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Understanding The Rise Of China-Martin Jacques.

Discussion in 'International Forum' started by BAK, Mar 29, 2011.

  1. BAK

    BAK JF-Expert Member

    #1
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    China 'to overtake US on science' in two years

    David Shukman Science and environment correspondent, BBC News
    [​IMG]
    China's surge in progress could soon overwhelm the US, say experts

    China is on course to overtake the US in scientific output possibly as soon as 2013 - far earlier than expected.
    That is the conclusion of a major new study by the Royal Society, the UK's national science academy.
    The country that invented the compass, gunpowder, paper and printing is set for a globally important comeback.

    An analysis of published research - one of the key measures of scientific effort - reveals an "especially striking" rise by Chinese science.
    The study, Knowledge, Networks and Nations, charts the challenge to the traditional dominance of the United States, Europe and Japan.
    The figures are based on the papers published in recognised international journals listed by the Scopus service of the publishers Elsevier.

    'No surprise'
    In 1996, the first year of the analysis, the US published 292,513 papers - more 10 times China's 25,474.
    By 2008, the US total had increased very slightly to 316,317 while China's had surged more than seven-fold to 184,080.
    Previous estimates for the rate of expansion of Chinese science had suggested that China might overtake the US sometime after 2020.
    There are many millions of graduates but they are mandated to publish so the numbers are high”
    End Quote Dr Cong Cao Nottingham University
    But this study shows that China, after displacing the UK as the world's second leading producer of research, could go on to overtake America in as little as two years' time.
    "Projections vary, but a simple linear interpretation of Elsevier's publishing data suggests that this could take place as early as 2013," it says.

    Professor Sir Chris Llewellyn Smith, chair of the report, said he was "not surprised" by this increase because of China's massive boost to investment in R&D.
    Chinese spending has grown by 20% per year since 1999, now reaching over $100bn, and as many as 1.5 million science and engineering students graduated from Chinese universities in 2006.

    "I think this is positive, of great benefit, though some might see it as a threat and it does serve as a wake-up call for us not to become complacent."
    The report stresses that American research output will not decline in absolute terms and raises the possibility of countries like Japan and France rising to meet the Chinese challenge.

    "But the potential for China to match American output in terms of sheer numbers in the near to medium term is clear."

    Quality questions
    The authors describe "dramatic" changes in the global scientific landscape and warn that this has implications for a nation's competitiveness.
    According to the report, "The scientific league tables are not just about prestige - they are a barometer of a country's ability to compete on the world stage".
    Along with the growth of the Chinese economy, this is yet another indicator of China's extraordinarily rapid rise as a global force.

    However the report points out that a growing volume of research publications does not necessarily mean in increase in quality.
    One key indicator of the value of any research is the number of times it is quoted by other scientists in their work.
    Although China has risen in the "citation" rankings, its performance on this measure lags behind its investment and publication rate.

    "It will take some time for the absolute output of emerging nations to challenge the rate at which this research is referenced by the international scientific community."
    The UK's scientific papers are still the second most-cited in the world, after the US.
    Dr Cong Cao, associate professor at Nottingham University's School of Contemporary Chinese Studies, agrees with the assessment that the quantity of China's science is yet not matched by its quality.

    A sociologist originally from Shanghai, Dr Cao told the BBC: "There are many millions of graduates but they are mandated to publish so the numbers are high.
    "It will take many years for some of the research to catch up to Western standards."

    As to China's motivation, Dr Cao believes that there is a determination not to be dependent on foreign know-how - and to reclaim the country's historic role as a global leader in technology.
     
  2. S

    Shamu JF-Expert Member

    #2
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    China is the super power in the making.
     
  3. BAK

    BAK JF-Expert Member

    #3
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    Without any doubt. Jamaa waliidanganya dunia kwamba yule wa Iraq alikuwa na WMD wakaingia vitani na kudai vita hiyo itagharimu $30 million tu. Miaka minane baadaye $1 Trillioni and counting imeanguka imagine pesa kama hii wangeamua kufanya investment ya nguvu leo hii wangekuwa wapi kiuchumi! Sasa hivi madeni kibao, budget deficit ya hali ya juu na unemployment inacheza karibu na double digits na hakuna dalili ya ahueni katika miaka ya karibuni.

    Wakati huo huo Wachina wanafanya vitu vyao taratibu na kumuengua mmoja baada ya mwingine na hadi kuwa wa pili duniani kiuchumi. Si miaka mingi ijayo watakuwa wababe wa dunia kiuchumi na pia kijeshi.
     
