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The Wailers.........

Discussion in 'Entertainment' started by Safari_ni_Safari, Mar 5, 2012.

  1. Safari_ni_Safari

    Safari_ni_Safari JF-Expert Member

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    Si vibaya kujua wako wapi kwa sasa........
     
  2. Safari_ni_Safari

    Safari_ni_Safari JF-Expert Member

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    Robert Nesta "Bob" Marley, OM (6 February 1945 – 11 May 1981) was a Jamaican singer-songwriter and musician. He was the rhythm guitarist and lead singer for the ska, rocksteady and reggae band Bob Marley & The Wailers (1963–1981). Marley remains the most widely known and revered performer of reggae music, and is credited with helping spread both Jamaican music and the Rastafari movement to a worldwide audience.


    Marley's music was heavily influenced by the social issues of his homeland, and he is considered to have given voice to the specific political and cultural nexus of Jamaica.His best-known hits include "I Shot the Sheriff", "No Woman, No Cry", "Could You Be Loved", "Stir It Up", "Jamming", "Redemption Song", "One Love" and, "Three Little Birds", as well as the posthumous releases "Buffalo Soldier" and "Iron Lion Zion". The compilation album Legend (1984), released three years after his death, is reggae's best-selling album, going ten times Platinum which is also known as one Diamond in the U.S., and selling 25 million copies worldwide.

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  3. PakaJimmy

    PakaJimmy JF-Expert Member

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    [FONT=arial, helvetica]Bob Marley and The Wailers [/FONT]
    [FONT=arial, helvetica] Bob Marley, Aston Barrett, Carlton Barrett, Tyrone Downie,
    Alvin Patterson, Junior Marvin, Earl Lindo, Al Anderson
    [/FONT] Bmw.jpg [FONT=arial, helvetica]
    [/FONT]
     
  4. Safari_ni_Safari

    Safari_ni_Safari JF-Expert Member

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    Franklin Delano Alexander Braithwaite, better known as Junior Braithwaite, (4 April 1949 – 2 June 1999) was a reggae musician from Kingston, Jamaica, the youngest member of the vocal group, The Wailing Wailers. The Wailing Wailers was a vocal group Bob Marley and Bunny Wailer started in 1963, together with Braithwaite, when ska music had become popular in Jamaica. Soon after Beverly Kelso and Cherry Smith joined the group as backing vocalists.


    Braithwaite was with The Wailers for eight months and sang lead on such songs as, "Habits", "Straight and Narrow Way", "Don't Ever Leave Me", and "It Hurts To Be Alone". He had the best voice in The Wailers, according to Studio One's Coxsone Dodd, who discovered the band's talent. Bob Marley later commented that, "Junior used to sing high. It's just nowadays that I'm beginning to realize that he sounded like one of the Jackson Five. When he left we had to look for a sound that Bunny, Peter and me could manage".


    Braithwaite left the band in 1964 and moved to the United States with hopes of pursuing a medical career. He lived primarily in Chicago and southern Wisconsin for the next 20 years, and returned to Jamaica in 1984 to work with Bunny Wailer on a Wailers' reunion project. With the assassination of Peter Tosh in September 1987, plans for world tours with a reunited Wailers never materialized.


    Braithwaite was murdered on 2 June 1999 in the home of a fellow musician in Kingston, leaving only Bunny Wailer and Beverley Kelso as surviving members of the original Wailers.
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  5. Safari_ni_Safari

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    Beverley Kelso is a Jamaican singer. She was a backing vocalist, and one of the founding members of The Wailers (between 1963–1966).[1] The death of Junior Braithwaite in 1999 and the death of Cherry Smith in 2008 left Kelso and Bunny Wailer as the only surviving founding members of the Wailers (although Cherry Smith is not listed on the band's website as an official member due to her limited contribution to the band.

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  6. Safari_ni_Safari

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    Bunny Wailer, (born Neville O'Riley Livingston, 10 April 1947, Jamaica), also known as Bunny Livingston and affectionately as Jah B,[1] is a singer songwriter and percussionist and was an original member of reggae group The Wailers along with Bob Marley and Peter Tosh. He is considered one of the longtime standard bearers of reggae music. He has been named by Newsweek as one of the three most important musicians in world music.

    Bunny Wailer and Bob Marley were raised in the same household as stepbrothers.[2] Bunny's father Thaddeus "Toddy" Livingston lived with Bob Marley's mother Cedella Booker and had a daughter with her named Pearl Livingston.
    As he was by some way the least forceful of the trio, he tended to sing lead vocals less often than Marley and Tosh in the early years, but when Bob Marley left Jamaica in 1966 for Delaware, to be replaced by Constantine "Vision" Walker, he began to record and sing lead on some of his own compositions, such as "Who Feels It Knows It", "I Stand Predominant" and "Sunday Morning". His music was very influenced by gospel and the soul of Curtis Mayfield. In 1967, he recorded "This Train", based on a gospel standard for the first time at Studio One.


