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World history and events

Discussion in 'Habari na Hoja mchanganyiko' started by Shy, Jan 18, 2009.

  1. Shy

    Shy JF-Expert Member

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    Jan 18, 2009
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    30 Most Important Events in Financial and Economic History

    1. The invention of money by the Ancients and its replacement of the barter system
    2. The Industrial Revolution and the Collapse of the Domestic Cottage Economy since the 18th century
    3. Age of exploration and the Opening up of the New worlds
    4. The Birth of Mercantilism in 17th century Europe
    5. Invention of the discipline of Accountancy in Renaissance Italy
    6. The Increase in Women in the Western World’s Workforce throughout the 20th century
    7. Introduction of Income Tax by the British Government during the Napoleonic War
    8. Collapse of the New York Stock Exchange in October 1929
    9. Adam Smith documents the working of the market society
    10. Derivation of the Law of Supply and Demand
    11. Formation of the First Stock Exchange in Amsterdam c. 17th century
    12. Karl Marx and Frederick Engels write the Communist Manifesto
    13. Setting up of the First National Pension Plan – 19th Century Germany
    14. Introduction of the First Credit Card (Diner’s Club)
    15. Formation of the First Guilds and Trade Unions
    16. Bretton Woods, the formation of the IMF and the beginning of GATT
    17. Formation of the European Common Market
    18. Movement on and off the Gold Standard by the various nations
    19. The continuous complication of the Income Tax Acts in most Western Countries since WWII.
    20. John Meynard Keynes makes the case for Government Intervention and Fiscal Policy
    21. Invention of the Macroeconomic discipline of National Incoming Accounting
    22. Milton Friedman makes the case for Monetary policy
    23. The New Economy Revolution of the 1990s, Rise of the NASDAQ
    24. Further Impoverishment of the Third World since the 1970s by the accumulation of debt
    25. Development of the Theory of Rational Expectations
    26. Signing of NAFTA and the Mercursor Nation Trade Agreements and the Globalization drive.
    27. Period of Post Cold War Privatization
    28. Alan Greenspan’s success in defeating inflation in the Western world
    29. Period of Post World War II Industrial Nationalization
    30. Era of Merger and Acquistion’s - 1980s and 1990s

    100 Great Military Figures

    Name-Description-Key Wars/Campaigns

    1. Alexander the Great - Macedonian/Greek king. Persian Wars and the Alexandrian drive for Empire in the 4th century BC.

    2. Napoleon Bonaparte - French Emperor. Napoleonic Wars late 18th century to 1815.

    3. Julius Caesar - Roman General. Roman Wars against the Barbarians in particular the Gallic Wars.

    4. Tamerlane - Tatar leader. Tatar conquests of the 14th and 15th centuries.

    5. John Churchill - aka Duke of Marlborough. English general in War of the Spanish Succession.

    6. Sun Tzu - Chinese Philosopher. Wrote the Art of War. A timeless bible on warfare strategy.

    7. Genghis Khan - Mongol leader. Mongol conquests 12th and 13th century.

    8. Karl Clausewitz - Prussian General and influential military theorist.

    9. Erwin Rommel - German General. North African Campaign of World War II.

    10. Saladin - Kurdish Warrior. War of the Crusades. Led Muslim resistance.

    11. Lord Nelson - British Admiral during the Napoleonic Wars.

    12. Richard the Lionheart - English king. 3rd Crusade.

    13. Heinz Guaderain - German General. Second World War. Proponent of the Blitzkrieg.

    14. Frederick the Great - Prussian king. War of the Austrian Succession and the Seven Years War.

    15. Helmuth von Moltke - German General and master strategist. World War I.

    16. Gustavus Adolphus - Swedish king. The Thirty Years War.

    17. Ariel Sharon - Israeli General. Yom Kippur War.

    18. Marshal Zhukov - Russian General. Second World War.

    19. George Washington - American Revolution.

    20. Peter the Great - Russian Tsar. Northern Wars between Russia and Sweden.

    21. Robert Clive - British general led conquest of India.

    22. Shaka Zulu - Zulu Chief. Wars leading to the formation of the Zulu Empire.

    23. Justinian the Great - Byzantine Emperor led campaigns against the Vandals and Barbarians.

    24. Hannibal - Leader of Carthage. Second Punic War against Rome.

    25. David - Hebrew King. Campaigns against the Philistines.

    26. Scipio Africanus - Roman General. Second Punic War against Carthage.

    27. Edward I - English king. Crusades and the war against the Scots and the Welsh.

    28. Menelik - Abyssinian leader. Defeated Italians at Adowa in 1896.

    29. Douglas MacArthur - American general. Second World War (Far East Campaign) and the Korean War.

    30. Charlemagne - French king. Wars against the Moors and other 'pagan' forces in creating a French super state.

    31. Prince Eugene of Savoy - Austrian General. War of the Spanish Succession.

    31A. Francis Drake - English Naval figure/pirate. Shipping Wars against Spain.

