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Virus Science Jifunze Kujuwa Majina ya Virus

Discussion in 'Tech, Gadgets & Science Forum' started by MziziMkavu, Sep 21, 2010.

  1. MziziMkavu

    MziziMkavu JF-Expert Member

    #1
    Sep 21, 2010
    Joined: Feb 3, 2009
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    Virus Science

    Adware
    Adware is software that presents banner ads or in pop-up windows through a bar that appears on a computer screen. Those advertising spots usually can't be removed and are consequently always visible. The connection data allow many conclusions on the usage behavior and are problematic in terms of data security.

    Backdoors
    A backdoor can gain access to a computer by going around the computer access security mechanisms.

    A program that is being executed in the background generally enables the attacker almost unlimited rights. User's personal data can be spied with the backdoor's help, but are mainly used to install further computer viruses or worms on the relevant system.

    Boot viruses
    The boot or master boot sector of hard drives is mainly infected by boot sector viruses. They overwrite important information necessary for the system execution. One of the awkward consequences: the computer system cannot be loaded any more…

    Bot-Net
    A Bot-Net is collection of softwarre bots, which run autonomously. A Bot-Net can comprise a collection of cracked machines running programs (usually referred to as worms, Trojans) under a common command and control infrastructure. Boot-Nets server various purposes, including Denial-of-service attacks, etc., partly without the affected PC user's knowledge. The main potential of Bot-Nets is that the networks can achieve dimensions on thousands of computers and its bandwidth sum bursts most conventional Internet accesses.

    Dialer
    A dialer is a computer programm that establishes a connection to the Internet or to another computer network through the telephone line or the digital ISDN network. Fraudsters use dialers to charge users high rates when dialing up to the Internet without their knowledge.

    Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS)
    Botnet drones are usually able to attack servers, too: by sending numerous requests to a server from many infected clients simultaneously, they slow the server down. The server can no longer answer regular user requests.

    EICAR test file
    The EICAR test file is a test pattern that was developed at the European Institute for Computer Antivirus Research for the purpose to test the functions of anti-virus programs. It is a text file which is 68 characters long and its file extension is “.COM” all virus scanners should recognize as virus.

    Exploit
    An exploit (vulnerability) is a computer program or script that takes advantage of a bug, glitch or vulnerability leading to privilege escalation or denial of service on a computer system. A form of an exploit for example are attacks from the Internet with the help of manipulated data packages. Programs can be infiltrated in order to obtain higher access.

    Grayware
    Grayware operates in a way similar to malware, but it is not spread to harm the users directly. It does not affect the system functionality as such. Mostly, information on the patterns of use is collected in order to either sell these data or to place advertisements systematically.

    Hoaxes
    The users have obtained virus alerts from the Internet for a few years and alerts against viruses in other networks that are supposed to spread via email. These alerts are spread per email with the request that they should be sent to the highest possible number of colleagues and to other users, in order to warn everyone against the "danger".

    Honeypot
    A honeypot is a service (program or server), which is installed in a network.

    It has the function to monitor a network and to protocol attacks. This service is unknown to the legitime user - because of this reason he is never addressed. If an attacker examines a network for the weak points and uses the services which are offered by a Honeypot, it is protocolled and an alert sets off.

    Keystroke logging
    Keystroke logging is a diagnostic tool used in software development that captures the user's keystrokes. It can be useful to determine sources of error in computer systems and is sometimes used to measure employee productivity on certain clerical tasks. Like this, confidential and personal data, such as passwords or PINs, can be spied and sent to other computers via the Internet.

    Macro viruses
    Macro viruses are small programs that are written in the macro language of an application (e.g. WordBasic under WinWord 6.0) and that can normally only spread within documents of this application. Because of this, they are also called document viruses. In order to be active, they need that the corresponding applications are activated and that one of the infected macros has been executed. Unlike "normal" viruses, macro viruses do consequently not attack executable files but they do attack the documents of the corresponding host-application.

    Polymorph viruses
    Polymorph viruses are the real masters of disguise. They change their own programming codes - and are therefore very hard to detect.

    Program viruses
    A computer virus is a program that is capable to attach itself to other programs after being executed and cause an infection. Viruses multiply themselves unlike logic bombs and Trojans. In contrast to a worm, a virus always requires a program as host, where the virus deposits his virulent code. The program execution of the host itself is not changed as a rule.