    As the Wailers moved from producer to producer in the late 1960s he continued to be underused as a writer and lead vocalist, although he sang lead on "Riding High", and on one verse of the Wailers' Impressions-like "Keep On Moving", both produced by Lee Perry. By 1973, each of the three founding Wailers operated their own label, Marley with Tuff Gong, Tosh with H.I.M. Intel Diplo, and Bunny Wailer with Solomonic. He sang lead vocals on "Reincarnated Souls", the B-side of the Wailers first Island single of the new era, and on two tracks on the Wailers last trio LP, "Burnin'" , "Pass it On" (which had been cut as a sound-system only dub plate five years earlier) and "Hallelujah Time". By now he was recording singles in his own right, cutting "Bide Up", "Arab Oil Weapon" and "Life Line" for his own label.
    Bunny Wailer toured with the Wailers in England and the United States, but soon became reluctant to leave Jamaica. He and Tosh became more marginalized in the group as the Wailers became an international success, and attention was increasingly focused on Marley. Bunny subsequently left the Wailers to pursue a solo career, which continues in the present.

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  7. Safari_ni_Safari

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    Peter Tosh, born Winston Hubert McIntosh (19 October 1944 – 11 September 1987), was a Jamaican reggae musician who was a core member of the band The Wailers (1963–1974), and who afterward had a successful solo career as well as being a promoter of Rastafari.Peter Tosh was born in Grange Hill, Jamaica, an illegitimate child to a mother too young to care for him properly. He was raised by his aunt. He began to sing and learn guitar at an early age, inspired by American radio stations. After a notable career with The Wailers and as a solo musician, he was murdered at his home during a robbery.

    At the age of fifteen, McIntosh's aunt died and he moved to Trench Town (now known as Denham Town) in Kingston, Jamaica. He first picked up a guitar by watching a man in them the country play a song that captivated him. He watched the man play the same song for half a day, memorizing everything his fingers were doing. He then picked up the guitar and played the song back to the man whom then asked him who taught him to play and he told him that he did.[SUP][2][/SUP] During the early 1960s Tosh met Robert Nesta Marley (Bob Marley) and Neville O'Reilly Livingston (Bunny Wailer) and went to vocal teacher, Joe Higgs, who gave out free vocal lessons to young people, in hopes to form a new band. He then changed his name to become Peter Tosh and the trio started singing together in 1962. Higgs taught the trio to harmonize and while developing their music, they would often play on the street corners of Trenchtown.[SUP][3][/SUP] In 1964, he helped organize the band The Wailing Wailers, with Junior Braithwaite, a falsetto singer, and backup singers Beverley Kelso and Cherry Smith. Initially, Tosh was the only one in the group who could play musical instruments. According to Bunny Wailer, Tosh was critical to the band because he was a self-taught guitarist and keyboardist, and thus became an inspiration for the other band members to learn to play.[SUP][4][/SUP] The Wailing Wailers had a major ska hit with their first single, "Simmer Down", and recorded several more successful singles before Braithwaite, Kelso and Smith left the band in late 1965. Marley spent much of 1966 in Delaware in the United States of America with his mother, Cedella (Malcolm) Marley-Booker and for a brief time was working at a nearby Chrysler factory. He then returned to Jamaica in early 1967 with a renewed interest in music and a new spirituality. Tosh and Bunny were already Rastafarians when Marley returned from the U.S., and the three became very involved with the Rastafari faith. Soon afterwards, they renamed the musical group The Wailers. Tosh would explain later that they chose the name Wailers because to "wail" means to mourn or to, as he put it, "...express one's feelings vocally". He also claims that he was the beginning of the group and that it he who first taught Bob Marley the guitar. The latter claim may very well be true, for according to Bunny Wailer, they early wailers learned to play instruments from Tosh.[SUP][4][/SUP] Rejecting the up-tempo dance of ska, the band slowed their music to a rocksteady pace, and infused their lyrics with political and social messages inspired by their new found faith. The Wailers composed several songs for the American-born singer Johnny Nashbefore teaming with producer Lee Perry to record some of the earliest well-known reggae songs, including "Soul Rebel", "Duppy Conqueror", and "Small Axe". The collaboration had given birth to reggae music and later, bassist Aston "Family Man" Barrett and his brother, drummer Carlton Barrett would later join the group in 1970. The band signed a recording contract with Chris Blackwell and Island Records company and released their debut, Catch a Fire, in 1973, following it with Burnin' the same year. The Wailers had moved from many producers after 1970 and there were instances where producers would record rehearsal sessions that Tosh did and release them in England under the name "Peter Touch".
    In 1973, Tosh was driving home with his girlfriend Evonne when his car was hit by another car driving on the wrong side of the road. The accident killed Evonne and severely fractured Tosh's skull. He survived, but became more difficult to deal with. After Island Records president Chris Blackwell refused to issue his solo album in 1974, Tosh and Bunny Wailer left the Wailers, citing the unfair treatment they received from Blackwell, to whom Tosh often referred with a derogatory play on Blackwell's surname, 'Whiteworst'. Tosh had written many of the Wailers' hit songs such as "Get Up, Stand Up", "400 Years", and "No Sympathy".