    32. Atilla the Hun - Terrorizing of Europe toward the end of the West Roman Empire.

    33. Robert the Bruce - Scottish King. War against the English in the 13th century.

    34. General Giap - North Vietnamese General. Vietnam War.

    35. William Sherman - American Union General. American Civil War.

    36. Moshe Dayan - Israeli General. Six Day War (1967)

    37. Earl Kitchener - British/Irish Field Marshal. Campaigns against the Mahdi in Sudan.

    38. Sulamein the Magnificent - Wars for the Expansion of the Ottoman Empire.

    39. Paul von Hindenburg - German General . World War I.

    40. Lysander - Spartan Naval Commander during Pelopennesian Wars.

    41. George Patton - American General. World War II.

    42. Chi Huanghdi - Chinese Emperor started dynasty after which the country is named. Campaigns against the Barbarians in the 3rd century BC.

    43. Louis IX - French king. Crusades and the War against the English.

    44. Mikhail Kutuzov - Russian Field marshal. War against the Turks and the Napoleonic wars.

    45. Oliver Cromwell - English general/politician. Lead forces of Parliament in English Civil War - 17th century.

    46. Fabianus - Roman General. Pioneered delaying strategy during Second Punic War.

    47. Stonewell Jackson - US Confederate General. American Civil War.

    48. Pompey - Roman General. Defeated Spartacus, Mithridates VI and the Marians in the 1st century BC.

    49. Mosheshoe - Basuto king. Father of Lesotho. Wars against the British and the Boers.

    50. Mikhail Tukachevsky - Russian General. War of the Reds and the Whites. War against Poland.

    51. Henry V - Holy Roman Empire. Wars against the French and Protestant forces.

    52. Philip of Macedonia - Wars for the Unification of Greece.

    53. Geronimo - Apache leader. Waged war against internment on reservation in the
    1870's.

    54. Arthur Wellesley - British/Irish General aka Duke of Wellington. Peninsular War and the Napoleonic Wars.

    55. Joshua - Hebrew leader. Conquest of Canaan.

    56. Hernando Cortes - Spanish soldier. Defeat of the Aztecs.

    57. William the Conqueror - Norman king. Invasion of England in 1066.

    58. Jan Smuts - South African general. Boer War. Important figure in World War I and World War II allied planning.

    59. Robert E. Lee - Confederate General. American Civil War.

    60. Marshal Blucher - Prussian General during Napoleonic War.

    61. Dwight D. Eisenhower - American Supreme Allied Commander. World War II.

    62. Marshal Radetsky - Austrian General. Revolutions of 1948-49.

    63. Otto the Great - King of the Germans. War against the 'pagans' in the 10th century BC.

    64. Count Bernadotte - French/Swedish General/King. Napoleonic War.

    65. Mao Zedong - Chinese Communist leader. War against Japan (WWII) and the fight against the Nationalists.

    66. Francisco Pissaro - Spanish conquistador. Conquest of the Inca.

    67. Henry of Navarre - French King. War of the Three Henrys.

    68. Robert Blake - English Admiral. Anglo-Dutch Wars.

    69. Ho Chi Minh - Vietnamese leader. Wars against the Japanese, French and Americans.

    70. Akbar - Mughal Emperor. Conquest of India the 16th century.

    71. Hulagu - Mongol warlord. Grandson of Genghis Khan. Led drives that exterminated the Assassin sect. Waged War against the Arabs and Persia.

