Dismiss Notice
You are browsing this site as a guest. It takes 2 minutes to CREATE AN ACCOUNT and less than 1 minute to LOGIN

Ugonjwa wa Homa ya Ini (Hepatitis B): Dalili, ushauri wa kinga na tiba yake

Discussion in 'JF Doctor' started by JamiiForums, Feb 4, 2010.

  1. JamiiForums

    JamiiForums Official Robot Staff Member

    Feb 4, 2010
    Joined: Nov 9, 2006
    Messages: 4,715
    Likes Received: 578
    Trophy Points: 280
    Kumekuwepo kilio cha muda mrefu toka kwa wadau juu ya ugonjwa huu na wengi wakitaka kupata majibu ya nini cha kufanya endapo wana maambukizi ya Hepatitis.

    Tumeonelea vema tuwe na mjadala juu yake ili kuwasaidia wenye uhitaji.

    Feb 2010:
    Sept 2012:
    August 2013:
    May 2014:
  2. ngoshwe

    ngoshwe JF-Expert Member

    Feb 4, 2010
    Joined: Mar 31, 2009
    Messages: 4,068
    Likes Received: 10
    Trophy Points: 135

    Hepatitis B

    Key facts

    • Hepatitis B is a viral infection that attacks the liver and can cause both acute and chronic disease.
    • The virus is transmitted through contact with the blood or other body fluids of an infected person - not through casual contact.
    • About 2 billion people worldwide have been infected with the virus and about 350 million live with chronic infection. An estimated 600 000 persons die each year due to the acute or chronic consequences of hepatitis B.
    • About 25% of adults who become chronically infected during childhood later die from liver cancer or cirrhosis (scarring of the liver) caused by the chronic infection.
    • The hepatitis B virus is 50 to 100 times more infectious than HIV.
    • Hepatitis B virus is an important occupational hazard for health workers.
    • Hepatitis B is preventable with a safe and effective vaccine.
    Hepatitis B is a potentially life-threatening liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus. It is a major global health problem and the most serious type of viral hepatitis. It can cause chronic liver disease and puts people at high risk of death from cirrhosis of the liver and liver cancer.
    Worldwide, an estimated two billion people have been infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV), and more than 350 million have chronic (long-term) liver infections.
    A vaccine against hepatitis B has been available since 1982. Hepatitis B vaccine is 95% effective in preventing HBV infection and its chronic consequences, and is the first vaccine against a major human cancer.

    Hepatitis B virus can cause an acute illness with symptoms that last several weeks, including yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice), dark urine, extreme fatigue, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain. People can take several months to a year to recover from the symptoms. HBV can also cause a chronic liver infection that can later develop into cirrhosis of the liver or liver cancer.
    Who is most at risk for chronic disease?

    The likelihood that an HBV infection will become chronic depends upon the age at which a person becomes infected, with young children who become infected with HBV being the most likely to develop chronic infections. About 90% of infants infected during the first year of life develop chronic infections; 30% to 50% of children infected between one to four years of age develop chronic infections. About 25% of adults who become chronically infected during childhood die from HBV-related liver cancer or cirrhosis.
    About 90% of healthy adults who are infected with HBV will recover and be completely rid of the virus within six months.
    Where is hepatitis B most common?

    Hepatitis B is endemic in China and other parts of Asia. Most people in the region become infected with HBV during childhood. In these regions, 8% to 10% of the adult population are chronically infected. Liver cancer caused by HBV is among the first three causes of death from cancer in men, and a major cause of cancer in women. High rates of chronic infections are also found in the Amazon and the southern parts of eastern and central Europe. In the Middle East and Indian sub-continent, an estimated 2% to 5% of the general population is chronically infected. Less than 1% of the population in western Europe and North American is chronically infected.

    Hepatitis B virus is transmitted between people by contact with the blood or other body fluids (i.e. semen and vaginal fluid) of an infected person. Modes of transmission are the same for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but HBV is 50 to 100 times more infectious Unlike HIV, HBV can survive outside the body for at least 7 days. During that time, the virus can still cause infection if it enters the body of a person who is not infected.

    Common modes of transmission in developing countries are:
    • perinatal (from mother to baby at birth)
    • early childhood infections (inapparent infection through close interpersonal contact with infected household contacts)
    • unsafe injections practices
    • blood transfusions
    • sexual contact
    In many developed countries (e.g. those in western Europe and North America), patterns of transmission are different than those mentioned above. Today, the majority of infections in these countries are transmitted during young adulthood by sexual activity and injecting drug use. HBV is a major infectious occupational hazard of health workers.
    HBV is not spread by contaminated food or water, and cannot be spread casually in the workplace.
    The virus incubation period is 90 days on average, but can vary from about 30 to 180 days. HBV may be detected 30 to 60 days after infection and persist for widely variable periods of time.

