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What is Ph.D., PhD, D.Phil., or DPhil

Discussion in 'Jukwaa la Elimu (Education Forum)' started by Candid Scope, Feb 5, 2012.

  1. Candid Scope

    Candid Scope JF-Expert Member

    #1
    Feb 5, 2012
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    Kumekuwepo na majadiliano ya muda mrefu watu wakijadili kuhusu elimu hii na wengi kujadili bila kujua maana yake. Tunaweza kutafsiri kwa njia fupi tu kama Critical thinking. Kuna wanaofanikiwa kufikia level hiyo wakishahitimu na kuna wanaokuwa na kiwango hicho bila kuchukua elimu hiyo.

    Ili kupata ukweli kuhusu elimu hii asili yake ni wagiriki na elimu hiyo imekuja kukuzwa zaidi huko Italia na enzi hizo walikuwa wakijifunza kwa lugha ya Kilatini ambayo ni lugha rasmi ya Kanisa Katoliki. Ikaja kusambaa Ulaya na baadaye kupokeleka na kukubalika nchini Marekani na sasa duniani kote.

    Doctor of Philosophy

    Doctor of Philosophy, abbreviated as Ph.D., PhD, D.Phil., or DPhil (for the Latin philosophiae doctor or doctor philosophiae), in English-speaking countries, is a postgraduate academic degree awarded by universities. The academic level of degrees known as doctorates of philosophy varies considerably according to the country, institution, and time period, from entry-level research degrees to higher doctorates.The term "philosophy" does not refer solely to the modern field of philosophy, but is used in a broader sense in accordance with its original Greek meaning, which is "love of wisdom". In most of Europe, all fields other than theology, law and medicine were traditionally known as philosophy.
    The doctorate of philosophy as it exists today originated as a doctorate in the liberal arts at theHumboldt University, and was eventually adopted by American universities, becoming common in large parts of the world in the 20th century.[SUP][1][/SUP] In many countries, the doctorate of philosophy is still awarded only in the liberal arts (known as "philosophy" in continental Europe, hence the name of the degree).
     
  2. B

    Bulesi JF-Expert Member

    #2
    Feb 5, 2012
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    Sasa ya MTU WA BUSARA inaangukia category gani hapo?
     
  3. Negrodemus

    Negrodemus JF Gold Member

    #3
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    kop n paste.
     
  4. Candid Scope

    Candid Scope JF-Expert Member

    #4
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    Vema ukajadili mada vinginevyo hujamwelewa mleta mada

    Mtoa mada kama umemsoma vizuri am.hitimisha kwa kusema elimu ya PHD ni Critical thinking.

    Ana maana ya elimu hiyo ni ya kiwango cha juu inayomjenga mtu kuwa critical thinker ambayo katika mafunzo huwa katika mfumo wa kujengea mtu uwezo wa udadisi na kujenga utetezi katika hoja.

    Hakuna siri nyingine katika elimu hii ya PHD vinginevyo watu wasiopitia elimu hiyo wanaweza kudanganywa tu kwa kutishika na neno PHD. Ndio sababu great thinkers kama akina Nyerere walitunukiwa digrii za heshima kutoka vyuo vikuu duniani kutokana na kuwa great thinker, critical thinking na kujenga hoja za kutetea waliyoyaamini ni bora katika ulimwengu na jamii zao.

    Kisha amekuletea kazi ya kusoma kiambatanisho cha nukuru ya kutetea anachosema. Huu ndio mfumo wa kujenga hoja kifalsafa. Wengi wenye elimu hiyo mara nyingi hawapendi kueleza ukweli huu na huficha kama ni kitu cha pekee ili waonekane wako pekee kumbe hali halisi ndiyo hii.

    Ukikaa na wazee wetu unaweza kujifunza mengi katika maongezi yao wanapojadili masuala mazito na kupishana kwa hoja kisha wanakuja kukubaliana baada ya kupima pande zote mizani ya mawazo yao. Hivyo hicho ni kitu tunachaofanya kila siku tunapojadili mambo mbalimbali yahusuyo maisha, watu, mazingira, siasa, uchumi nk ni falsafa.

    Ukiona mtu anakwepa majadiliano, debate, ujue falsafa imempa kisogo.

    Ukiona mtu anatumia zaidi nguvu ya mamlaka ni dhahiri hana uwezo wa kujenga hoja ya utetezi na lengo ni kuzima nguvu ya hoja kwa kutumia hoja ya nguvu.
     
  5. Candid Scope

    Candid Scope JF-Expert Member

    #5
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    Ph.D., PhD, D.Phil., or DPhil just identical way the same as in the identical appearance same old, same to say that a situation is unchanged or unexciting as previously mentioned but has changed its abbreviation. So it means all or just the same despite a particular situation or coment.

    Indicating that one thing involved rather than two or more different things.
     
  6. tz1

    tz1 JF-Expert Member

    #6
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    Kwa hiyo wengi Jf tuna PHD.
     
  7. Candid Scope

    Candid Scope JF-Expert Member

    #7
    Feb 5, 2012
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    Kuna mafundi wengi tunaowapelekea kufanya maintenance magari yetu na wanafanya vizuri tu ingawa hawakupitia chuo kujifunza kazi hiyo. Kuna waliopitia chuo wanafanya vizuri kazi hiyo na kuna baadhi ambao hawafanyi vizuri kwenye kazi hiyo ingawa wamepitia vyuoni na tunawakwepa kwamba si mafundi wazuri.
     
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