    72. Albrecht Wallenstein - Austrian General. Thirty Years War.

    73. Charles XII - Swedish King. Northern European Wars.

    74. Maarten Tromp - Dutch Admiral. Anglo-Dutch Wars.

    75. General John J. Pershing - US General. World War I.

    76. Alphonso VIII. - Spanish King. Wars against the Moors.

    77. Simon Bolivar - South American revolutionary. War of Liberation against Spain.

    78. Louis Faidherbe - French General. West African campaigns in the 19th century.

    79. Babar - Mughal Emperor. Wars for Empire Expansion.

    80. Cyrus the Great - Persian king. War against the Babylonians.

    81. Erich von Luddendorf - German General. World War I.

    82. Marshal Tito - Yugoslav Partisan leader - World War II.

    83. Alfred Von Tirpitz - German Admiral. World War I.

    84. Bernardo O' Higgins - Chilean Revolutionary. Chilean War of Independence.

    85. John Paul Jones - American Admiral. American Revolution.

    86. Harun Al Rashid - Arab leader. Wars of Arab Conquest.

    87. Jahangir - Mughal Emperor. Wars of Mughal Expansion.

    88. Jose de San Martin - South American Revolutionary. War of Independence from Spain.

    89. Ulysses Grant - Union General. American Civil War.

    90. Ferenc Rákóczi II - Hungarian prince. Led revolts against Austrians in 18th century.

    91. General Wolfe - British General. Seven Years War - north American campaign.

    82. Frederick I Barbarossa - German King. Crusader wars.

    93. Darius I - Persian Emperor. Greek-Persian Wars.

    94. Gerd Von Runstedt - German general. World War II.

    95. Ferdinand Foch - French military leader. World War I.

    96. Murad I - Ottoman sultan. Wars of Ottoman expansion - 14th century.

    97. Ahmad Shah - Central Asian Warlord. Wars of Afghani expansion - 18th century.

    98.Nebuchadnezzer II -Babylonian King. Drove Babylonian expansion. Captured Jerusalem.

    99. Bayezid I - Ottoman sultan. Led Ottoman advances into Eastern Europe

    100 Most Critical Battles in World History

    Stalingrad - World War II
    The Somme - World War I
    Kursk - World War II
    Austrelitz - Napoleonic Wars
    Jutland - World War I
    Poitiers/Tours - Arab Conquest Wars
    Passchendaele - World War I
    Agincourt - Hundred Years War
    Trafalgar - Napoleonic Wars
    Kadesh - Egyptian-Hittite War
    Tannenburg - World War I
    Lepanto - Turkish Wars of the 16th century
    Salamis - Greek-Persian Wars
    Adrianople - Roman-Visigoth Wars
    Lutzen - Thirty Year War
    Cannae - Punic Wars
    El Alamein - World War II
    Waterloo - Napoleonic Wars
    Midway - World War II
    D-Day - World War II
    Port Arthur - Russo-Japanese War
    Blenheim - War of the Spanish Succession
    Jena and Austadt - Napoleonic Wars
    Leningrad - World War II
    Marathon - Greek-Persian Wars
    Gettysburg - American Civil War
    Thermopylae - Greek-Persian Wars
    Borodino - Napoleonic Wars
    Siege of - Turkish-Byzantine War
    Crecy - Hundred Years War
    Siege of Alesia - Gallic Wars
    Plassey - Seven Years War ( English-Indian Campaign)
    Gaugamela - Alexander the Great's Persian Wars
    Issus - Alexander the Great's Persian Wars
    Granicus - Alexander the Great's Persian Wars
    Ramillies - War of the Spanish Succession
    Somme - World War I
    Coral Sea - World War II
    Leipzig - Napoleonic Wars
    Saratoga - American Revolution
    Monte Cassino - World War II
    Poltava - Great Northern War
    Marne - World War I
    Spanish Armada - English-Spanish War
    Ardennes Bulge - World War II
    Britain - World War II
    Antietam - American Civil War
    Yorktown - American Revolution
    Inchon - Korean War
    Fredericksburg - American Civil War
    Toleso - Spanish-Muslim War
    Sedan - Prussian-French War
    Aegospotami - Peloponnesian War
    St Mihiel Salient - World War I
    Adowa - Italian- Ethiopian War
    Actium - Roman Civil War
    First Battle of Ypres - World War I
    Chancellorville - American Civil War
    Cambrai - World War I
    Dien Bien Phu - Vietnam War
    Guadalcanal - World War II
    Mediggo - World War I
    Plains of Abraham - Seven Years War (in Canada)
    Vicksburg - American Civil War
    Naseby - English Civil War
    Zama - Punic Wars
    Verdun - World War I
    Marston Moor - English Civil War
    Boyne - William's War against James II
    Teutoburg Forest - Roman-Goth Wars
    Sadowa - Prussian- Austrian War
    Sinai Campaign - Arab Israeli War
    Pearl Harbour - World War II
    New Orleans - War of 1812
    Solferino - French-Austrian War
    Manzikeret - Byzantine-Turk War
    Chalons-sur-Marne - Roman-Huns War
    Pharsalus - Roman Civil War
    Siege of Syracuse - Peloponnesian War
    Nile - Napoleonic War
    Masada - Roman Campaign in Palestine
    Alamo - Mexican-American War
    Malplaquet - War of the Spanish Succession
    Baltimore - War of 1812
    Gallipoli - World War I
    Siege of Sevastopol - Crimean War
    Acre - Crusader Wars
    Leyte Gulf - World War II
    Balaclava - Crimean War
    Tunis - World War II
    Amiens - World War I
    Boyaca - South American Wars of Independence
    Shiloh - American Civil War
    Siege of Vienna (1683) - Austrian-Turkish Wars
    Battle of Narva - Great Northern War
    Poitiers - Hundred Years War
    Valmy - French Revolutionary War
    Pyramids - Napoleonic Wars
    Salamanca - Napoleonic War (Spanish theater)
    Isandlhwana - Zulu War

