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Viswahili hivi vya mtaani vilianzaje...??

Discussion in 'Jukwaa la Lugha' started by mathematics, Oct 5, 2012.

  1. mathematics

    mathematics JF-Expert Member

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    Hadi leo sijui kwanini au ilianzaje mpaka

    housegirl - akaitwa beki tatu
    Dereva- akaitwa suka
    Shilingi mia- ikaitwa jiti
    mtu mfupi - akaitwa andunje

    tupia hapo chini na wewe kama hujui kiswahili gani cha mtaani kilianzaje , pia wenye majibu tupieni hapo chini tririkeni useme unachojua hivyo tunaelewesha ndio jukwaa la lugha hilo!
     
  2. Dotworld

    Dotworld JF-Expert Member

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    mathematics

    In Tanzanian discourse lugha ya mitaani is contrasted with lugha fasaha ‘literary language’ or Kiswahili fasaha ‘literary Swahili’. Kiswahili sanifu ‘Standard Swahili’ is rarely used in contrast to LyM, except by Swahili scholars.

    Kiswahili fasaha is described as Swahili as it is taught at school, and as it can be found in books. Beside Lugha ya Mitaani one can also hear the term Kibongo ‘language of Bongo, i.e. Dar es Salaam’, alluding to the fact that Dar es Salaam is the centre of linguistic creativity.

    The attitude of Tanzanians towards Lugha ya Mitaani is ambivalent, as Ohly has already noted with respect to Swahili “slang” (1987: 3). Especially in rural areas and by older people it is seen as uchafuzi wa lugha ‘language pollution’ used by wahuni ‘bachelors and hooligans’. Others recognise Lugha ya Mitaani as enriching Standard Swahili, which is seen as rather “bookish” (cf. Ohly 1987: 4).

    Special forms of Lugha ya Mitaani

    The complex of local Lugha za Mitaani is made up of geographically and socially indexed
    variants which deviate more or less from each other. Besides that, some special codes can be identified which are connected to Standard Swahili in various ways. To different degrees they are part of the linguistic context of LzM, and probably stimulate the linguistic creativity in certain ways.

    Lugha ya Kiswahili ni lugha inayokua kila siku. Watu wanaoikuza lugha hiyo hasa ni vijana na waimbaji wa muziki aina ya taarabu yaani mipasho. Kwa hiyo maneno mengi ya vijana huja na kupita na mengine hubakia na kuendelea kutumika hadi leo”.


    inspekta ‘noisy and inquisitive person’
    mzamiaji = ‘somebody who comes to a place or event without invitation’
    kidudu mtu = ‘bad person, someone who threatens’
    kikáladi = ‘coloured person’
    kiroba = 1. ‘passenger who gets a free lift’, 2. ‘somebody being in bad shape’
    dakika moja mbele = ‘stupid person, fool’
    domo zege = ‘rhetorically slow and clumsy person’ ng’ombe ‘rich person getting pinned down by hooligans’
    mchovu = ‘lazy person, somebody without money’


    teja = ‘drug user’
    mchizi = ‘friend’
    shwaini = ‘pig, person with bad manners’
    mshikaji = ‘friend’
    mbushi = ‘layman, rural person’
    pimbi = ‘short person’

    1/2 (mbovu, mdosho, mkaskazini), and classes = 4/5 (mlupo), but many to classes 5/6 (anti, kolboksi, luzi), to classes
    7/8 (kiluzi, king’asti, kipepe, kipopo, kirukanjia).


    (5) Respectful terms
    anti : address and reference
    sista: address​

    (6) Attractive women (normally not used as address) = chuma, demu, manzi, mkaskazini, king’asti, mdosho, pótabo, shi, sista du, totoz, kifaa;

    (7) Contemptuous terms (normally not used as address) = gashi, luzi, kiluzi, ngozi, chupi, ngoma;

    (8) Girlfriend/lover (used in reference; predominantly used with possessive) = chuma, sholi, manzi, demu, totoz, kishtobe, shi;

    (9) Girlfriend (used in address; predominantly used with possessive) = asali wa moyo, mwandani, laazizi;

    (10) Promiscuous women & prostitutes =


    a) Not yet settled: kiluzi, kipepe, kipopo, kirukanjia, mdosho, mlupo, luzi;
    b) Prostitutes: shankupe, changudoa, sidi, mama huruma, mbovu, shangingi, gubeli;
    c) Nymphomaniacs: kolboksi, maharage ya mbeya, shugamemmi, waluwalu, kimeo;