    There is no specific treatment for acute hepatitis B. Care is aimed at maintaining comfort and adequate nutritional balance, including replacement of fluids that are lost from vomiting and diarrhoea.
    Chronic hepatitis B can be treated with drugs, including interferon and anti-viral agents, which can help some patients. Treatment can cost thousands of dollars per year and is not available to most patients in developing countries.
    Liver cancer is almost always fatal, and often develops in people at an age when they are most productive and have family responsibilities. In developing countries, most people with liver cancer die within months of diagnosis. In higher income countries, surgery and chemotherapy can prolong life for up to a few years in some patients.
    Patients with cirrhosis are sometimes given liver transplants, with varying success.

    All infants should receive the hepatitis B vaccine: this is the mainstay of hepatitis B prevention.
    The vaccine can be given as either three or four separate doses, as part of existing routine immunization schedules. In areas where mother-to-infant spread of HBV is common, the first dose of vaccine should be given as soon as possible after birth (i.e. within 24 hours).
    The complete vaccine series induces protective antibody levels in more than 95% of infants, children and young adults. After age 40, protection following the primary vaccination series drops below 90%. At 60 years old, protective antibody levels are achieved in only 65 to 75% of those vaccinated. Protection lasts at least 20 years and should be lifelong.

    All children and adolescents younger than 18 years old and not previously vaccinated should receive the vaccine. People in high risk groups should also be vaccinated, including:
    • persons with high-risk sexual behaviour;
    • partners and household contacts of HBV infected persons;
    • injecting drug users;
    • persons who frequently require blood or blood products;
    • recipients of solid organ transplantation;
    • those at occupational risk of HBV infection, including health care workers; and
    • international travellers to countries with high rates of HBV.
    The vaccine has an outstanding record of safety and effectiveness. Since 1982, over one billion doses of hepatitis B vaccine have been used worldwide. In many countries where 8% to 15% of children used to become chronically infected with HBV, vaccination has reduced the rate of chronic infection to less than 1% among immunized children.
    As of December 2006, 164 countries vaccinate infants against hepatitis B during national immunization programmes - a major increase compared with 31 countries in 1992, the year that the World Health Assembly passed a resolution to recommend global vaccination against hepatitis B.



  3. MziziMkavu

    MziziMkavu JF-Expert Member

    Oct 17, 2011
    Joined: Feb 3, 2009
    Messages: 38,326
    Likes Received: 2,403
    Trophy Points: 280
    Juu ya kuwa kwamba bado hazijapatikana dawa za uhakika juu ya maradhi haya, lakini wachunguzi wamegundua kuwa vipo vitu viwili ambavyo vinaweza kusaidia kwa wale waliopata maradhi haya katika early stage na pia unaweza kujikinga na maradhi hayo.

    Zabibu (Grapes): Huifanyia kazi Ini pamoja na kuinua glycogenic,kwahio inaaminika ulaji wa zabibu huweza kuwa ni kinga dhidi ya maradhi hayo ( na ni vizuri zaidi kula fruits kabla ya kula chakula cha mchana isiwe kama wenzetu nchi za arabuni wao kwanza huanza chakula baadae ndipo hula matunda, kwa utaratibu wa lishe bora kwanza inatakiwa kula matunda ndipo ule chakula kizito)

    Mtindi (Curd,yogurt): Kutokana na upungufu wa damu, ambayo ni moja katika sababu kubwa zinayosababisha maradhi ya hepatitis, Lectic Acid inayopatikana katika mtindi husaidia mfumo mzima wa damu ndani ya mwili. Kula mtindi uchanganye na asali iwe unakula mara kwa mara.
  4. King'asti

    King'asti JF-Expert Member

    Oct 17, 2011
    Joined: Nov 26, 2009
    Messages: 27,016
    Likes Received: 1,178
    Trophy Points: 280
    mzizi mkavu,asante sana kwa mabandiko yako ya 'alternative therapy', kwa kweli ni msaada mkubwa. hapo kuhusu upungufu wa damu kusababisha hepatitis, nilidhani hepatisis (a,b na c) zinasababishwa na virus? pili,hujaongelea kiasi gani cha mtindi ama zabibu, au inamaanisha ukitumia mara kwa mara ni dawa tosha?
  5. Kongosho

    Kongosho JF-Expert Member

    Jan 2, 2012
    Joined: Mar 21, 2011
    Messages: 36,156
    Likes Received: 157
    Trophy Points: 145
    Tukumbuke kuna ugonjwa huu pia

    What is hepatitis B?
    Hepatitis B is a liver disease. Hepatitis [SUP]*[/SUP] means inflammation of the liver. Inflammation is the painful, red swelling that results when tissues of the body become injured or infected. Inflammation can cause organs to not work properly.