    40 Greatest Western Explorers
    40 greatest Western explorers


    1. Lief Ericson - discovered North America
    2. Christopher Columbus - discovered West Indies
    3. Vasco da Gama - visited India after rounding Africa
    4. Marco Polo - reached China
    5. James Cook - Crossed Antarctic circle. Visited New Zealand
    6. Ferdinand Magellan/Juan Sebastian del Cano - first to Circumnavigate the globe
    7. Walter Raleigh - Visited North America. Drew up plans for 13 colonies
    8. Abel Tasmin - Visited Australia
    9. David Livingstone - Discovered Victoria Falls and Zambezi River
    10. John Cabot - reached Newfoundland
    11. Robert Peary - First to reach North Pole
    12. Vasco Balboa - discovered Pacific Ocean
    13. John Speke - discovered Lake Tanganyika and Lake Victoria
    14. Roland Amundsen - First to reach South Pole
    15. Meriwether Lewis and William Clark - Explored American Interior
    16. Bartholmew Diaz - Sailed around Cape of Good Hope
    17. Eric the Red - Viking explorer who visited Greenland
    18. Jacques Cartier - explored St Lawrence River
    19. Robert Burke and William Wills - explored Australian Interior
    20. Ernest Shackleton - explored Antarctica
    21. Henry Stanley - traced the Congo River
    22. Richard Burton - discovered Lake Tanganyika
    23. Francis Younghusband - Explorer. Opened up Tibet to the Western World.
    24. Henry Hudson - discovered Hudson's Bay
    25. Simon Champlain - explored Canadian interior
    26. Vitus Bering - discovered Alaska
    27. Fabian von Bellinghausen - circumnavigated Antarctica
    28. Mungo Park - explored the Niger River
    29. Hernando de Soto - discovered the Mississippi River
    30. Ponce De Leon - discovered Florida
    31. Alexander Mackenzie - discovered Mackenzie River
    32. Nathaniel Palmer - sighted Antarctica
    33. Amerigo Verspucci - explored Venezuela.
    34. Edmund Hillary - Together with the Sherpa Tenzing Norgay was the first to climb Mount Everest. Was involved as well in expedition that crossed Antarctica for the first time.
    35. Robert Falcon Scott - explored the Antarctic
    36. Heinrich Barth - explored Sudan
    37. John Fremont - Crossed Rocky Mountains to California
    38. William Baffin - Explorer. Penetrated to within 800 miles of the North Pole. Closest for 250 years.
    39. Semyon Dezhnev - Cossack Explorer. Sailed around eastern part of Asia in 17th century.
    40. St Francis Xavier - visited Japan

    20 Most Important Events in Central American History

    1. European Invasion and the Subsequent Indian Genocide (includes the campaigns of the Spaniard Cortes)
    2. Creation of the Aztec Empire
    3. Creation of the Mayan Empire
    4. Fall of the Mayan Empire - see NASA evidence
    5. Period of Olmec Rule in Pre-European times.
    6. Mexican rebellion against the Spanish and the creation of the Modern Mexican state.
    7. Central American states win independence from Spain.
    8. Building of the Panama Canal.
    9. Key Mexican territory is lost to the US in the Mexican-American War - Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.
    10. Period of the Diaz regime in Mexico.
    11. Invasion of Mexico by the French during the rule of Maximilian I.
    12. The Proliferation of the Drug industry in Central America.
    13. US attacks Mexico to capture Pancho Villa.
    14. Collapse of the Somoza Regime in Nicaragua. Beginning of Sandinista rule.
    15. US drive out Noriega from Panama.
    16. Death Squads run riot in El Salvador.
    17. The Guatemalan Civil War (post WWII).
    18. Collapse of Sandinista regime in Nicaragua.
    19. Soccer War between Honduras and El Salvador.
    20. British Honduras gain independence and becomes Belize.