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  8. Safari_ni_Safari

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    Peter Tosh, born Winston Hubert McIntosh (19 October 1944 – 11 September 1987), was a Jamaican reggae musician who was a core member of the band The Wailers (1963–1974), and who afterward had a successful solo career as well as being a promoter of Rastafari.Peter Tosh was born in Grange Hill, Jamaica, an illegitimate child to a mother too young to care for him properly. He was raised by his aunt. He began to sing and learn guitar at an early age, inspired by American radio stations. After a notable career with The Wailers and as a solo musician, he was murdered at his home during a robbery.

    At the age of fifteen, McIntosh's aunt died and he moved to Trench Town (now known as Denham Town) in Kingston, Jamaica. He first picked up a guitar by watching a man in them the country play a song that captivated him. He watched the man play the same song for half a day, memorizing everything his fingers were doing. He then picked up the guitar and played the song back to the man whom then asked him who taught him to play and he told him that he did.[SUP][2][/SUP] During the early 1960s Tosh met Robert Nesta Marley (Bob Marley) and Neville O'Reilly Livingston (Bunny Wailer) and went to vocal teacher, Joe Higgs, who gave out free vocal lessons to young people, in hopes to form a new band. He then changed his name to become Peter Tosh and the trio started singing together in 1962. Higgs taught the trio to harmonize and while developing their music, they would often play on the street corners of Trenchtown.[SUP][3][/SUP] In 1964, he helped organize the band The Wailing Wailers, with Junior Braithwaite, a falsetto singer, and backup singers Beverley Kelso and Cherry Smith. Initially, Tosh was the only one in the group who could play musical instruments. According to Bunny Wailer, Tosh was critical to the band because he was a self-taught guitarist and keyboardist, and thus became an inspiration for the other band members to learn to play.[SUP][4][/SUP] The Wailing Wailers had a major ska hit with their first single, "Simmer Down", and recorded several more successful singles before Braithwaite, Kelso and Smith left the band in late 1965. Marley spent much of 1966 in Delaware in the United States of America with his mother, Cedella (Malcolm) Marley-Booker and for a brief time was working at a nearby Chrysler factory. He then returned to Jamaica in early 1967 with a renewed interest in music and a new spirituality. Tosh and Bunny were already Rastafarians when Marley returned from the U.S., and the three became very involved with the Rastafari faith. Soon afterwards, they renamed the musical group The Wailers. Tosh would explain later that they chose the name Wailers because to "wail" means to mourn or to, as he put it, "...express one's feelings vocally". He also claims that he was the beginning of the group and that it he who first taught Bob Marley the guitar. The latter claim may very well be true, for according to Bunny Wailer, they early wailers learned to play instruments from Tosh.[SUP][4][/SUP] Rejecting the up-tempo dance of ska, the band slowed their music to a rocksteady pace, and infused their lyrics with political and social messages inspired by their new found faith. The Wailers composed several songs for the American-born singer Johnny Nashbefore teaming with producer Lee Perry to record some of the earliest well-known reggae songs, including "Soul Rebel", "Duppy Conqueror", and "Small Axe". The collaboration had given birth to reggae music and later, bassist Aston "Family Man" Barrett and his brother, drummer Carlton Barrett would later join the group in 1970. The band signed a recording contract with Chris Blackwell and Island Records company and released their debut, Catch a Fire, in 1973, following it with Burnin' the same year. The Wailers had moved from many producers after 1970 and there were instances where producers would record rehearsal sessions that Tosh did and release them in England under the name "Peter Touch".
    In 1973, Tosh was driving home with his girlfriend Evonne when his car was hit by another car driving on the wrong side of the road. The accident killed Evonne and severely fractured Tosh's skull. He survived, but became more difficult to deal with. After Island Records president Chris Blackwell refused to issue his solo album in 1974, Tosh and Bunny Wailer left the Wailers, citing the unfair treatment they received from Blackwell, to whom Tosh often referred with a derogatory play on Blackwell's surname, 'Whiteworst'. Tosh had written many of the Wailers' hit songs such as "Get Up, Stand Up", "400 Years", and "No Sympathy".