    (11) Women with big bodies = gubeli, jimama, nyambizi, shangingi, tinginya

    (12) Women perceived as unattractive = kimeo ‘something bad and rotten, even a woman’

    (13) Term used among women, especially as address = shosti ‘good friend’


    (14) Mother = Bi mkubwa, kibize, maza;
     
  3. Dotworld

    Dotworld JF-Expert Member

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    Social status

    In this domain sub-fields can be identified:
    1) humans with low status
    2) humans with high status and
    3) people from rural areas, or country-bumpkins.

    deiwaka, kidampa, kulakulala;

    dingi, mdosi, mlami, mnene, mshua, mtanashati, kibosile, pedeshee;

    kinabo, mbushi, mlugaluga, mporipori, wa kuja, wabushi, yeboyebo;
     
  4. Dotworld

    Dotworld JF-Expert Member

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    mathematics

    Body & Appearance


    In the domain of “Body” most terms relate to the female body and its sexually marked parts: breasts, hips , buttocks, and legs. Buttocks are obviously considered the most important part of a woman’s body, since this field is most elaborated.

    (35) inglish figa, kipótabo, pótabo, kishtobe, namba sita, namba nane, namba tisa, namba kumi;


    (36) balungi, chuchu saa sita, jazia kifua, matiti saa sita, mtindi, nido, nyonyo;

    (37) bastola, bunduki, mvinyo, nduki, pisto[l], silaha;

    (38) baluni, bambataa, fungasha nyuma, haja kubwa, jazia haja kubwa, jazia sehemu za nyuma, kibinda nkoy, ndómbolo, nundu, nyoro, shuzi, taarabu, tinginya, tukunyema, wowowo, zegemba;

    (39) mguu wa bia, mguu wa soda, mguu wa tende;

    (40) fidodido, figa, paa hewani, nenepa kisimba, sanamu la michelini, shepu, antena, ndonga, macho balbu, shingo feni;

    (41) Clothes: debweza, fiesta, gamba, jinsi, kata kei, kata *****, katalogi, kawoshi, kombati, mdebwezo, ming’aro, mkia wa mbuzi, mkia wa ng’ombe, mlegezo, mpayuko, mzula, ngozi, sing’lendi, suru, trausa, ulimi wa mbwa;
    Shoes: bandapanda, gozi, lakuparamia, lakuchumpa, ndula, ngozi, raba mtoni, simpo, tumba;

    (42) Dar kombaini, kijasti, kimini, kitopu, pedo pusha, sing’lendi, taiti, tenge;

    (43) jikoki, jipeki, ng’arisha, sopsopu, chikopa;

    (44) Bwenzi, denge, fidodido, mwembe, panki, rastafari, unga freshi, zungu la unga;
    mustachio, oo;

    (45) kalikiti, kipodozi, mkorogo, tetrasaiklini, unyunyu;

    (46) blingbling, chachandu, jicho la mamba, kidonda, wochi.
     
  5. Dotworld

    Dotworld JF-Expert Member

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    Drugs & Alcohol

    Drugs, especially alcohol, play an important role in the lives of young men. Consumer habits obviously are different between young men and women, but are not yet explored in detail. For young men it is predominantly a group activity, whereas women take part when invited by men.

    (62) keroro, kilaji, kilauri, kinywaji, maji, mitungi, mvinyo, tungi, ulabu;

    (63) chang’aa, laga, maji ya dhahabu, mataputapu, mnazi, ngano;

    (64) kachaso, machozi ya samba, maji makali, nipa, rungu, supa la mawe, totopaki;

    (65) bomba, bunduki, bwi, chichi, chákari, jicho nyanya, keroro, mitungi, nusu peponi nusu kuzimu;

    (66) mishangashanga, stimu, tintedi;

    (67) blanti, ganja, jicho la tatu, kaya, kijiti, majani, mneli, msuba, mtemba temka, ndumu, nyasi, nyunyu, kula blanti, kula nyasi;

    (68) bwimbwi, gamu, palma, poda, unga;

    (69) mzungu wa unga, pablo, pusha, teja;
     
  6. Dotworld

    Dotworld JF-Expert Member

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    Economy, Money & Occupation

    When examining the structure of the domain of economy and money, it is revealed that the creators of LyM do not have a concept where qualification and performance count. Instead the metaphor of “game” for economic activities shows that they experience little jobs and businesses as depending on hazard and relationships

    (47) bangaiza, cheza bingo, dili, kamua, kula vichwa, mchongo, misheni, pigia debe, tema;