    Bloodiest Wars of the 20th Century

    1. Second World War - 20 million +
    2. First World War - 8.5 million
    3. Korean War - 1.2 million
    4. Chinese Civil War (1945-49) - 1.2 million
    5. Vietnam War - 1.2 million
    6. Iran-Iraq War - 0.85 million
    7. Russian Civil War - 0.8 million
    8. Chinese Civil War (1927-1937) - 0.4 million
    9. French Indochina 0.385 million
    10. Mexican Revolution (1911-20) - 0.2 million
    10(tied) Spanish Civil War - 0.2 million
    12. French-Algerian War - 0.16 million
    13. Afghanistan (1980-1989) - 0.15 million
    14. Russo-Japanese War - 0.13 million
    15. Riffian War - 0.1 million
    15. First Sudanese Civil War - 0.1 million
    15. Russo-Polish War - 0.1 million
    15. Biafran War - 0.1 million
    19 - Chaco War - 0.09 million
    20. Abyssinian War - 0.075 million

    Civilizations/Empires/Nation States that have disappeared
    The Hebrews/Jews have survived for over 3000 years as a people. The following is a list (off the top of my head) of civilizations/empires/nation states that have collapsed over the same time period. I am sure that there are many more that I have overlooked.


    1. Thracians
    2. Edomites
    3. Philistines
    4. Jebusites
    5. Ammonites
    6. Midianites
    7. Amorites
    8. Amalakites
    9. Babylonians
    10. Ancient Egyptians
    11. Romans
    12. Ionian and Doric Greeks
    13. Phoenicians/Carthage
    14. Myceneans
    15. Celts
    16. Ancient Britons
    17. Gauls
    18. Belgie
    19. Cimmerians
    20. Lydians
    21. Medes
    22. Persians - Archamenid, Sassanians and Safavids
    23. Mongols
    24. Ghazanians
    25. Chole
    26. Ghana
    27. Mali
    28. Songhai
    29. Aksum
    30. Kush
    31. Ancient Libyans
    32. Islamic Umayyads, Fatimids, Abbasids, Seljuk and Ottoman Turks
    33. Crusader Kingdoms
    34. Avars
    35. Austro-Hungarian Empire
    36. Vikings
    37. Punt
    38. Hellenic Greeks
    39. Mamlukes
    40. Saracens
    41. Holy Roman Empire
    42. Burgundians
    43. Italian City States
    44. Zhou, Three Kingdoms, Han, Qin, Sung, Tang, Yuan, Ming, Manchu dynasties of China
    45. Soviet Union
    46. The Third Reich
    47. European Colonial States
    48. Goths - Ostro and Visi
    40. Olmecs
    41. Toltecs
    42. Nazca
    43. Inca
    44. Aztec
    45. Mayan
    46. Mohaica
    47. Chavin
    48. Chimu
    49. Moguls
    50. Byzantines
    51. Phyrigians
    52. Macedonians
    53. Dacians
    54. Illyrians
    55. Wends
    56. Trojans
    57. Indo-Dravidians
    58. Huns
    59. Teutons
    60. Old Zimbabweans
    61. San
    62. Sheba
    63. Saxon Kingdoms
    64. Normans
    65. Korean Three Kingdoms
    66. Vietnamese Annam
    67. Cossack Kingdoms
    68. Tamerlane's Empire
    69. Etruscans
    70. Griqua Territories
    71. Old Hindu Kingdoms
    72. Spanish Kingdoms of Navarre, Leon, Castille, Aragon, Granada
    73. Prussia - Hegel's ideal state
    74. Arab Pagan Kingdoms
    75. Lombards

    Genocides
    The following is a list of the worst genocides that have occured in the 20th century.
    Its important to note that Atheist based ideologies have had more than their fair share of genocide related crime - an obvious phenomenon downplayed by Richard Dawkins and the 'God Delusion' groupie crowd
    .

    Those in Red have been driven by Marxist related ideological regimes (Atheist Focused).
    Those in Blue have been driven by Fascist related ideological regimes (Atheist Focused).
    Those in Green have been inspired carried out by Muslim Leaders against predominantly Muslim Populations.
    Those in purple have been carried out by Muslim leaders against predominantly non-Muslim populations.
    Those in grey have been carried out by Muslim leaders against mainly Muslim but also non-Muslim populations.
    Those in light blue have been carried out by Western Governments.
    Those in Black were carried out within by African dictatorships or during the course of African Civil Wars.
    Other attrocities are shown in this brownish-colour mixture.