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  9. Safari_ni_Safari

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    Cherry Smith (22 August 1943 – 24 September 2008) was a backing vocalist for the original Wailers from 1963 to 1966.Smith was also called Cherry Green (her half-brother Carlton had that surname), but was born Ermine Ortense Bramwell in the Trench Town district of Kingston.[1][2] She was nicknamed "Cherry" as a girl due to her light complexion.[2] According to Bob Marley's official website Bunny Wailer and Beverley Kelso are the only surviving members of the original Wailers, after Smith's death. However, it did not list Smith as an official member of the group. Smith was with the group for over two years and took part in their audition for Clement "Coxsone" Dodd in 1963, but as she had a full-time job and a child to support, she was unable to attend the group's first recording session, and was replaced by Kelso.[2]

    Smith continued to contribute to recording sessions and sang backing vocals on several of the later Wailers recordings including:
    "Lonesome Feeling"
    "There She Goes"
    "What's New Pussycat"
    "Let The Lord Be Seen In You"[2]

    She left the group in late 1966, and moved to Miami, Florida in 1969 to work as a nurse.[2] She moved around the United States, finally settling in West Palm Beach, Florida.[2]
    She died in Miami, Florida in 2008, aged 65. She is survived by her husband, a daughter, a brother and a granddaughter.

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  10. Safari_ni_Safari

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    Constantine "Vision" Walker, also known as "Vision" or "Dream" (born Constantine Anthony Walker, Jr., 19 October 1951, Jamaica), is a singer songwriter and musician. He was an original member of reggae group The Soulettes, with his cousin Rita Anderson (Marley) and Marlene "Precious" Gifford in the early 1960s, and was briefly a member of The Wailers along with Bunny Wailer and Peter Tosh. He is engaged in the California-based group The Rastafarians.

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  11. Safari_ni_Safari

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    Earl "Chinna" Smith (born 6 August 1955) aka Earl Flute is a Jamaican guitarist active since the late 1960s. He is most well known for his work with the Soul Syndicate band and has recorded with many reggae artists, appearing on more than 500 albums.

    Smith was born on 6 August 1955, and raised by family friends in the Greenwich Farm area of Kingston.[1] His father and godfather were both sound system owners, his father's, Smith's, operated by Bunny Lee.[1] Earl tried to emulate them using a toy sound system, leading to his nickname of "Tuner" (after a hi-fi amplifier), which was corrupted to "Chuner" and later "Chinna".[1] Smith became interested in guitar as a teenager and made his own from sardine cans and fishing line.[1] He formed a vocal group with his friend Earl Johnson (who later recorded as Earl Zero) and another youth, and they regularly sat in on sessions by the Soul Syndicate band.[1] Smith was taught the basics of guitar by the band's guitarist Cleon Douglas, and became so adept at playing the band's repertoire that he was asked to join the band when Douglas emigrated to the United States.


    In the late 1960s and early 1970s, Smith was the guitarist in Bunny Lee's house band that became known as The Aggrovators.[2] Smith also played in Lee "Scratch" Perry's band The Upsetters.[3] He worked with Bob Marley & the Wailers in 1976, and later worked with Marley's sons Julian and Ziggy, touring internationally with the latter and playing on his Conscious Party album.[2] He also recorded a few tracks under the pseudonym Earl Flute for producer Keith Hudson.In 1986 Smith appeared as a member of Ernest Reed's (Jimmy Cliff) back-up band in the reggae-themed comedy Club Paradise.


    In 1980, Smith launched his own High Times record label, releasing records by Soul Syndicate, Prince Alla, and Freddie McGregor, and also formed the High Times Players (which featured Augustus Pablo and Dean Fraser amongst others) who acted as backing band to Mutabaruka.[4] Smith also co-produced Mutabaruka's 1983 debut studio album Check It!. The dub version of the album, credited to Smith, was released in 2004.In the 2000s he worked on a series of albums recorded in his yard in St. Andrew, featuring veteran musicians and singers including Cedric Myton, Linval Thompson, Junior Murvin, and Kiddus I, this Inna de Yard series released by the French label Makasound. Two of these volumes feature Smith as lead musician, credited to "Earl Chinna Smith and Idrens", these released in 2008 and 2009.


    In 2009, Smith recorded an instrumental version of The Heptones' album Heptones on Top as a tribute to the band, along with Lebert "Gibby" Morrison; They had worked on the album for more than ten years.

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  12. Safari_ni_Safari

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    Aston Barrett (born Aston Francis Barrett, 22 November 1946 in Kingston, Jamaica), often called "Family Man" or "Fams" for short, is a Jamaican bass player and Rastafarian.

    He was one of the Barrett brothers (the other being Carlton "Carly" Barrett) who played with Bob Marley and The Wailers, and Lee Perry's The Upsetters. It has been stated that Aston was the 'leader' of the backing band and responsible for many, if not all bass lines on Bob Marley's greatest hits, as well as having been active in co-producing Marley's albums and responsible for most overall song arrangements. He was the mentor of Robbie Shakespeare of the duo Sly & Robbie, and is considered one of the elder statesmen of reggae bass guitar playing.Barrett continues to tour with and lead The Wailers Band, who carry Marley's torch in the music world by Emmett and Cliodhna performing his songs with several original band members. Barrett has support from Marley's fan base to this day, despite his legal

    wrangling with the Marley family.

    Equipment
    Barrett plays a Fender Jazz bass guitar.