    Scareware
    The term scareware refers to software which has been designed with the intent to cause anxiety or panic. The victim could be tricked and feels threatened and usually accepts an offer to pay and have the inexistent threat removed. In some cases the victim is seduced to cause the attack himself by making him think this intervention will successfully remove the threat.

    Script viruses and worms
    Such viruses are extremely easy to program and they can spread - if the required technology is on hand - within a few hours via email round the globe.

    Script viruses and worms use a script language such as Javascript, VBScript etc. to infiltrate in other new scripts or to spread by activation of operating system functions. This frequently happens via email or through the exchange of files (documents).

    A worm is a program that multiplies itself but that does not infect the host. Worms can consequently not form part of other program sequences. Worms are often the only possibility to infiltrate any kind of damaging programs on systems with restrictive security measures.

    Security Privacy Risk (SPR)
    The term "SPR/" ("Security or Privacy Risk") refers to a program which can damage the security of your system, trigger program activities you do not want or harm your private environment.

    Spyware
    Spyware are so called spy programs that intercept or take partial control of a computer's operation without the user's informed consent. Spyware is designed to expolit infected computers for commerical gain. Typical tactics furthering this goal include delivery of unsolicited pop-up advertisements. AntiVir is able to detect this kind of software with the category "ADSPY" or "adware-spyware".

    Trojan horses (short Trojans)
    Trojans are pretty common nowadays. We are talking about programs that pretend to have a particular function, but that show their real image after execution and carry out a different function that, in most cases, is destructive. Trojan horses cannot multiply themselves, which differenciates them from viruses and worms. Most of them have an interesting name (SEX.EXE or STARTME.EXE) with the intention to induce the user to start the Trojan. Immediately after execution they become active and can, for example, format the hard drive. A dropper is a special form of Trojan that 'drops' viruses, i.e. embeds viruses on the computer system.

    Zombie
    A Zombie-PC is a computer that is infected with malware programs and that enables hackers to abuse computers via remote control for criminal purposes. The affected PC, for example, can start Denial-of-Service- (DoS) attacks at command or send spam and phishing emails.
     
  2. MziziMkavu

    MziziMkavu JF-Expert Member

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    Sep 21, 2010
    Joined: Feb 3, 2009
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    How To Protect Your Computer From Viruses

    Anti-virus software is a necessity today to ensure the security of your computer and personal information. It is essential that you understand how viruses get into your computer and know how to prevent them from getting in.
    Unfortunately for us, there are many people out there who get a rise out of writing small programs that find ways onto our computers and in most cases destroy personal file, data or steal out identity. This article explains some steps we can take to defend ourselves.

    What is a computer virus?

    A computer virus is a small program that piggybacks on legitimate programs. It is called a virus because it shares the traits of a biological virus where is passes from one computer to another in the same manner a biological virus passes from one person to another person. Once a computer virus is running, it can infect other programs and documents.

    Types of computer viruses:

    There are many types of viruses but the most common are:

    - Viruses: a small software program that attaches itself to other programs and/or documents
    - E-mail viruses: these viruses move around through email and usually replicates itself by automatically mailing itself to people in the victim's address book
    - Trojan horses: this is a computer program that claims to do one thing but instead does another such as erase your hard drive
    - Worms: this is a program that finds a small hole in computer network security and replicates itself on to other computers on that network.

    How does a virus get into our computer and how do they spread?

    Some of the most common ways a virus can get on your computer are:

    - Downloading a program from an unknown source and running it
    - Opening a file attachment from an e-mail
    - Sharing infected files from one computer to another on a floppy disk
    - Opening an electronic greeting card, audio and video files

    What are the signs of a virus, am I infected?

    - Your computer runs slower than normal
    - The computer stops or locks up
    - Your computer crashes and restart every few minutes
    - The computer restarts on its own and does not run properly
    - Applications on your computer do not run properly
    - Hard drives or disk are not accessible
    - Your computer cannot print properly
    - Unusual error messages appear
    - Menus and dialog boxes are distorted

    What kinds of damage can a virus do?

    The damage a computer virus can do depends on the type of virus it is. Here are some common threats.