    Mao Ze-Dong (China, 1958-61 and 1966-69)
    49,000,000 ("great leap forward" and "cultural revolution")

    Jozef Stalin (USSR, 1934-39)
    13,000,000 (the purges)

    Adolf Hitler (Germany, 1939-1945)
    12,000,000 (concentration camps and civilians WWII)

    Hideki Tojo (Japan, 1941-44)
    5,000,000 (civilians WWII)

    Pol Pot (Cambodia, 1975-79)
    1,700,000

    Kim Il Sung (North Korea, 1948-94)
    1.6 million (purges and concentration camps)

    Menghistu (Ethiopia, 1975-78)
    1,500,000

    Ismail Enver (Turkey, 1915)
    1,200,000 Armenians

    Yakubu Gowon (Biafra, 1967-1970)
    1,000,000

    Leonid Brezhnev (Afghanistan, 1979-1982)
    900,000

    Jean Kambanda (Rwanda, 1994)
    800,000

    Suharto (East Timor, West Papua, Communists, 1966-98)
    800,000

    Saddam Hussein (Iran 1980-1990 and Kurdistan 1987-88)
    600,000

    Yahya Khan (Pakistan, 1971) vs Bangladesh
    500,000

    Fumimaro Konoe (Japan, 1937-39)
    500,000? (Chinese civilians)

    Savimbi (Angola, 1975-2002)
    400,000

    Mullah Omar - Taliban (Afghanistan, 1986-2001)
    400,000

    Idi Amin (Uganda, 1969-1979)
    300,000

    Yahya Khan (Bangladesh, 1970-1971)
    300,000

    Benito Mussolini (Ethiopia, 1936; Yugoslavia, WWII)
    300,000

    Mobutu Sese Seko (Zaire, 1965-97)
    ?

    Charles Taylor (Liberia, 1989-1996)
    220,000

    Foday Sankoh (Sierra Leone, 1991-2000)
    200,000

    Slobodan Milosevic (Yugoslavia, 1992-96)
    180,000

    Michel Micombero (Burundi, 1972)
    150,000

    Hassan Turabi (Sudan, 1989-1999)
    100,000

    Jean-Bedel Bokassa (Centrafrica, 1966-79)
    ?

    Richard Nixon (Vietnam, 1969-1974)
    70,000 (vietnamese civilians)

    Efrain Rios Montt (Guatemala, 1982-83)
    70,000

    Papa Doc Duvalier (Haiti, 1957-71)
    60,000

    Hissene Habre (Chad, 1982-1990)
    40,000 (Although Hissene was a Muslim leader and killed many Muslims this was felt to be the most appropriate category for him).

    Chiang Kai-shek (Taiwan, 1947)
    30,000 (popular uprising)

    Vladimir Ilich Lenin (USSR, 1917-20)
    30,000 (dissidents executed)

    Francisco Franco (Spain)
    30,000 (dissidents executed after the civil war)

    Fidel Castro (Cuba, 1959-1999)
    30,000

    Lyndon Johnson (Vietnam, 1963-1968)
    30,000

    Hafez Al-Assad (Syria, 1980-2000)
    25,000

    Khomeini (Iran, 1979-89)
    20,000

    Robert Mugabe (Zimbabwe, 1982-87, Ndebele minority)
    20,000

    Rafael Videla (Argentina, 1976-83)
    13,000

    Guy Mollet (France, 1956-1957)
    10,000 (war in Algeria)

    Paul Koroma (Sierra Leone, 1997)
    6,000

    Osama Bin Laden (worldwide, 1993-2001)
    3,500

    Augusto Pinochet (Chile, 1973)
    3,000

    Al Zarqawi (Iraq, 2004-06)
    2,000

    24 Topics on Ancient Egypt
    For Teachers - These are 24 topics that should be looked at when facilitating student learning in this area.