    Legal battle
    In 2006 Barrett filed a lawsuit against Island Records, the Wailers' label, seeking £60 million in unpaid royalties allegedly due him and his now deceased brother. The lawsuit was dismissed.[1]

    Nickname
    Family Man's name was given to himself before he had any kids of his own. He felt he was the band leader/organizer and therefore called himself "family man"

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  13. Safari_ni_Safari

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    Joe Higgs (born Joseph Benjamin Higgs, 3 June 1940 – 18 December 1999) was a reggae musician from Jamaica. In the late 1950s and 1960s he was part of the duo Higgs and Wilson together with Roy Wilson. He was a popular artist in Jamaica for four decades and is also known for his work tutoring younger musicians including The Wailers and Jimmy Cliff.

    Higgs was instrumental in the foundation of modern Jamaican music, first recording in 1958 for producer and businessman (and later Jamaican Prime Minister) Edward Seaga, both as a solo artist and with Roy Wilson.[1] He is often called the "Godfather of Reggae".[1] His first release (with Wilson) was "Oh Manny Oh" in 1958, which was one of the first records to be pressed in Jamaica and went on to sell 50,000 copies.[1] Higgs and Wilson also recorded for Clement "Coxsone" Dodd in the late 1950s and early 1960s. The partnership with Wilson dissolved in 1964 when Wilson emigrated to the United States.[1] Higgs then concentrated on a solo career and also worked with Carlos Malcolm and the Afro-Jamaican Rhythms, before joining Lynn Taitt's The Soul Brothers as lead vocalist.


    Higgs mentored young singers in his yard and began working with Bob Marley in 1959.[2] In fact, it was at one of the informal music lessons Joe Higgs held in Trench Town, that Bob and Bunny Livingston met Peter Tosh.[3][4] Marley acknowledged later on that Higgs had been an influential figure for him, while Higgs described their time together: "I am the one who taught the Wailers the craft, who taught them certain voice technique".[1] It was Higgs who introduced the Wailers to Dodd in 1963.[1][5] Higgs has also been described as the "Father of Reggae" by Jimmy Cliff. For a while Higgs toured with Cliff, acting as his bandleader as well as writing songs for Cliff including "Dear Mother",[1] and also performed with The Wailers on their US tour when Bunny Wailer refused to go on the tour in 1973.[1] Higgs wrote "Steppin' Razor" in 1967 as his entry in the Festival Song Contest, later recorded by Tosh without crediting Higgs. Higgs later won a court case to establish his rights as composer but never received any profits from the song's success.


    Higgs won the Jamaican Tourist Board Song Competition in 1972 with "Invitation to Jamaica", released as a single on his own Elevation label, and much of his best-known solo work was issued in the 1970s.[1] Singles included "More Slavery" (released on Micron), "Creation" (Ethnic Fight), "Let Us Do Something" (Elevation), and "World Is Upside Down" (Island). His debut album, Life of Contradiction, had been recorded in 1972 for Island Records, but as Island boss Chris Blackwell felt that it would be difficult to market it remained unreleased until 1975, when it was issued by Micron Music,[6] and has been described as "a seminally sophisticated work combining reggae, jazz, and rhythm and blues influences to create a new texture that would have a profound effect on the best Jamaican music to follow".[1] As well as The Wailers, Higgs also helped several other singers and groups including The Wailing Souls.[1] His second album, Unity Is Power, was released in 1979 and further singles followed on Cliff's Sunpower label and Bunny Wailer's Solominic imprint.[1] His 1983 single "So It Go", with a lyric critical of the Jamaican government of the day was banned from airplay and led to harassment which would eventually lead to Higgs relocating to Los Angeles, where he lived for the rest of his life.[7] Two further albums were released in the 1980s, Triumph (1985) and Family (1988), and in 1990 he recorded Blackman Know Yourself on which he was backed by the Wailers Band, and includes covers of the Marley/Lee Perry songs "Small Axe" and "Sun Is Shining".[1] In 1995, his final album was issued, Joe and Marcia Together, a collaboration with his daughter.


    A majority of Higgs' songs were connected to his impoverished life in Trenchtown where he grew up. Higgs considered that it was out of the poverty and violence of Kingston's shantytowns such as Trenchtown and Johnstown that the reggae music had grown. Before reggae hit big on the western music scene with Bob Marley, it was understood as a "ghetto music". Higgs was the very first artist out the ghetto music scene to have lyrics which primarily dealt with every day troubles. In his own words:
    "Music is a matter of struggle. It's not good that it's known you're from Trenchtown. Reggae is a confrontation of sound. Reggae has to have that basic vibrant sound that is to be heard in the ghetto. It's like playing the drum and bass very loud. Those are the basic sounds. A classical reggae should be accepted in any part of the world. Freedom, that's what it's asking for; acceptance, that's what it needs, and understanding, that's what reggae's saying. You have a certain love come from hard struggle, long suffering. Through pain you guard yourself with that hope of freedom, not to give up...""