    · being born to a mother with hepatitis B
    · having sex with an infected person
    · being tattooed or pierced with unsterilized tools that were used on an infected person
    · getting an accidental needle stick with a needle that was used on an infected person
    · using an infected person's razor or toothbrush
    · sharing drug needles with an infected person

    • Weight loss
    • yellowish eyes and skin, called jaundice
    • a longer than usual amount of time for bleeding to stop
    • swollen stomach or ankles
    • easy bruising
    • tiredness/weakness
    • upset stomach
    • fever
    • loss of appetite
    • diarrhea
    • nausea
    • light-colored stools
    • dark yellow urine
    • spiderlike blood vessels, called spider angiomas, that develop on the skin

    Hepatitis B usually is not treated unless it becomes chronic.
    Chronic hepatitis B is treated with drugs that slow or stop the virus from damaging the liver. The length of treatment varies. Your doctor will help you decide which drug or drug combination is likely to work for you and will closely watch your symptoms to make sure treatment is working.
    Drugs given by shots include
    · interferon
    · peginterferon
    Drugs taken by mouth include
    · lamivudine
    · telbivudine
    · adefovir
    · entecavir
    Liver Transplantation

    · use a condom during sex
    · do not share drug needles
    · wear gloves if you have to touch another person's blood
    · do not borrow another person's toothbrush, razor, or anything else that could have blood on it
    · make sure any tattoos or body piercings you get are done with sterile tools
    · do not donate blood or blood products if you have hepatitis B
  6. sweetlady

    sweetlady JF-Expert Member

    Jan 2, 2012
    Joined: Dec 24, 2010
    Messages: 16,980
    Likes Received: 55
    Trophy Points: 145
    Sante kongosho.

    Heri ya mwaka mpya.
  7. Kongosho

    Kongosho JF-Expert Member

    Jan 2, 2012
    Joined: Mar 21, 2011
    Messages: 36,156
    Likes Received: 157
    Trophy Points: 145
    Asante SL
    Heri ya mwaka mpya pia.

  8. Smile

    Smile JF-Expert Member

    Jan 2, 2012
    Joined: Jul 18, 2011
    Messages: 15,404
    Likes Received: 81
    Trophy Points: 145
    Dah noma
  9. Kongosho

    Kongosho JF-Expert Member

    Jan 2, 2012
    Joined: Mar 21, 2011
    Messages: 36,156
    Likes Received: 157
    Trophy Points: 145
    Unweza kuwa na hepatitis tu
    Ukaanza kujihukumu mambo mengine
  10. Smile

    Smile JF-Expert Member

    Jan 2, 2012
    Joined: Jul 18, 2011
    Messages: 15,404
    Likes Received: 81
    Trophy Points: 145
    hii dunia sio sehemu salama kabisa kumbe hii kitu hii nomaaa
  11. Ralphryder

    Ralphryder JF-Expert Member

    Jan 2, 2012
    Joined: Nov 16, 2011
    Messages: 4,589
    Likes Received: 4
    Trophy Points: 135
    Big up mkuu!
  12. M

    Malila JF-Expert Member

    Jan 2, 2012
    Joined: Dec 22, 2007
    Messages: 4,139
    Likes Received: 227
    Trophy Points: 160
    Kinachouma zaidi wanaojua hawatoi tahadhari kwa jamii, ktk Hospital kubwa za serikali hakuna matangazo ya balaa hili. Nimeona Aga Khan wameweka matangazo,serikali ingeweka wazi jambo hili kwa sababu sindano za kinga zipo,hata kama ni za gharama ni bora zijulikane.
  13. Lizzy

    Lizzy JF-Expert Member

    Jan 2, 2012
    Joined: May 25, 2009
    Messages: 22,193
    Likes Received: 116
    Trophy Points: 160
    Uzuri ni kwamba kuna vaccine inayozuia maambukizi ya Hepatits B, tofauti na UKIMWI.
  14. Smile

    Smile JF-Expert Member

    Jan 2, 2012
    Joined: Jul 18, 2011
    Messages: 15,404
    Likes Received: 81
    Trophy Points: 145
    wanasubiri liwe janga ili waanzishe mradi watu wale hela mkuu
    nchi hii utajiju
  15. Kongosho

    Kongosho JF-Expert Member

    Jan 2, 2012
    Joined: Mar 21, 2011
    Messages: 36,156
    Likes Received: 157
    Trophy Points: 145
    Hata mie niliona Aghakan
    Ikabidi niende kwa dokta kuuliza ni nini
    Akanielezea wee