    The Unification of Upper and Lower Egypt by Menes
    The Development of Egyptian mythology and its relationship to Egyptian history.
    The Birth of the Old Kingdom with the 3rd Dynasty
    The Step Pyramids
    The Fourth Dynasty and the Great Pyramids
    The Development of Hieroglyphics
    The Collapse of the Old Kingdom and the First Intermediate Period
    The Middle Kingdom
    The Hyksos Invasion Wars. The Second Intermediate Period.
    The Birth of the New Kingdom and Egyptian Science
    The Concept of the Ma’at and the Nomarch substructure
    The Reign of Akhenaton and Nefertiti
    The Restoration of the Old Order and the defeat of Monotheism
    The Reign of Hatshepsut
    Ramses II and the Expansion of Empire
    Battles of Medigo and Kadesh
    The Fall of the New Kingdom and the Libyan Invasions
    The Nubian Invasions
    The Conquest by Assyria and Babylon
    The Conquest by Persia
    The Arrival of Alexander the Great and the building of Alexandria
    The Ptolemaic Dynasty
    Cleopatra and the Rise of Rome

    100 Milestones in Human History pre-350 BCE
    Modern Man develops in Africa. Mass Migration out of Africa
    Development of Early weapon – the Spear.
    Modern Man reaches Europe and Asia
    Modern Man reaches North and South America
    The End of the Ice Age
    Development of Early musical instruments flutes.
    The End of the Stone Age (Neolithic Period)
    Cattal Hayuk Civilization in Turkey.
    The Agricultural Revolution. Domestication of Animals and Early Crops/
    Development of the earliest towns in Mesopotamia.
    Priest hierarchies dominate Mesopotamian society.
    Invention of the Wheel in Mesopotamia.
    Mesopotamians develop Cuneiform.
    Menes unites Upper and Lower Egypt. Beginning of First Dynasty.
    Polynesians reach South America and New Zealand.
    Indus River Civilization develops. First Vedas.
    Longshan Culture in China. Civilization on Yellow River.
    Olmec Civilization in Central America
    Abraham develops monotheism.
    Nazca Civilization in South America
    Birth of the Bronze Age
    Writing of the Epic of Gilgamesh - Mesopotamia
    Egyptian develop Hieroglyphics
    Hittites replace Hatti as dominant civilization in Asia Minor .Build Empire based on Iron (so-called Iron Age)
    Minoan Civilization develops on Crete. Colonizes Eastern Mediterranean.
    Jomon Culture in Japan.
    Beaker Culture in Europe. Construction of Stonehenge.
    Rise of the Shang in China. End of the Xsia. Bone Writing comes to the forefront.
    Sargon I builds Akkadian centered Empire.
    Growth of Elam power base in Mesopotamia.
    Old Babylonian Kingdom. Hammurabi writes first Law Code.
    Old Kingdom in Egypt sees the Era of the Pyramids – First Step then Great.
    Egyptians develop calendar to track the flooding of the Nile.
    First Japanese Emperor – possible mythology.
    Rise of Giordian city state in Asia Minor.
    First Intermediate Period in Egypt History. Beginning of Middle Kingdom.
    Aryan invasion of India drives Dravidian culture to Deccan Plateau
    Earliest Proofs in Mathematics (Theorem of Pythagoras).
    Beginning of Caste System in India.
    Sea People raid Mediterranean Coast (possible ancestors of Philistines)
    Middle Kingdom ends in Egypt with Hyksos invasion. Chariots introduced.
    Hurrians and Assyrians weaken Hittite Empire.
    Zhou Dynasty flourishes in China.
    Beginning of New Kingdom in Egypt.
    Akhenaton introduces monotheism in Egypt (together with Nefertiti)
    Return to Polytheism under Tutankhamen
    Exodus from Egypt of Hebrews. Giving of the Torah.
    Hebrew invasion of the Land of Canaan. Canaanite civilization in decline.
    Reign of Military Queen Hatshepsut in Egypt.
    Reign of Ramases II. Egypt reaches great expansion.
    Battle of Kadesh. Egyptians v Hittites. Ends in stalemate.
    Period of Judges in Hebrew History. eg. Deborah (Barak), Gideon.
    Assyrians dominate Mesopotamia (following weakening of Hittites).
    Babylonians popularize Base 60 Mathematics.
    Beginning of United Kingdom Period in Hebrew History.
    Myceneans overthrow Minoans to dominate Greek Mainland.
    War between Greeks and the Trojans
    Kingdoms of Lydia (Asia Minor) and Media develop in the Middle East
    Phoenicians find Carthage. Colonize Cyprus. Develop Alphabet for trading.
    King David defeats the Philistines.
    David makes Jerusalem the Hebrew capital.
    Solomon builds the First Temple.
    Contact between Hebrews and Africa through Queen of Sheba and Solomon.
    Etruscans dominate Northern Italy.
    Founding of the city of Rome. (First King Romulus).
    New Kingdom in Egypt bought down by Libyan Invasion.
    Latins occupy modern Italy.
    Nubian Kingdom grows in power in Africa.
    Breakup of Hebrew Kingdom into Judea and Israel.
    Bantu Migration across Africa. Re-distribution of populations.
    Era of Assyrrian growth under Ashurbanipal, Ashurnasirpal, Sennecherib, Sargon II, Essarhadon. Assyrian Empire centered around Nineveh, Caleh, Ashur dominates Mid East.
    Assyrians Conquer Israel Beginning of the Ten Lost Tribes Episode.
    Ancient Civilizations Flourish in SE Asia. Vietnam. Laos, Cambodia, Thailand.
    Etruscans dominate early Roman kingdom.
    Collapse of Mycenean Kingdom in Greece. Beginning of Greek Dark Ages.
    Greek colonists settle Ionia and Italy.
    Etruscans driven out. Rome becomes a Republic.
    Scythians dominate Steppes of Europe.
    Babylon defeats Assyria to become dominant power in Middle East.
    First Temple destroyed by the Babylonians. Beginning of the Exile.
    Babylonians defeat and conquer Egypt.
    Building of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar.
    Persians unite Medians and Lydians under their control.
    Beginning of Zoroastrian Religions.
    Cyrus founds Archemenid Dynasty. Defeats Babylon.
    Jews permitted to return home to Judea
    Ionian Philosophy Schools flourish in Miletus.
    Pythagorean philosophy school flourishes.
    Beginning of Greek City state Era. End of Dark Ages.
    Cambyses brings Egypt under Persian control.
    Reign of Persian King Darius I. Beginning of Ionian Rebellion against Persia.
    Birth of the Cult of Mitras.
    Important Battles of Greek-Persian Wars fought: Marathon, Thermopylae. Salamis, Plateae. Greek victory. Xerxes I finds himself on losing side.
    First History by Herodotus (Persian Wars)
    Sparta and Athens fight the Peloponessian Series of Wars. Sparta wins.
    Thucydides documents wars history.
    Athenian Trio dominate Greek Philosophy
    Greeks use Optics to advance Geometry.
    Age of Pericles in Athens
    Rome consolidates hold on Italian. War against Latin States, Samnites, Sabines, Etruscans, Greek City States.