  4. Viper

    Viper JF-Expert Member

    #4
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    Joined: Dec 21, 2007
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    Tatizo sisi wabongo tumekalia kupiga kelele china feki.. ehehe, nakumbuka wakati wa kipindi kile cha tatizo la uchumi duniani.. obama alitembelea china! akakuta ile new beijing air port!.. ile kitu mazee sijapata kuona yoyote atakaye pata nafasi kwenda china asishukie shaghai pudong .. jaribu kushuka beijing!.. obama alitoa comment hii

    Obama: China's "airports are vastly superior to us now" « Evan Sparks's Aviation Policy Blog

    [​IMG]
     
  5. M

    Marytina JF-Expert Member

    #5
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    Joined: Jan 20, 2011
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    mbona China wamekuwa wakiisaidia Sudan silaha za kuwauwa watu wa kusini husemi.
    Okey kama ishu ni vita Tanzania tulipigana vita vingapi baada ya uhuru kutufanya sayansi yetu iwe hivi.URUSSI vipi?
    Major technological change do occurs during war and interwar times. Mkuu upo wapi?
    www.ay.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/barnett/b5intro.htm
     
  6. engmtolera

    engmtolera Verified User

    #6
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    Joined: Oct 21, 2010
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    China's surge in progress could soon overwhelm the US, say experts
    China is on course to overtake the US in scientific output possibly as soon as 2013 - far earlier than expected.
    That is the conclusion of a major new study by the Royal Society, the UK's national science academy.
    The country that invented the compass, gunpowder, paper and printing is set for a globally important comeback.
    An analysis of published research - one of the key measures of scientific effort - reveals an "especially striking" rise by Chinese science.
    The study, Knowledge, Networks and Nations, charts the challenge to the traditional dominance of the United States, Europe and Japan.
    The figures are based on the papers published in recognized international journals listed by the Scopus service of the publishers Elsevier.

    'No surprise'
    In 1996, the first year of the analysis, the US published 292,513 papers - more than 10 times China's 25,474.
    By 2008, the US total had increased very slightly to 316,317 while China's had surged more than seven-fold to 184,080.
    Previous estimates for the rate of expansion of Chinese science had suggested that China might overtake the US sometime after 2020.
    There are many millions of graduates but they are mandated to publish so the numbers are high" said Dr. Cong Cao of Nottingham University.
    But this study shows that China, after displacing the UK as the world's second leading producer of research, could go on to overtake America in as little as two years' time.
    "Projections vary, but a simple linear interpretation of Elsevier's publishing data suggests that this could take place as early as 2013," it says.
    Professor Sir Chris Llewellyn Smith, chair of the report, said he was "not surprised" by this increase because of China's massive boost to investment in R&D.
    Chinese spending has grown by 20% per year since 1999, now reaching over $100bn, and as many as 1.5 million science and engineering students graduated from Chinese universities in 2006.
    "I think this is positive, of great benefit, though some might see it as a threat and it does serve as a wake-up call for us not to become complacent."
    The report stresses that American research output will not decline in absolute terms and raises the possibility of countries like Japan and France rising to meet the Chinese challenge.
    "But the potential for China to match American output in terms of sheer numbers in the near to medium term is clear."
    Quality questions
    The authors describe "dramatic" changes in the global scientific landscape and warn that this has implications for a nation's competitiveness.
    According to the report, "The scientific league tables are not just about prestige - they are a barometer of a country's ability to compete on the world stage".
    Along with the growth of the Chinese economy, this is yet another indicator of China's extraordinarily rapid rise as a global force.
    However the report points out that a growing volume of research publications does not necessarily mean in increase in quality.
    One key indicator of the value of any research is the number of times it is quoted by other scientists in their work.
    Although China has raised in the "citation" rankings, its performance on this measure lags behind its investment and publication rate.
    "It will take some time for the absolute output of emerging nations to challenge the rate at which this research is referenced by the international scientific community."
    The UK's scientific papers are still the second most-cited in the world, after the US.
    Dr. Cong Cao, associate professor at Nottingham University's School of Contemporary Chinese Studies, agrees with the assessment that the quantity of China's science is yet not matched by its quality.
    A sociologist originally from Shanghai, Dr. Cao told the BBC: "There are many millions of graduates but they are mandated to publish so the numbers are high.
    "It will take many years for some of the research to catch up to Western standards."
    As to China's motivation, Dr. Cao believes that there is a determination not to be dependent on foreign know-how - and to reclaim the country's historic role as a global leader in technology.
    [​IMG]
    http://v.youku.com/v_show/id_XMjQ0MDIwMzMy.html
     
  7. Ms Judith

    Ms Judith JF-Expert Member

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    rafiki yangu kanitumia hii link na naona it something worth sharing.