    Higgs died of cancer on 18 December 1999 at Kaiser Hospital in Los Angeles.[2] At the time of his death he was working with Roger Steffens on an official biography, and had been working on a collaboration with Irish artists for the Green on Black album.He was survived by twelve children, including his daughter Marcia, who is a rapper, and son Peter, a studio guitarist.In 2007, the Joe Higgs Music Awards were established in his honour.

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  14. Safari_ni_Safari

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    Joe Higgs (born Joseph Benjamin Higgs, 3 June 1940 – 18 December 1999) was a reggae musician from Jamaica. In the late 1950s and 1960s he was part of the duo Higgs and Wilson together with Roy Wilson. He was a popular artist in Jamaica for four decades and is also known for his work tutoring younger musicians including The Wailers and Jimmy Cliff.

    Higgs was instrumental in the foundation of modern Jamaican music, first recording in 1958 for producer and businessman (and later Jamaican Prime Minister) Edward Seaga, both as a solo artist and with Roy Wilson.[1] He is often called the "Godfather of Reggae".[1] His first release (with Wilson) was "Oh Manny Oh" in 1958, which was one of the first records to be pressed in Jamaica and went on to sell 50,000 copies.[1] Higgs and Wilson also recorded for Clement "Coxsone" Dodd in the late 1950s and early 1960s. The partnership with Wilson dissolved in 1964 when Wilson emigrated to the United States.[1] Higgs then concentrated on a solo career and also worked with Carlos Malcolm and the Afro-Jamaican Rhythms, before joining Lynn Taitt's The Soul Brothers as lead vocalist.


    Higgs mentored young singers in his yard and began working with Bob Marley in 1959.[2] In fact, it was at one of the informal music lessons Joe Higgs held in Trench Town, that Bob and Bunny Livingston met Peter Tosh.[3][4] Marley acknowledged later on that Higgs had been an influential figure for him, while Higgs described their time together: "I am the one who taught the Wailers the craft, who taught them certain voice technique".[1] It was Higgs who introduced the Wailers to Dodd in 1963.[1][5] Higgs has also been described as the "Father of Reggae" by Jimmy Cliff. For a while Higgs toured with Cliff, acting as his bandleader as well as writing songs for Cliff including "Dear Mother",[1] and also performed with The Wailers on their US tour when Bunny Wailer refused to go on the tour in 1973.[1] Higgs wrote "Steppin' Razor" in 1967 as his entry in the Festival Song Contest, later recorded by Tosh without crediting Higgs. Higgs later won a court case to establish his rights as composer but never received any profits from the song's success.


    Higgs won the Jamaican Tourist Board Song Competition in 1972 with "Invitation to Jamaica", released as a single on his own Elevation label, and much of his best-known solo work was issued in the 1970s.[1] Singles included "More Slavery" (released on Micron), "Creation" (Ethnic Fight), "Let Us Do Something" (Elevation), and "World Is Upside Down" (Island). His debut album, Life of Contradiction, had been recorded in 1972 for Island Records, but as Island boss Chris Blackwell felt that it would be difficult to market it remained unreleased until 1975, when it was issued by Micron Music,[6] and has been described as "a seminally sophisticated work combining reggae, jazz, and rhythm and blues influences to create a new texture that would have a profound effect on the best Jamaican music to follow".[1] As well as The Wailers, Higgs also helped several other singers and groups including The Wailing Souls.[1] His second album, Unity Is Power, was released in 1979 and further singles followed on Cliff's Sunpower label and Bunny Wailer's Solominic imprint.[1] His 1983 single "So It Go", with a lyric critical of the Jamaican government of the day was banned from airplay and led to harassment which would eventually lead to Higgs relocating to Los Angeles, where he lived for the rest of his life.[7] Two further albums were released in the 1980s, Triumph (1985) and Family (1988), and in 1990 he recorded Blackman Know Yourself on which he was backed by the Wailers Band, and includes covers of the Marley/Lee Perry songs "Small Axe" and "Sun Is Shining".[1] In 1995, his final album was issued, Joe and Marcia Together, a collaboration with his daughter.


    A majority of Higgs' songs were connected to his impoverished life in Trenchtown where he grew up. Higgs considered that it was out of the poverty and violence of Kingston's shantytowns such as Trenchtown and Johnstown that the reggae music had grown. Before reggae hit big on the western music scene with Bob Marley, it was understood as a "ghetto music". Higgs was the very first artist out the ghetto music scene to have lyrics which primarily dealt with every day troubles. In his own words:
    "Music is a matter of struggle. It's not good that it's known you're from Trenchtown. Reggae is a confrontation of sound. Reggae has to have that basic vibrant sound that is to be heard in the ghetto. It's like playing the drum and bass very loud. Those are the basic sounds. A classical reggae should be accepted in any part of the world. Freedom, that's what it's asking for; acceptance, that's what it needs, and understanding, that's what reggae's saying. You have a certain love come from hard struggle, long suffering. Through pain you guard yourself with that hope of freedom, not to give up...""