    Nikaja nikajisomea mwenyewe pia
    Afu dokta alisema hata mate tu yanaambukiza

  16. Kongosho

    Kongosho JF-Expert Member

    Jan 2, 2012
    Joined: Mar 21, 2011
    Messages: 36,156
    Likes Received: 157
    Trophy Points: 145
    Ni kweli kuna vacine
    Lakini hadi upate taarifa ndo waweza tilia maanani
  17. jouneGwalu

    jouneGwalu JF-Expert Member

    Jan 2, 2012
    Joined: Apr 11, 2011
    Messages: 2,648
    Likes Received: 29
    Trophy Points: 145
    Dr Kongosho, ahsante sana Mkuu!
    Hii ni alert ya muhimu sana....
  18. Kaunga

    Kaunga JF-Expert Member

    Jan 2, 2012
    Joined: Nov 28, 2010
    Messages: 12,586
    Likes Received: 692
    Trophy Points: 280
    What about A and C; which one is more deadly?
  19. Consigliere

    Consigliere JF-Expert Member

    Jan 2, 2012
    Joined: Sep 9, 2010
    Messages: 6,045
    Likes Received: 2,632
    Trophy Points: 280
    The term hepatitis refers to swelling of the liver, a scenario that can be quite catastrophic to the overall mechanics of the body. The liver is an organ that has a very big responsibility and when it is not functioning properly, the breakdown of proteins, filtration of toxins, production of hormones and the efficient balance of the metabolism are all in jeopardy. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services explains that there are three main forms of hepatitis; each one originating from a viral source. There is no cure for hepatitis, only treatments to relieve the symptoms.

    • Hepatitis A
      • Hepatitis A is a liver condition that is caused by HAV (hepatitis A virus). The virus is known to be transmitted through sexual activity, feces or contaminated food sources. Hepatitis A is an acute illness, which means that it begins abruptly and lasts for only a short time. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) hepatitis A usually lasts for several weeks before it finally resolves itself. Flu-like symptoms usually appear shortly after becoming infected with hepatitis A, followed by nausea, loss of appetite, itching, stomach pain and yellowing of the skin (jaundice). It is important to note that once a person acquires the hepatitis A virus, lifelong immunities develop that prevent the infection from occurring again.
      Hepatitis B

      • Hepatitis B is a liver disorder that is caused by the HBV (hepatitis B virus) virus. The seriousness of the disease varies, and chronic cases can eventually lead to severe liver disease or liver cancer. The National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NDDIC) explains that anyone can acquire hepatitis B, especially those who are born to a mother who has hepatitis B, intravenous drug users, and anyone who lives with someone who has hepatitis B or lives in an area that has a high concentration of infected individuals. The hepatitis B virus is spread through the bodily fluids of someone who is infected and can create an array of symptoms, including jaundice, bleeding problems, easy bruising, fatigue, nausea, loss of appetite, light stools and dark urine.
      Hepatitis C

      • Hepatitis C (HCV) is the most serious of the three liver disorders and is usually transmitted through infected blood, but can also be sexually transmitted. According to the U.S. National Library of Medicine, the hepatitis C virus causes very few, if any, symptoms in the beginning stages of the infection. When symptoms do occur they are usually in the form of muscle aches, vomiting, fatigue, jaundice and soreness in the area of the liver.

      • The prevention of hepatitis A can be achieved by practicing good hygiene. According to the Mayo Clinic, hepatitis A can be prevented by steering clear of undercooked fish and meat. In areas that have high outbreaks of hepatitis A, it is a good idea to drink bottled water or boil tap water before drinking. Hepatitis B and C are best avoided by using sterile needles, being extra cautious around blood and the other bodily fluids of others and practicing safe sex. Vaccinations are available for hepatitis A and hepatitis B, but there is no vaccination to guard against hepatitis C.

      • According to Hepatitis Foundation International, hepatitis A sufferers usually improve without treatment. However, patients with hepatitis B will often need interferon therapy to relieve their symptoms. This type of treatment is often required for at least six months. Patients with hepatitis C are also treated with interferon therapy, which may be combined with ribavirin. Ribavirin is an antiviral that may cause a secondary anemia. So it is essential that patients taking ribavirin be monitored and treated for anemia, as well.
      • You are Karibishwa Sana.

  20. Futota

    Futota JF-Expert Member

    Jan 2, 2012
    Joined: Dec 11, 2010
    Messages: 524
    Likes Received: 5
    Trophy Points: 35

    asante kutukumbusha kuwa sio ukimwi tu, kuna magonjwa mengineyo kama hili la hepatitis b & c nayo yanaambukuziwa kwa njia ya ngono zembe (unprotected sex)