    TED

    kweli wachina kiboko!

    mkabidhi Bwana njia zako
    na mawazo yako yatathibitika
    Jina la Bwana lihimidiwe
     
  8. K

    Kicheruka JF-Expert Member

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    Where is a link?
     
  9. Panga La Shaba

    Panga La Shaba JF-Expert Member

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    Bibie Judith mbona kuna uchuro tu kwenye hiyo youtube...
     
  10. Ab-Titchaz

    Ab-Titchaz Content Manager Staff Member

    #10
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    Very nice and informative expose.
     
  11. Ab-Titchaz

    Ab-Titchaz Content Manager Staff Member

    #11
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    Kweli mkuu, hilo ni jambo la kutafakari.
    George Bush aliharibu uchumi wa Marekani kwa kudanganya na kulaghai ulimwengu.
    Leo inawatokea puani.
     
  12. Ab-Titchaz

    Ab-Titchaz Content Manager Staff Member

    #12
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    Hapo sasa unataka kupindisha mada. We are not discussing wars but instead we are looking at China's advancement on the
    global front in terms of its economy and its population. BAK ametoa mfano tu kama iwapo Marekani wangetumia hii hela kuinvest
    then they would have been ahead in terms of its economy. Saa hizi watu hawana kazi and to make it worse, America is borrowing
    from China to offset some of her debts.

    Everybody knows China doesnt care for human rights or the tenets of democracy as potrayed by the West lakini wako mbele
    katika maswala ya kukuza uchumi wao.

    Please keep the discussion as intended.
     
  13. BAK

    BAK JF-Expert Member

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    Ahsante Mkuu kwa kunielewa. Wa kumlaumu kufuatia kuanguka kwa uchumi wa Marekani si mwingine bali ni Serikali ya Kichaka ambayo imechangia kwa kiasi kikubwa kuwepo katika hali mbaya sana kiuchumi. Kingine alichokifanya wakati wakitumia mapesa mengi kwenye uvamizi kule Iraq bado akapunguza kwa kiasi kikubwa kodi iliyokuwa inalipwa na matajiri! DOUBLE WHAMMY!
     
  14. jmushi1

    jmushi1 JF-Expert Member

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  15. Kinyambiss

    Kinyambiss JF-Expert Member

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    Interesting paradox, China hakuna Mungu lakini wanaendelea tuu. Calls into question the assertion of 'mkabidhi bwana njia zako....' Just saying...lol
     
  16. engmtolera

    engmtolera Verified User

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    The increasing importance of Chinese investment in sub-Saharan Africa
    撒哈拉以南非洲中国投资与日俱增的重要性

    Many of its people are not happy about it, as our briefing reports, but business is booming in Africa thanks mostly to the Chinese. Trade between the two surpassed $120 billion in 2010, and in the past two years China has given more loans to poor, mainly African countries than the World Bank. The Heritage Foundation, an American think-tank, estimates that between 2005 and 2010 about 14% of China’s investment abroad found its way to sub-Saharan Africa. This has brought increased employment and prosperity to the region, but also allegations of damage to local businesses, corruption and the hoarding of natural resources.
     
  17. yutong

    yutong JF-Expert Member

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    kaka badilisha lugha hapo sisi ni waswahili
     
  18. Juma Contena

    Juma Contena JF-Expert Member

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    How could one bring prosperity in the region and damage local business?
     
  19. LE GAGNANT

    LE GAGNANT JF-Expert Member

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    The International Monetary Fund has just dropped a bombshell, and nobody noticed. For the first time, the international organization has set a date for the moment when the Age of America will end and the U.S. economy will be overtaken by that of China. According to the latest IMF official forecasts, China's economy will surpass that of America in real terms in 2016 just five years from now. According to the IMF forecast, whoever is elected U.S. president next year Obama? Mitt Romney? Donald Trump? will be the last to preside over the world's largest economy.

    source: yahoo news
     
  20. Omuregi Wasu

    Omuregi Wasu JF-Expert Member

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    Hii inawachanganya Wamarekani wengi hapa US. Well, ni vizuri tu wapitwe kwani wanajidai sana ila hawa shemeji zetu nao siyo wazuri sana ktawala dunia kwa sasa. Hawajawa na ustaaabu wa kutosha. Wengi bado ni ovyo kabisa.
     
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