    Higgs died of cancer on 18 December 1999 at Kaiser Hospital in Los Angeles.[2] At the time of his death he was working with Roger Steffens on an official biography, and had been working on a collaboration with Irish artists for the Green on Black album.He was survived by twelve children, including his daughter Marcia, who is a rapper, and son Peter, a studio guitarist.In 2007, the Joe Higgs Music Awards were established in his honour.

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    Earl "Wire" Lindo, b. 7 January 1953 (sometimes referred to as "Wya") is a Jamaican reggae musician. He is a member of The Wailers and has collaborated with numerous reggae artists including Burning Spear.

    Earl "Wire" Lindo began his career with the Wailers in 1972. While attending Excelsior High School in Jamaica. Lindo played organ in the band Now Generation. Aston "Familyman" Barrett heard "Wya" and recommended him to play for a Saturday afternoon television program called "Where It's At" on JBC. On the show he played with Tommy McCook, saxophone player for the Skatalites, and Upsetters/Hippie Boys guitar player Alva Lewis.

    He also spent his early days working at Coxsone Dodd's Studio One, Jamaica's most prolific recording label, where he played on innumerable recordings with every star Jamaica has to offer. In 1972 he was invited to join the Wailers where he has stayed ever since.Lindo can be heard on an album credited to the Impact All-Stars. Released in 1975, the album is a collection of dub tracks recorded at Randy's Studio 17.Today Earl Lindo resides with his wife Cleopatra Rosemary, and two daughters Kyan and Kaleigh in London, England.

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    Carlton "Carly" Barrett (December 17, 1950 – April 17, 1987) was an influential reggae drummer and percussion player. His musical development in the early years were with his brother Aston "Family Man" Barrett as a member of Lee "Scratch" Perry's "house band" The Upsetters. The brothers joined Bob Marley and The Wailers around 1970. He wrote the well known Bob Marley song "War" and with his brother Aston co-wrote "Talkin' Blues". Carlton Barrett is featured on all the albums recorded by the Wailers. Barrett popularized the one drop rhythm, a percussive drumming style created by Winston Grennan. With Carly's beats and his brother Aston's bass, the Wailer rhythm section planted the seeds of today's international reggae. Barrett was murdered outside his home in Jamaica on April 17, 1987.

    "Field Marshal", as he liked to be called, was born in Jamaica in 1950, the son of Wilfred and Violet Barrett. As a teenager he built his first set of drums out of some empty paint tins, and had initially been influenced by Lloyd Knibb, the great drummer from the Skatalites. He and his brother Aston were raised in Kingston and absorbed the emerging ska sound.
    In the late 1960s Carlton started playing sessions with his brother Aston, the pair calling themselves the Soul Mates or the Rhythm Force, before settling on The Hippy Boys, a line-up that featured Max Romeo on vocals. Leroy Brown, Delano Stewart, Glen Adams and Alva Lewis also played in the band's fluctuating line-up.
    The Hippy Boys became one of Kingston's busiest session bands; fittingly their first recording was "Watch This Sound", backing the late Slim Smith. They also released a couple of albums for Lloyd Charmers, Reggae With The Hippy Boys and Reggae Is Tight. As well as playing on many sessions for Bunny Lee and Sonia Pottinger, the Barrett brothers also played on two 1969 UK chart hits, "Liquidator" for Harry J, and "Return Of Django" for Lee "Scratch" Perry, with whom they had now taken root.
    For Perry, they took the name The Upsetters, and knocked out a long run of instrumentals, including "Clint Eastwood", "Cold Sweat", "Night Doctor", and "Live Injection". It was while with Perry that the Barrett brothers first teamed up with The Wailers, then a vocal trio consisting of Bob, Peter and Bunny. After recording many now classic numbers, Carly and Aston decided to team up with The Wailers on a permanent basis.


    The Barrett brothers recorded several singles with the Wailers in 1969-70: "My Cup (Runneth Over)", "Duppy Conqueror, "Soul Rebel", and "Small Axe". Most of these songs appeared on two Perry-produced Wailers albums: Soul Rebels and Soul Revolution, and formed the early foundation of the one drop sound.Though original Wailers Peter Tosh and Bunny Livingston left the group in 1973, Carlton and Aston remained with Bob Marley and went on to record Natty Dread in 1974. Carlton has songwriting credits for two of Natty Dread's songs: "Talkin' Blues" and "Them Belly Full".


    Carlton remained with the Wailers in the studio and on tour until Bob Marley's death in 1981. His signature style can be heard on every recording the Wailers produced since 1969, with the exception of the 1970 "Soul Shakedown Party" sessions produced by Leslie Kong.

    On April 17, 1987, just as Carly arrived at his Kingston home and walked across his yard, a gunman stepped up behind him and shot him twice in the head. He was dead on arrival at a Kingston hospital at age 36.Shortly after his murder, Carly's wife, Albertine, her lover, a taxi driver named Glenroy Carter, and another man, Junior Neil, were arrested and charged with his killing. Albertine and Carter escaped the murder charge, and were instead convicted and sentenced to 7 years for conspiracy. After just one year in prison, they were released in December 1992 on a legal technicality.