    The 16th Century
    The century when Western Civilization grew into maturity. Here is a list of 45 key events that I compiled that are worth noting.


    1. The Spanish Armada
    2. Battle of Lepanto
    3. Sulamein the Magnificent’s conquest of Hungary
    4. The Voyage of Magellan
    5. Henry VIII defeats Scots at Flodden Field
    6. Cortes defeats the Aztecs
    7. Pizzaro conquers the Incas
    8. Galileo falls foul of the Inquistion
    9. Henry VIII and Francis I negotiate at the Cloth of Gold
    10. Henry VIII breaks from the Catholic Church
    11. Martin Luther pins 95 Theses to church door at Wittenberg
    12. War of the Three Henry’s in France
    13. Charles V becomes Holy Roman Emperor
    14. Meeting of the Council of Trent: Beginning of the Counter reformation
    15. Formation of the Jesuits
    16. Birth of Calvinism
    17. Clashes in Switzerland between Pro-Catholic and Anti-Catholic Cantons. Death of Zwingli.
    18. Michelangelo completes Sistine Chapel
    19. Luther called before Diet of Worms
    20. Abdication of Charles V in favour of his brother and son
    21. Cartier and Champlain explore Canada
    22. Discovery of Florida
    23. Wars between Venice and Turks
    24. Peace of Augsburg
    25. Anabaptist revolt
    26. Reign of Bloody Mary
    27. Irish Revolts against Elizabeth I
    28. English Pirates terrorize Spanish Main
    29. Invention of the Telescope
    30. Tycho Brahe documents changing heavens
    31. St. Bartholomew Days Massacre of Hugenots
    32. Edict of Nantes offrers religious freedom in France
    33. Foundation of the House of Bourbon
    34. Pope divides South America between Spanish and Portuguese
    35. Spain annexes Portugal
    36. Dutch revolt against Spanish
    37. Rise of Presbyterians in Scotland. John Knox et al.
    38. Henry VIII develops the Royal Navy
    39. Italian Wars end. French are driven from Peninsula.
    40. Kepler advances Laws of Planetary Motion
    41. Search begins for Northwest and Northeast passages
    42. Francis Bacon champions the Scientific Method
    43. Shakespeare begins writing plays
    44. Maltese pirates harass Turkish shipping.
    45. Balboa discovers the Pacific
     
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