwa sawa mwaka mzima.

MWEZI
Mwezi nao unabadili umbo lake kwa awamu, kuanzia Mwezi Mwandamo (hilali), Nusu Mwezi, na Mwezi Mpevu kwenda tena Nusu Mwezi na kurudia Mwezi Mwandamo kila mzunguko wa Mwezi kuizunguka Dunia. Miezi mwandamo mwaka huu itakuwa 28 Januari, 26 Februari, 28 Machi, 26 Aprili, 25 Mei, 24 Juni, 23 Julai, 21 Agosti, 20 Septemba, 19 Oktoba, 18 Novemba, na 18 Desemba. Miezi mpevu itakuwa Januari 12, Februari 11, Machi 12, Aprii 11, Mei 11, Juni 09, Agosti 07, Septemba 06, Oktoba 05, Novemba 04, na Decemba 03. Robo ya kwanza, na robo ya mwisho wakati ambapo Mwezi huwa na umbo la nusu Mwezi itatokea kati ya Mwezi Mwandamo na Mwezi Mpevu katika kila mzunguko.

Siku za mapumziko
Siku za mapumziko zinazotegemea mizunguko ya Mwezi nazo zitaamuliwa kwa msingi wa tarehe za Mwezi Mwandamo kwa vile mwezi wa Kiislamu unaanzwa baada ya kuona hilali ya kwanza ambayo hotokeza siku moja au mbili baada ya kuandama kwa Mwezi kutegemeana na mwinuko wa Mwezi juu ya Jua linalotua chini ya upeo wa magharibi. Kwa hiyo tarehe za Idd-ul-Fitri zinaweza kutarajiwa 25 Juni au 26 Juni, na Idd-ul-Hajj inatarajiwa tarehe 1 au 2 Septemba. Sikukuu ya Maulidi itakuwa Desemba 1 au 2.

VIMONDO MFULULIZO (Meteor Showers)
Miongoni mwa vimondo vya mfulululizo tisa (9) vya kawaida Duniani kila mwaka, vitakavyoonekana vizuri na kufaa kuangalia hapa kwetu katika maeneo karibu na Ikweta na kwa kusini ni viwili. Siku chache kabla na baada ya tarehe 6 Mei vitaonekana vimondo vya “Eta Aquarids” na tarehe 14 Desemba ni vimondo vya “Geminids”. Muda mzuri zaidi kuangalia vimondo hivi baada ya saa sita usiku wa manane hadi kabla ya alfajiri. Wakati huo, mzunguko wa Dunia kulizunguka Jua huelekea na kugonga chembe chemba za vumbi zilizoachwa nyuma na vimondo vya mkia vilivopita hapo zamani. Chembe chembe hizo zinapogonga hewa ya anga la Dunia huungua na mwanga wake huonekana usiku. Mwezi nao lazima uwe chini ya upeo ili kuwa na giza ya kutosha kuweza kuangalia vimondo vingi zaidi. Njia nzuri ya kuona vimondo hivi ni kulala chali chini katika mkeka na kuangalia juu anga lote bila taabu. Kwa maelezo zaidi na muda na mahala pakutokeza vimondo, angalia tovuti ya “Astronomy in Tanzania”.

VIMONDO MKIA (Comets)
Vimondo mkia vinakuwa amilifu zaidi wakati vinapokuja karibu na Jua katika mizingo yake mduaradufu kama umbo la yai, joto la Jua linavukiza maji yaliyoganda na kubakisha tone la vumbi angavu. Kiasi fulani cha vumbi husukumwa nje ya tone na msukumo wa mwanga wa Jua, na inaunda mkia wa kimondo hicho. Vimondo mkia vitatu vinaweza kuwa angavu mwaka huu na kuonekana kwenye anga za giza la kutosha tarehe 11 Februari (“comet 45P/Honda”), 15 Mei (“comet C/2015 ER 60 PanSTARRS”) na tarehe 15 Juni (“comet c/2015 V2 Johnson”). Hasa zinapoangaliwa kwa kutumia darubini zitaonekana vizuri zaidi. Kwa maelezo zaidi hasa karibu na tarehe husika peruza tovuti ya “Astronomy in Tanzania”.