    - They can delete or change files. Some viruses will delete all your files or even reformat your hard drive making your computer unusable
    - Other viruses will steal personal information like credit card numbers, account numbers and passwords
    - Some viruses will slow down your computer dramatically
    - Some viruses change security settings allowing hackers to gain access to your computer and steal information
    - Other viruses like worms infect computers on a network

    What you can do to protect your computer from viruses?

    There are number of ways to protect your computer from a virus:
    - Do not open any attachments your received in an e-mail even if you know the person who sent it. That person may not be aware they are sending an infected files.
    - If you receive an e-mail with an attachment from some one your do not know, DELETE the e-mail right away.
    - Before you copy a file to your computer, scan it with an anti-virus program
    - If you download a file from the Internet, copy it to your hard drive first, scan it with an anti-virus program before to open the file or run it.
    - if some sends you a greeting card or a joke that you have to launch to view, be awry and stay on the safe side and do not open it
    - The best defense against computer viruses and to use an anti-virus program that will scan your e-mail, act as a firewall, hard drive and keep up-to-date with the latest viruses. It is reported that there are over 500 new viruses discovered each month.

    Fortunately for us, there are a number of software programs available to prevent, detect and kill computer viruses. I recommend the one below, I use it and it is one of the most popular anti-virus programs around.
     
  3. MziziMkavu

    MziziMkavu JF-Expert Member

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    Sep 21, 2010
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    Virusi vya kompyuta

    Virusi vya Kompyuta ni programu haramu yenye uwezo wa kujisambaa ndani ya kompyuta na kujiingiza ndani ya programu halali zinazotakiwa kufanya kazi mle. Ikisambaa inaathiri programu halali na kusababisha hasara. Virusi vyasambaa kwa njia ya intaneti lakini pia kwa njia ya sidii au diski yoyote ya kubebea data kati ya kompyuta. Virusi vinaweza kuharibu mafaili na kupunguza uwezo wa ufanyaji kazi wa kompyuta yako.

    Historia


    Programu za virusi zilianzishwa tangu vyanzo vya kompyuta vyenyewe. Wanahisabati maarufu kama John von Neumann walikadiria nadharia ya programu zenye uwezo wa kujiendeleza na hata kujisambaa peke zao tangi miaka ya 1950. Tangu kupatikana kwa kompyuta ndogo za nyumbani imeonekana ya kwamba programu za aina hii zinaweza kuleta hasara mbalimbali. Mara nyingi programu (c)Brain hutajwa kama virusi ya kwanza iliyosambaa kwenye kompyuta ndogo tangu mwaka 1986. Usambazaji wake ulikuwa kosa la watungaji wake waliotaka kukinga diski za programu halali waliyouza dhidi ya kopi haramu; waliandika namba ya simu yao ndani ya virus.
    Tangu kupatikana kwa intaneti kuna watu maelfu ambao wametunga programu za virusi kwa kusudi mbalimbali; mara nyingi ni vijana wanaotaka kujaribu uwezo wao wa kuandika programu za aina hii. Wengine wanakusudia mzaha tu wakitaka kuona mafanikio yao kwenye kompyuta za dunia yote. Kuna wengine wenye hasira dhidi ya kampuni kubwa kama Microsoft, dhidi ya benki, dhidi ya serikali au dhidi ya binadamu kwa jumla. Hao ni hatari zaidi wakijitahidi kusababisha hasara kubwa. Wengine hufuata kusudi za kisiasa wakilenga kwa kompyuta za lugha au nchi fulani hasa. Virusi nyingi zina malengo ya kijinai kwa sababu watungaji wao wanajaribu kupata faida ya kifedha kwa njia ya utapeli wakijaribu kuiba maneno ya siri kutoka kompyuta ya watu yanayomruhusu mtumiaji kuwasiliana na benki na kutuma fedha kwa akaunti nyengine.