    (48) alasiri, chapaa, dola, famba, faranga, fuba, goto, jiwe, mafweza, mapene, mavumba, mbumba, michuzi, mkwanja, mshiko, ngawila, ngudongudo, uchache, vumba;

    (49) baba wa taifa, bluu, buku, buku teni, kifaru, kilo, kisu, majani, mkoba, nusu kilo, pochi, tenga, vifaru viwili, wekundu wa msimbazi;

    (50) bati, dala, doma, fisi, gobole, gwala, hais, jero, jiti, karume, mbala, njoroge, nyanga, nyento, nyomi, paundi, pini;

    (51) apeche alolo, arosto, waya, mabaga, majalala, ukapa, chacha, chalala, kalukwa, kauka, pigika, rosti, uawa kishenzi, ungua jua, waka;

    (52) deiwaka, ushanta, konda, mwela, mzungu wa reli, pailoti, paparazzi, suka, goli, juu yam awe, poteza kitumbua.

    (53) bei ya mchekea, chee, simamia; (54) mwanaapolo, nyoka;
     
  7. Dotworld

    Dotworld JF-Expert Member

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    Communication

    The field of "communication" is the largest single field. It predominantly comprises verbs. The lexemes accumulate in the fields of chatting (26), gossip and spreading of news, telling lies and cheating , keeping quiet or holding back something , and not being able to speak well

    (26) verbs & verbal phrases (v & v.phr): bonga, chonga, longa, piga stori, rapu; Nouns & noun phrases (n & n.phr): redio mbao, redio saba saba, stori;

    (27) v.phr: mwaga nyeti, uza gazeti, tema sumu, zungusha pira; n: sumu, usiku, uzushi;

    (28) v & v.phr: chapia, cheza chesi, funga kamba, kupa saundi, leta za kuleta, piga bao, piga fiksi, pwaga, ua, yeyusha; n & n.phr: kamba, longolongo, makuzi, miyeyusho, miyeyu, za kigeni;

    (29) v & v.phr: kauka, kula jiwe, kula shaba, meza pini, mezea, piga kimya; n: mikausho.

    (30) n.phr: domo gundi, domo limejaa kokoto, domo lina ujauzito, domo zege, domo zito;

    (31) v & v.phr: jigamba, jikweza, jipaisha, jishaua, jishebedua, jishongondoa, nata, vunga; n & n.phr.: mashauzi, mzee wa mikogo, ujiko;

    (32) English: bibisii, ung'eng'e, kikristu, kizungu, ingia external, tema ngeli, tema ung'eng'e; Youth language: kibongo, kiswanglish;

    (33) Names for mobile phones: gobole, foma limau, kiberiti, kicheni pati, kilongalonga, mche wa sabuni, mshindi, twanga pepeta; Use of mobile phones: bipu, promota, shavu;

    (34) v: fotoa; n & n.phr: bluu, foto, kideo, kioo, maiki, muvi, muziki mnene, pilau;
     
  8. Mao ze dong

    Mao ze dong JF-Expert Member

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    Hamsini ikaitwa- jiti
    vijana wa gereji-nyoka
     
  9. Dotworld

    Dotworld JF-Expert Member

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    Evaluative terms

    The terms evaluating quality (77), quantity (78), and intensity (79) are presented together.By far most of them express positive evaluation. This could be interpreted in the context of admiring and boasting.

    (77) Nice: babu kubwa, bomba, chee, chuma, fiti, freshi, funika bovu, gado, jibu, kaa freshi, kwa chati, magoli, mambo ya isidingo, mavituz, mnyama, mtibwa, mukide, mwake naye, ngángari, ngúnguri, pasnali, pina, poa, shega, smati, spesheli, taiti, tiki, yeketee;
    Bad: bomu, choo, kavu, kimeo, mrama, msala, ngarangara, noma;​

    (78) Little: ado ado, chwee, yeyuka;
    Much: bwena, bwi, kedekede, kibao, lumbesa, nyomi, shazi;

    (79) -a kufa mtu, -a nguvu, ile mbaya, kichizi, kinoma, kishenzi, kwa kwenda mbele, narenare;
     
  10. Dotworld

    Dotworld JF-Expert Member

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    Experience

    This semantic domain has extremely fuzzy edges. We have put all lexical items here which relate to the senses and emotions, except those related to drug experience. Within this field we discern sensory matters (80), amazement (81), fear, shame, angriness, and threatening (82), unrest and confusion (83), premonition (84), enjoyment and love (85), disappointment and unkindness (86).