MWEZI hufunika nyota
Mwezi hufunika nyota mara moja moja unapopita mbele ya nyota fulani, na kuziba upeo wetu wa kuona hiyo nyota na kusababisha nyota ipotee angani kwa muda. Matukio matatu ya Mwezi kufunika nyota yatatokea mwaka huu. Tarehe 12 Februari nyota ZC1547 itafunikwa na Mwezi, tarehe 14 Machi nyota X54027 na nyot ZC1821 zitafunikwa na Mei 31 nyota ZC 1487 itafunikwa. Kwenye tovuti ya www.AstronomyinTanzania.or.tz utapata nyakati kamili na mahali pakuangalia kufunikwa nyota hizo.

SETELAITI
Setilaiti zinazozunguka Dunia huleta furaha sana kufuatilia na kuangalia angani kwa vile zinaonekana kama nyota zinazotembea. Iwapo unaangalia kwa makini na kuchunguza anga la utosini baada ya giza kuingia mara baada ya machweo utaona kitone kama nukta ikisogea pole pole angani kati ya nyota zilizotulia. Hizi ni setelaiti na zinaonekana kutokana na mzingo wa setelaiti ni juu sana na mwanga wa Jua unaweza kufikia kwenye setelaiti wakati Dunia inakuwa na giza. Mwanga huo wa Jua unaakisiwa na satelaiti na kufikia kwetu na tunaziona. Baadhi ya satelatiti huangaza zaidi ya nyingine, wakati nyingine huangaza na kuzima. Setelaiti yenye kung’aa sana ni Kituo cha Anga cha Kimataifa (International Space Station – ISS) kinachozunguka kwa umbali wa kilomita 400 juu ya uso wa Dunia. Kinang’ara kwa kiwango mkali sana kama ndege, hata kuzidi Zuhura mara nyingine, ingawa husafiri polepole kwenye anga. Setelaiti nyingine ni “Hubble Space Telescope” (HST) na inayowaka na kuzima ni “Iridium Flares”. Muda na mahali pakuangalia setelaiti hizi angani hutegemea mahali ulipo. Unaweza kutumia tovuti kwenye mtandao kubaini nyakati halisi na mielekeo ya setelaiti hizo. Tembelea tovuti ya www.heavens-above.com kwa melezo zaidi kuhusu setelati zote na nyakati za kuangalia hizo na mielekeo yao. Kwa setelaiti ya ISS ambayo ni setelaiti angavu zaidi na inafurahisha kufuatilia na kuwaonesha marafiki zako unaweza kuipata kwenye tovuti ya “Spot the Station” ya NASA unayoweza kupata kwenye Google na kufuata maelekezo kwenye tovuti hiyo na kuchagua kati ya Dar es Salaam au Mwanza au mji wa jirani na ulipo.


Tembelea www.AstronomyinTanzania.or.tz kwa taarifa za mara kwa mara kuhusu wapi na lini uangalie setelaiti, nyota, sayari, na matukio mengine. Furahia kuona matukio mengi ya kusisimua ya kiastronomia mwaka huu wa 2017.