    Hatari za kutumia makompyuta mengi-mengi


    Mtandao wa intaneti unaruhusu mamilioni ya watumiaji wa kompyuta duniani kuungana pamoja kibiashara na hata kwa kujifurahisha. Watu wengi tofauti hutumia intaneti. Yeyote anayetumia Intaneti anaweza kupata habari nyingi kuhusu mada tofauti, tena kwa lugha tofauti, yaani, katika kipindi kidogo sana.
    Intaneti inawezesha mtu mmoja kuharibu au kupunguza uwezo wa mamilioni ya kompyuta ambazo zimeunganishwa nazo. Wanaweza kufanya hivi kwa kuandika program za kompyuta. Au, wanaweza kuzifanya kompyuta zijiweke taarifa za kipuuzi ambazo zinasabisha kompyuta iache kufanya kazi. Iwapo sio mwangalifu, basi unaweza kusababisha kompyuta iache kufanya kazi.




    Hasara kubwa zilizosababishwa na "worm"


    Mnamo tar. 24 Januari, 2003, aina ya kirusi cha kompyuta kiitwacho "worm" kilitolewa ili kuathiri Intaneti. Worm ni mfululizo wa maelekezo ya kompyuta ambayo yanajiweka nakala nyingi-nyingi yenyewe na kuzituma kwa kompyuta nyingine.
    Huyu worm ametuma nakala kibao zake mwenyewe kwenye kompyuta nyingine kupitia Intaneti. Huyo worm ameharibu mamilioni kadhaa ya kompyuta duniani. Imepunguza uwezo wa makompyuta kibao kupitia mitandao ya kompyuta.


    Kampuni za kupiga vita virusi


    Sophos P-L-C ni kampuni ya kompyuta ya huko Britania ambayo inatengeneza program za kuilinda kompyuta dhidi ya virusi. Hii ni kampuni ya nne kwa ukubwa ya kutengeneza program za kuzuia virusi.
    Hivi karibuni, kampuni ya Sophos imetangaza onyo rasmi watumiaji wa kimpyuta kujikinga dhidi virusi vipya vingi na worms. Tangaza lilitoa maelezo juu ya baadhi ya watu wanaofanya kazi kwa juhudi kutengeneza bidhaa pepe haramu za kompyuta. Kampuni ya Sophos ilisema ya kwamba hizi ni ripoti kutoka katika gazeti lililochapishwa nchini Singapore mnamo tar. 14 Januari, siku tu kable ya shambulio la worm lililofanywa katika Slammer.
    Graham Cluley ni mtalaamu wa kompyuta katika kampuni ya Sophos. Alisema kwamba kampuni za utengenezaji wa programu za kulinda kmpyuta zinategemea virusi vingi kwa mwaka huu. Alisema watunzi wa virusi wanataka kubuni virusi vingine vyenye nguvu kupita hata hivi vya worm. Hii itaweza kusambazwa kupitia ujumbe elektronikia au njia ya mawasiliano ya kompyuta iitwayo Instant Messaging (Ujumbe wa Haraka kama vile Yahoo Messenger, Google Talk, Windows Live Messenger, na kadhalika). Bwana Cluley aliendelea kusema kwamba aina hii ya virusi husababisha matatizo makubwa sana.
    Wataalamu wa kompyuta wa Kampuni ya Sophos walisema kuna virusi vya kompyuta takriban 40,000 ambavyo kwa sasa vinafahamika kama vipo. Wataalamui hao waliendelea kusema kwamba takriban virusi vipya 200 hutolewa kila mwezi kupitia Internet.
    Bwana Cluley alisema miaka kumi au tisa iliyopita kompyuta nyingi zilizoharibiwa na virusi ni zile ambazo zinatumia Microsoft Windows kama ndiyo mfumo wake wa uendeshaji, yaani, operating system.
     
  4. M

    MIGNON JF-Expert Member

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    Shukrani za dhati kwa mnaotuelimisha humu jamvini.Mimi ni kati wale BBC (born before computers) na binafsi mara mbili au tatu nimefaidika na ushauri wetu nilipopata matatizo na PC yangu.Nimefungua folder ambalo ninaweka information kama hizi
     
  5. Masika

    Masika JF-Expert Member

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    Asanteni sana
     
  6. drphone

    drphone JF-Expert Member

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    mkuuu saluti kkwa mafundisho bomba nimepata kitu
     
  7. Masanilo

    Masanilo JF-Expert Member

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    I thought is something to do with virology! Haya bana asante
     
  8. Baba_Enock

    Baba_Enock JF-Expert Member

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    MziziMkavu

    Remember to acknowledge the AUTHOR!
     
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