    (80) cheki, chikichia, tega antenna, kula kwa macho;

    (81) bloo, macho balbu, shingo feni, simama dede;

    (82) mkinga, mzuka, tumbo joto, noma, soo, ndita, panda kichizi, chimba biti;

    (83) mapepe, mchecheto, wenge, data, pagaisha, datisha, zingua

    (84) chale, machale, mgutugutu;

    (85) jidunga, jirusha, tesa, ua, vinjari, bloo, fia, konda;

    (86) kata stimu, lia, zimisha fegi, ntimanyongo, roho ya korosho, roho ya kwa nini;
     
  11. Dotworld

    Dotworld JF-Expert Member

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    Trouble & Violence

    Trouble (87) and violence are part of the lives of youths in Tanzania. The semantic fields of "beating" (88) and "threatening" (89) are particularly elaborated.

    (87) jumba bovu, shobo, noma, skendo, kashikashi, palichimbika, valangati, bebelebebele, bifu, gozi, kasheshe, kina, udwanzi:

    (88) bonda, kerubi, klintoni, kong'oli, kong'ota, kosovo, lamba njiti, mikiki, ngeta, pasua mangumi ya jela, timori, uosama;

    (89) biti, mikwara, undava, weka kibesi, zika, chimba biti;
     
  12. Dotworld

    Dotworld JF-Expert Member

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    Food

    Since the majority of youths do not have a job or regular income, regular meals are not guaranteed. Thus it is not surprising that the domain of food is well elaborated in LyM. Contributing to the importance of the domain of food in the LyM lexicon is the experience of low qualitiy and sometimes insufficient alimentation in boarding schools. The generic term chakula ‘food, meal’ has widely been replaced by msosi, probably derived from English ‘sauce’. Ugali ‘stiff porridge’ (96) and rice (97) both have got a range of LyM equivalents. This applies also to the act of eating (98). Furthermore, some special kinds of food are represented (99).

    (96) Bondo, dona, dongo, nafaka, nguna, sembe;

    (97) Bweche, mavi ya panya, mpunga, nyali, punga, punje, ubeche, ubwabwa;

    (98) Bunya, finya, jichana, kandamiza, kula kwa saiti mira, lumangia, sunda;

    (99) Kiepe, kitimoto, lambalamba, mapochopocho, mapokopoko, mnuso, sumu, supu ya mawe, viepe yai;
     
  13. Dotworld

    Dotworld JF-Expert Member

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    Phraseologisms

    On the syntactic level, LyM owes much of its flavor to phraseologisms, i.e. idiomatic combinations of verb plus complement or adjunct. Often a humoristic effect is achieved by a deliberate violation of their combinatorial properties with respect to semantic compatibility.

    Thus, the humoristic effect in chanja mbuga ‘run away, make off, slip away' resides in the application of a manipulative verb such as chanja ‘incise' to a patient object which refers to a huge landmark such as mbuga ‘grassland'. Verbs which feature most productively in phraseologisms are kula ‘eat, consume', piga ‘beat, hit', kata ‘cut', weka ‘put', lamba ‘lick', tema ‘spit', and mwaga ‘pour'.

    Phraseologisms with kula ‘eat, consume'

    kula vichwa ‘get customers'
    kula blanti ‘smoke marijuana'
    kula bunda, kula kona ‘go away, run away'
    kula chabo, kula chasi ‘peep, spy'
    kula jiwe ‘be silly, play the ignorant fool, be quiet'

    kula kwa macho ‘see nice food without being allowed to eat, see something without being able to obtain it'
    kula mdeo ‘peep, look from a distance'
    kula mande ‘commit group rape with a number of men violating one woman'
    kula ngozi ‘sleep with a girl' kula nyasi ‘smoke marijuana' kula nguo ‘wear clothes'
    kula suruali ‘wear trousers'
    kula pamba ‘be nicely dressed'
    kula shaba ‘get shot; not tell something'
    kula uroda ‘make love, have sex'
     