Orodha kubwa zaidi ya matukio ya astronomia Duniani inapatikana katika tovuti ya Universe Today kama kitabu cha kielektroniki kwa aina ya PDF inaweza kupakuliwa hapa. Kwa vile kimeandikwa kwa ajili ya wasomaji wa Marekani muda na mahala pakuangalia matukio hayo hayatakuwa sahihi kwa Tanzania na Afrika Mashariki,

101 Astronomical Events for 2017 by David A. Dickinson

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mwekundu

mwekundu

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mwekundu

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Ngoja norudi thread ya madawa ya kulevya
 
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Astronomy Highlights for Tanzania for 2017
Dr Noorali T Jiwaji



· Eclipses – Total four Eclipses. Three of these will be visible in Tanzania

1. Penumbral Lunar Eclipse on midnight of February 10 to 11 from 1:34 am to 5:53 am

2. Partial Solar Eclipse of February 26 from 6:32 pm to sunset 7:08 pm

3. Partial Lunar Eclipse of August 7 from 8:33 pm to 10:18 pm

· Planets

Five visible planets, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn

· Sun and Moon

1. Phases of the Moon, New Moon, Full Moon.

2. Equinoxes and Solstices

· Stars, Meteors, and Comets

1. Brightest stars visible during the year.

2. Moon occults (hides) stars on February 12, March 14, and May 31.

3. Meteor Showers. The two best ones for our position are a few days before and after 4. May 6 (Eta Aquarids) and December 14 (Geminid)

5. Comets – Three comets can become just bright enough to be seen in dark skies on February 11, May 15, and June 15, especially when seen through binoculars.

· Satellites

International Space Station (ISS) and other visible satellites many times during the year.


View attachment 468368 Saturn tilt picture from:
Egg Moon Close To Saturn Tonight, Occults Theta Librae


Four eclipses
Four eclipses will occur during this year, with three of them visible from Tanzania. The first eclipse this year is a penumbral eclipse on midnight of February 10 to 11 from 1:34 am to 5:53 am. It will give us a similar challenge to the one we had last year on September 16. On February 26 from 6:32 pm to sunset 7:08 pm viewers in southern Tanzania will see a partial solar eclipse, though it will not be as spectacular as last year’s annular solar eclipse. The third eclipse is the Partial Lunar Eclipse of August 7 from 8:33 pm to 10:18 pm during which, a small part of the Moon will be covered by the Earth’s shadow. The last eclipse, a Total Solar Eclipse of August 21 will not be visible in Tanzania since it takes place across the whole of the USA. If you can visit there during the eclipse do not miss out on this spectacular event.

Planet viewing
For planet viewing, the year started with a close alignment of three bright objects, Crescent Moon, Venus, and Mars, prominently, for several days near the western horizon. The Moon-Venus-Mars triplet group is together again on January 31st and the line-up continues after that until February 3.

Again, at the end of February on the 28th, the triplet is together again though not so close together near the west horizon soon after sunset.

The Venus and Mars pair remains visible together in the evening sky for the whole of February with the pair shifting slightly rightwards over the days.

Venus
Venus is a spectacularly bright planet, now shining as an evening star. After reaching its highest elevation of 45 degrees in the sky above the western horizon, it has now entered the crescent phase and is visible as a broad crescent through a telescope. The crescent will grow thinner as well as more than double in size as the planet gets closer to Earth until mid-March, after which it will be hidden by the setting Sun. After this, Venus will enter the sky as a morning star, reaching its highest elevation above the eastern horizon in mid-May. It will remain visible before sunrise until mid-December. On November 17, Venus will form a triplet with a crescent Moon joined by bright Jupiter joining brilliant Venus to provide an attractive spectacle. After this, it will again enter the evening skies as an evening star from the beginning of February 2018. All during the year, Venus will provide many attractive views with the crescent Moon in the western sky at sunset or in the eastern sky at sunrise. Visit www.AstronomyinTanzaia.or.tz for individual events of Venus and other planets and stars during the year.

Mars
Mars is now seen as a red star with the steady shine of a planet compared to a star which twinkles. It is currently visible from soon after sunset, seen close to brilliant Venus half way up the western sky. It remains visible until mid-June when it will be too close to the sunset Sun. Then, from the end of August it will be seen in the morning sky above the eastern horizon, rising gradually. By the beginning of December, Mars will line up with Venus, Jupiter, Mars, crescent Moon, and star Spica from the beginning of December to mid-December. Mars will also provide other interesting events during the year.

