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The Search For "God Particle," Higgs Boson, Anti Matter, Big Bang, etc. Is Underway..

Discussion in 'Jukwaa la Elimu (Education Forum)' started by Steve Dii, Sep 6, 2008.

  1. Steve Dii

    Steve Dii JF-Expert Member

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    I find this to be the most exciting news for those into physics and the science of nature of particles. Pundit na wenzake must be jovial about this. I have been following news about this for a while. Sasa hivi countdown imeanza kutafuta "hapo mwanzo palikuwa na nini." The enigmatic nature of dark matter, alpha particles, et al is likely to be revealed in a couple of years. The machine will be commissioned on 10th Sept.

    Zamani nilikuwa nawaza kama naruhusiwa kwenda popote pale - basi ningelienda kwenye space station. Leo hii nikijiuliza, jibu ni kwenda kuona hiyo Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the greatest scientific endeavor, the most complex scientific machine, the largest scientific equipment ever built....Please someni yafuatayo:



    Cancel your plans for next Wednesday, it could be your last day on Earth. Or could it?
    (Large Hadron Collider will not turn world to goo, promise scientists) Those in fear of what might become of this planet someni hapa: http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article4682260.ece



    Blog ya wanaofatilia mambo mbalimbali kwenye LHC hii hapa: http://uslhc.us/blogs/?m=200809


    SteveD.
     
  2. K

    Koba JF-Expert Member

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    World's Biggest Physics Experiment Moves Closer to Completion
    By Art Chimes
    Washington, DC
    08 September 2008


    The biggest science experiment on Earth is expected to take a big step forward on Wednesday. As we hear from VOA's Art Chimes, an international team of scientists is getting ready to fire up the Large Hadron Collider, even as skeptics fear it could have disastrous consequences.



    Technician on work platform inspects the massive CMS detector, which tracks particle collisions at CERN's Large Hadron Collider
    Scientists at the European Organization for Nuclear Research, better known by its French acronym, CERN, are planning to send a beam of particles racing around the 27-kilometer ring of the Large Hadron Collider for the first time.

    The LHC, as it's known, is the world's most powerful particle accelerator. CERN physicist Tejinder Virdee says it's designed to explore some of the most fundamental questions in physics.

    "At the end of this, it is possible that our view of nature, of how the nature works at the fundamental level, would be altered in the same way, for example, that Einstein had altered our view of space and time about 100 years ago," he said. "So the scientific results could be extremely important."

    The Large Hadron Collider is housed in a circular tunnel, buried under the French-Swiss border just outside Geneva.

    Beams of subatomic protons and other particles will zip around the ring, accelerated up to nearly the speed of light by some 1,800 superconducting magnet systems.

    Protons will reach an energy level of 7 trillion electron volts, seven times more powerful than in any existing accelerator. The project has cost an estimated $5.8 billion.

    When the LHC goes into full operation, scientists will aim beams of particles directly at each other. When particles collide - up to 600 million times a second - special sensors will detect and record the collisions, and a network of computers will analyze the vast amount of data generated.

    It's designed in part to mimic conditions present at the beginning of the universe, the Big Bang, almost 15 billion years ago.

    Researchers will also be looking for a subatomic particle known as the Higgs Boson. The Standard Model of particle physics predicts that it exists… but it has never been seen. CERN physicist Mike Seymour says the elusive Higgs Boson has a nickname that conveys its importance.

    "People call it 'God's particle' because it really has a very important central role in our whole theory of what everything is made of, of matter," Seymour explained. "Because without the Higgs particle we wouldn't be able to understand why any of the elementary particles have masses. The more we discover about the Higgs mechanism, the more we will understand about the dynamics of the early universe."

    As scientists and technicians prepare to send a particle beam all the way around the LHC, some critics have wondered whether attempts to reproduce conditions at the beginning of the universe may create a black hole that could destroy the Earth.

    A CERN team that studied the matter concluded there was no danger of that happening, and lawsuits filed by opponents have not succeeded in stopping work on the LHC.

    CERN physicist John Ellis says simply, the skeptics are wrong. "LHC is only going to reproduce what nature does every second, it has been doing for billions of years, and all of these astronomical bodies including the earth and the sun, they are still here. So there really is no problem."

    Well, let's hope not. The first beam of particles is set to make that 27-kilometer trip around the Large Hadron Collider on Wednesday.
     
  3. M

    MiratKad JF-Expert Member

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    If it goes wrong we are doomed, the END of the world, on Wednesday!
     
  4. Pundit

    Pundit JF-Expert Member

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    The Higgs Bosom will be confirmed, I am beting my shirt on that. In any case it is just a manifestation of the different pertubations of the underlying superstrings, not really a particle but a state of strings, hence the never ending zoo of particles that made Professor Gell-Mann compare particle Physics with botany way back in 1954.

    And all apocalyptic doomsdaymongers should remember that a man can never be weighed down by one hair on his head. let's harness and probe the basic power of and nature of nature.
     
  5. K

    Koba JF-Expert Member

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    [media]http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_fJ6PMfnz2E&feature=related[/media]

    ....acheni uwoga,tunataka kugundua siri ya mungu hapa labda mungu ni sisi wenyewe..if it turns and be a disaster to a human race we'll all disappear hahaha ahaha haha haha,macho na masikio wednesday hapo Swiss!
     