  14. Dotworld

    Dotworld JF-Expert Member

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    Phraseologisms with piga ‘beat’

    piga kibesi ‘threaten someone with words’
    piga bao ‘score, defeat, win; sleep with a girl, ejaculate; go away; get stopped by police; cheat’
    piga bunda ‘go away, run away’
    piga bushoke ‘sleep on the floor’
    piga chabo ‘peep, spy out through the keyhole’
    piga chini ‘fall down, forbid’
    piga debe ‘announce energetically’
    piga deo, piga mdeo, kula mdeo ‘peep, look from a distance’
    piga desh ‘go without meal for lack of money’
    piga fiksi ‘tell lies, cheat’ piga fleva ‘flirt with a girl’ piga jeki ‘help’
    piga kimya ‘be silent’
    piga kona ‘have extramarital sex’
    piga maji ‘drink alcohol’
    piga mti, piga miti ‘make love, have sex’
    piga mtu kijembe ‘mock at someone’
    piga mzinga ‘beg from someone, esp. money, cadge for, sponge, ask for money’
    piga nao ‘make love, have sex’ piga ndonga ‘box, do boxing’ piga nyeto ‘masturbate (male)’ piga pafu ‘take a puff’
    piga tarumbeta ‘drink from the bottle; gossip’
    piga tochi ‘have a look at’
    pigilia nguo ‘wear clothes’
    pigwa bao ‘be cheated, be tricked, be robbed’
    pigwa buti ‘be abandoned’
     
  15. Dotworld

    Dotworld JF-Expert Member

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    mathematics

    C
    onclusion

    Lugha ya Mitaani in Tanzania is a complex linguistic phenomenon which, depending on contexts, can be used as a sociolect, a register, or a speech style. It is not static but changes dynamically, the urban, predominantly male, youths being the creative force in this process.

    Although colloquial Swahili speech has existed since long, it was formerly much more restricted, and confined to informal settings. The acceleration and increase in power of creative linguistic deviation from standard forms started in the late 1980s, being grounded in the sociological situation in Tanzania.

    Contributing factors are
    1) multiethnic communities in the towns,
    2) widespread full competence in Swahili
    3) political and economic liberalisation,
    4) globalisation,
    5) the media, and
    6) a changing awareness of youths on their role in society.

    The new style of LyM which emerges in Tanzania's cities could be classified as an urban youth language instantiating youth identity on a discourse level. It seems to be on the brink of spreading beyond the group of the youth, becoming a marker of an urban identity.

    One of its salient features is an emblematic lexicon which is created by deliberate manipulation of Standard Swahili and – to a much lesser extent – of English items. The strategies used for manipulation clearly reflect its general character of a jocular opposition to linguistic norms and a spirit of challenging social consensus.

    In this, LyM fits with what is found in other urban youth languages all over Africa, but at least in two respects it deviates from this general pattern: 1) there is no massive integration of borrowings neither from English nor from indigenous languages; 2) LyM does not take recourse to the strategy of morphological hybridisation. This stands out in comparison to "neighbouring" Sheng which has lots of input from English, Kikuyu and Luo.

    This is taken to be an outcome of Tanzania's monolingual endoglossic policy of Swahilisation, contrasting with Kenya's indeterminate standing regarding Swahili, English and major indigenous languages, reflecting an implicit trilingual exoglossic concept in language policy (Reh & Heine 1982: 191).

    Urbanisation and globalisation give rise to a new social group in Africa: the urban youth who are under pressure to create and establish their identity (linguistically) in contrast to traditional schemes of identity and cosmopolitan Western style identities.

    The study of LyM contributes to the understanding of discourse practices that constitute youth (sub)culture and construct youth identity in a Swahili context. Moreover, it gives a deep insight into the creativity of Swahili speakers, "into their attitudes and imagery, as well as into the boundless potentialities of the language" (Ohly 1987a: 16).

    A lesson to be learnt here is that linguistic globalisation in this case is not equivalent to "English worldwide" – which is in contrast to what is suggested by Dixon (1997: 147 f.) in the context of his conjectures about language death worldwide in the course of the "punctuation" of globalisation.

    Yet, many questions, especially the ones pertaining to gender aspects, metaphor theory, and actual use in discourse,
    remain to be answered by future in-depth studies of Lugha ya Mitaani in Tanzania.
     
  16. Mlaleo

    Mlaleo JF-Expert Member

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    Naona watu wa sikuhizi hata majibu ya kiswahili yanajibiwa kwa kiingereza lol
     
  17. Gurta

    Gurta JF-Expert Member

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    Waulize wanaosoma shahada za Kiswahili vyuo vikuu wakambie wanaandika kazimradi kwa kutumia lugha gani, uendelee kushangaa!
     
  18. Mlaleo

    Mlaleo JF-Expert Member

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    Kama wapo watajibu humu humu sitoweza kwenda kuwauliza....

    Kenya Kuna Lugha wanaiita Sheng!
     
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