Mercury
Mercury is an elusive planet not easy to detect since it always remains close to the Sun; it has to be caught when it is highest in the sky. This happens twice in the western sky at sunset on April 1 and July 30, and twice in the eastern sky at sunrise on May 17 and September 12. The highest elevations of 27 degrees on May 17 and July 30 are the best times to look out for Mercury in the sky. At other times, when it is close to crescent Moon or Venus, it can also be found at the Astronomy in Tanzania website.

Jupiter
Jupiter, the largest planet is also extremely bright and can be mistaken for Venus but they can be differentiated by noting that Venus is always seen near the Sun just after sunset or before sunrise. Venus can never be seen in overhead skies, while Jupiter can be. Currently, Jupiter is high overhead in the morning sky and will start to be seen rising in the east at late evening hours from the end of February. By April 7 Jupiter will rise in the east at sunset while the Sun is setting in the west. This means that the fully-lit face of Jupiter shines with light from the Sun. This situation on April 7 is called opposition and the planet is most brilliant. Jupiter will then be seen higher and higher in the east at sunset as it shifts slowly westwards. It will be lost in the sunset Sun from mid-October when it will be closest to the Sun on October 26, a phenomenon called conjunction. After this, from mid-November it will be seen in the morning sky close to the eastern horizon at sunrise. Jupiter will show many memorable events during the year as it comes close to the Moon, planets, and bright stars. See www.AstronomyinTanania.or.tz for details of dates, times and positions. Through a modest telescope, Jupiter shows parallel belts of clouds and four moons that change positions day by day and even hour by hour; at times the moons are hidden behind the planet and at other times the moons’ shadows can be detected on the face of the planet through a good telescope.

Saturn
Saturn the ringed planet is also clearly visible in the sky, shining with a steady light. Though not very bright, it is the most beautiful object to view through a telescope that shows the flat ring system. This year the rings are seen particularly well since they are inclined at a maximum angle facing us. Currently, Saturn is, in the morning, half way up the eastern sky. Saturn will begin to be seen in late evening hours rising in the evening from May onwards. It will reach opposition and be brightest on June 15 when it will rise in the east at sunset, while the Sun is setting in the west. At opposition we see the full face of the planet shining directly from light reflected from the Sun. Saturn will shift westwards during the following months, visible higher and higher in the eastern sky. By September it will be in the western sky and will end the year coming close to and disappearing behind the setting Sun in the west by the beginning of December. Once again it will provide many memorable events throughout the year when it is seen close to the Moon and various planets and these can be followed on www.AstronomyinTanzania.or.tz.

The Sun
The Sun shows its apparent motion throughout the year, moving 23.5 degrees north and south of the equator. It will be at the equator on March 20 and on September 22. These are called the equinoxes, since the length of day and night are equal on those dates, because the equator is directly along the plane of the solar system; so the Sun shines symmetrically on Earth. Due to the inclination of the Earth’s rotation axis that is inclined to the solar plane by 23.5 degrees, the Sun shines vertically on a latitude 23.5 degrees north (Tropic of Cancer) on June 21. This is called the northern solstice, when it is hot in the north and cold in the south. Similarly, the Sun shines vertically at latitude 23.5 degrees south (Tropic of Capricorn) on December 21, called southern solstice, causing the hot season in the south and cold in the north. Days are longer than nights in the north from March 20 to September 22, while in the south, nights are longer than days. The opposite happens between September 22 and March 20. For us living in Tanzania nights and days are almost the same number of hours and the temperatures are almost the same throughout the year.