    Throughout his tenure with the Wailers and other projects, Carlton used a standard five-piece drum set consisting of a bass drum, two tom-toms (mounted on the bass drum), a floor tom-tom, and a snare drum.
    Each tom-tom had only one drumhead, which gave the drums a dry sound that was ideal for the close-miked environment of the recording studio. However, it was Carlton's snare drum which was perhaps the biggest part of his signature sound. Carlton used Ludwig drums, and his snare was the popular Supraphonic model, which is made of "ludalloy", an aluminium alloy. The metal construction of the drum, in combination with the extremely high head tension that Carlton preferred, produced a loud, cutting "crack" sound that was a very prominent element of the Wailers' recordings. Carlton almost always left the snare wires of the drum disengaged, making the drum sound very similar to a timbale.


    It is unknown exactly what make and model of cymbals were used on Carlton's drum set, although it is very likely that they were made by the Avedis Zildjian Company in the United States and imported into Jamaica. Carlton used only a pair of hi-hat cymbals (relatively light in weight), at times with a cloth placed between the two cymbals, and two crash cymbals (most likely of medium weight). Due the nature of Carlton's style, in which the snare drum, bass drum, and hi-hat cymbals were the primary timekeeping instruments, he did not use a ride cymbal.He also used a cowbell for live performances, evident in Bob Marley & The Wailers album Live!.


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    Al Anderson (born Albert Anderson, 1950, New York) is an American-born songwriter and guitarist.
    Anderson attended Montclair High School where he learned to play the trombone.[1] He later attended the Berklee College of Music, and took up bass guitar.[1] He joined The Centurions, which brought him to the attention of Chris Wood of Traffic, who invited him to play on the band's next album.[1] The Traffic album involvement never materialized, but led to Anderson becoming employed by Traffic's record label Island Records, leading to him being asked to play lead guitar on Bob Marley & The Wailers' Natty Dread sessions.[1] Anderson played lead guitar on "Crazy Baldhead" and on the Live! album, remaining with the band until 1976, when he joined Word, Sound and Power, backing Peter Tosh on the albums Legalise It and Equal Rights. He returned to Marley's band and played on the Survival and Uprising albums.

    After Marley's death, Anderson continued to tour with The Wailers Band, In 2008 he formed his own band The Original Wailers (T.O.W) with Junior Marvin who was also tour and recorded with Marley until his death.

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    Junior Marvin (born Donald Hanson Marvin Kerr Richards Jr) (also known as Junior Marvin-Hanson, Junior Hanson and Junior Kerr) is a Jamaican born guitarist and singer best known for his association with Bob Marley and The Wailers. He started his career as Junior Marvin with the band Hanson in 1973. Marvin has also been associated with Gass, Keef Hartley Band, Toots & the Maytals and Steve Winwood. In 2007, Marvin recorded a solo album entitled Wailin' For Love. In 2009, Marvin, along with Al Anderson, formed The Original Wailers.

    He formed his own band Hanson also known as Junior Marvin's Hanson in 1973 and recorded two albums.[1] Marvin met Bob Marley on February 14, 1977 and joined Bob Marley and The Wailers Band.[2] After Bob Marley's death Marvin carried on releasing material under the name The Wailers Band releasing the albums ID, Majestic Warriors, Jah Message, and Live 95-97 My Friends. In 1997 Marvin left The Wailers Band and relocated to Brazil, where he formed a short-lived group called Batuka.[3] Following his return to Jamaica he continued working as a session player. More recently Marvin has toured with Kaliroots and The Wailers Band. He has been touring with The Original Wailers since 2009.

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    Donald Kinsey (born May 12, 1953, Gary, Indiana, United States) is an American guitarist and singer, best known as a member of The Wailers Band, the reggae backing group for Bob Marley & The Wailers.Kinsey is one of three sons of the late Chicago blues performer, Big Daddy Kinsey. He is a member of The Kinsey Report, which he formed in 1984 with his brothers Ralph Kinsey and Kenneth Kinsey, plus Ron Prince. Previously he had toured and recorded with Albert King, Peter Tosh, Bob Marley & The Wailers and Roy Buchanan.

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    Tyrone Downie is a Jamaican keyboardist/pianist who is most known for his involvement as a member of Bob Marley and The Wailers.[1] He studied at Kingston College and joined the wailers in the mid-1970s, making his recording début with the band on Rastaman Vibration, having previously been a member of the Impact All Stars.[2][3] He has also played with The Abyssinians, Beenie Man, Black Uhuru,[3] Buju Banton, Peter Tosh, Junior Reid,[1] Tom Tom Club, Ian Dury, Burning Spear, Steel Pulse, Alpha Blondy, Tiken Jah Fakoly and Sly & Robbie. He currently resides in France and is a member of the touring band of Youssou N'Dour, whose album Remember he produced.Downie released the solo album Organ-D in 2001.

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