The Moon
The Moon changes its phase (shape) from New Moon to half Moon to Full Moon to half Moon and back again to New Moon in each lunar cycle during the year. The first half Moon phase is called the First Quarter, while the second half Moon phase is called the Last Quarter, since they mark quarters of the lunar cycle. New Moons will be on January 28, February 26, March 28, April 26, May 25, June 24, July 23, August 21, September 20, October 19, November 18, and December 18. Full Moons will be on January 12, February 11, March 12, April 11, May 11, June 09, July 09, August 07, September 06, October 05, November 04, and December 03. The First Quarter and Last Quarter half Moons will occur between the respective New Moon and Full Moon days.
Public holidays
Public holidays that depend on the lunar cycles will also be decided on the basis of New Moon dates since the Moon is first sighted one or two days after the New Moon, depending on the elevation of the Moon above the setting Sun in the western horizon. Hence, the Idd ul Fitr dates can be expected to be on June 25 or June 26. Idd ul Hajj can be expected to be on September 1 or September 2, and Maulid can be on December 1 or December 2.

Meteor showers
Among the nine regular meteor showers that strike earth during the year two of these can be most suitable to watch for our location near the equator and south are on few days before and after May 6 (Eta Aquarids) and December 14 (Geminid). The best time to see meteor showers is after midnight and close to sunrise. At this time, the Earth’s revolution around the Sun faces and hits the dust particles left behind by comets. This causes the dust particles to strike the atmosphere and burn up to cause shooting stars called meteors. The Moon should also be below the horizon to have a good chance of seeing meteors. Lie flat on the ground on a mat and look comfortably at the region of the sky from which the dust strikes the atmosphere. For more details of directions and times see Astronomy in Tanzania website.

Comets
Comets become active when they come near the Sun from deep space in highly elliptical paths. The Sun evaporates the frozen water and releases dust, causing a bright blob. The dust is pushed away by the sunlight which produces a tail that faces away from the Sun. Three comets can become just bright enough to be seen in dark skies on February 11 (comet 45P/Honda), May 15 (comet C/2015 ER61 PanSTARRS) and June 15 (comet C/2015 V2 Johnson), especially when seen through binoculars. For details of positions and times and tips to view the comets visit the Astronomy in Tanzania website.

The Moon
The Moon hides (occults) stars when it passes in front of stars so that our line of sight is blocked and we cannot see the star for a short time. The star is eclipsed by the Moon. Three interesting occultations by the Moon occur this year on February 12 (star ZC1547 hidden), March 14 (stars X54027 and ZC1821 are hidden) and May 31 when star ZC1487 is hidden. On www.AstronomyinTanzania.or.tz you can find the exact times and positons for viewing the occultations.

Satellites
Satellites make an extremely good hobby to watch. If you watch carefully and scan the overhead skies soon after sunset once it is dark enough and sky is clear; you will often see one or two points of stars moving quite visibly against the background stars. These are satellites and they are seen because light from the Sun can reach high above us where the satellites orbit, and they reflect the sunlight. Some satellites are bright while others shine on and off as their surfaces come to be at the right angles to reflect sunlight towards us. The brightest of these satellites is the International Space Station (ISS) which orbits at a height of about 400 kilometres above the Earth’s surface. It shines as bright as a plane and even Venus but glides slowly across the sky. Other prominent satellites are the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and Iridium flares. The times and positions of viewing the satellites depends on your location and if you know your coordinates you can use websites on the Internet to find the exact times and directions of the satellites. Visit www.heavens-above.com for detailed information about all satellites and their viewing times and directions. For the ISS, which is the brightest satellite and really worth following and showing to your friends, you can use the Spot the Station NASA website which you can get from Google and follow the instruction on the NASA website after selecting the location nearest to you from Dar es Salaam or Mwanza. Visit www.AstronomyinTanzania.or.tz for regular details about when and where to see satellites stars, planets, and all other astronomy events.

Note:

A comprehensive listing of astronomy events from Universetoday website in a PDF book format can be downloaded here. It has been written for American audiences so the times and postions of events will not be correct for Tanzania and the east African region.

101 Astronomical Events for 2017 by David A. Dickinson

Have a most happy astronomical viewing during this year 2017.


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Nitarejea kushuhudia tarehe tajwa
 

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