  6. Invisible

    Invisible Admin Staff Member

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    [​IMG]
    [​IMG]
    [​IMG]

    The ATLAS particle detector at the Center of European Nuclear Research CERN in Geneva on Nov. 24, 2006. Photographer: Adrian Moser/Bloomberg News

    [​IMG]
    A employee works on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) particle accellerator at the Center of European Nuclear Research CERN in Geneva on Nov. 24, 2006. Photographer: Adrian Moser/Bloomberg News
    [​IMG]
    Tunnel where the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) particle accellerator is being built at the Center of European Nuclear Research CERN in Geneva on Nov. 24, 2006. Photographer: Adrian Moser/Bloomberg News






    By ALEXANDER G. HIGGINS

     
  7. Invisible

    Invisible Admin Staff Member

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    [​IMG]
    A cyclist passes by the wooden 'Globe' at the entrance of the European Organization for Nuclear Research, CERN, near Geneva, Switzerland, Tuesday, Sept. 9, 2008. Scientists will fire up the biggest physics experiment in history at CERN Sept. 10, 2008 when they hope to detect evidence of extra dimensions, invisible 'dark matter' and an elusive particle called the Higgs boson.(AP Photo/Anja Niedringhaus)
    [​IMG]
    A general view of the island SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron) of the CERN Control Centre (CCC) in Prevessin, France, at the Swiss border near Geneva, where the operators prepare the commissioning of the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) at the European Particle Physics laboratory (CERN). The first test of the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) will take place on Sept. 10, 2008. The purpose of the CERN Control Centre (CCC) is to combine the control rooms of the Laboratory's eight accelerators, as well as the piloting of cryogenics and technical infrastructures. (AP Photo/Keystone, Salvatore Di Nolfi)


    [​IMG] Visitors inside the LHC tunnel.


    [​IMG]
     
  8. deny_all

    deny_all JF-Expert Member

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  9. Steve Dii

    Steve Dii JF-Expert Member

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    .... let's than six hours before LHC is turned on!
     
  10. Gamba la Nyoka

    Gamba la Nyoka JF-Expert Member

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    Jamani mnafahamu kuhusu mnara wa babeli, na yanayosemekana yalitokea baada ya hapo?. Civilization za zamani zilijaribu kujua siri ya Mungu, lakini biblia inasema hao watu wa mnara wa Babeli kilichowapata ni lugha yao kupotea na hatimaye kuwepo makundi ya lugha nyingi, kiasi kwamba makundi ya watu wakawa hawaelewani.je na hii nayo inaweza kuwa babeli nyingine?

    Je hii experiment ikienda out of control haina effect ya bomu la nyuklia?
    Je nini effect yake kwa vyombo vya kielectronic na umeme iwapo itafanikiwa au kufeli?
    je hii experiment haiwezi kuraise charge ya dunia(earth) na hatimaye kubadili potential (zero p.d) inayosababishwa na dunia na hatimaye kuharibu vifaa vilivyojengwa juu ya misingi ya principle hiyo?

    je kwa binadamu na wanyama waliokaribu na eneo hilo iwapo zero potential ya dunia itakuwa raised iwapo hicho kifaa kitaburst na matokeo yake umeme kutiririka kutoka ardhini kwenda kwenye miili, je itakuwaje?
     
  11. Steve Dii

    Steve Dii JF-Expert Member

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    Je hii experiment ikienda out of control haina effect ya bomu la nyuklia?
    ....Binadamu tumejaliwa kuwa na upeo wa mambo na nia ya kuwa wadadisi wa mambo yanayotuzunguka na yale yaliyombali nasi. Kwa swali lako basi Gamba, ni vyema tutumie upeo huu kujua kama principles zilizotumika kutengeneza hilo bomu la nyuklia zitakuwa sawa na hizi za kugundua ni nini atom inakuwa na uzito. Kumbuka kuwa hilo bomu la nyuklia lilitengenezwa bila kuelewa some of the fundamentals being sought here.

    ....Kwenye huo mnara wa Babeli, kwanini hawakuandika kisayansi hayo yaliyotokea, ili kutuwezesha kukwepa mengi ambayo hayafai hivi sasa. By the way Gamba la nyoka, hivi mnara wa Babeli siyo hiyo Pizza tower kule Italia?!!!

    Je nini effect yake kwa vyombo vya kielectronic na umeme iwapo itafanikiwa au kufeli?

    +

    je hii experiment haiwezi kuraise charge ya dunia(earth) na hatimaye kubadili potential (zero p.d) inayosababishwa na dunia na hatimaye kuharibu vifaa vilivyojengwa juu ya misingi ya principle hiyo?


    ....vyombo vya kielectronic na umeme vimegunduliwa au kutengenezwa na binadamu kutokana na upeo wake wa kuwa mchunguzi. Hivyo basi kama jaribio hilo linafanikiwa au kufeli bado litakuwa ndani ya majaliwa ya uelewa wa mwanadamu.

    ....leo hii mtu ukiulizwa gravity inatokana na nini na ni kwa sababu gani, utaishia kujibu kwa kutumia fizikia ambayo principles zake zinategemea majibu ya maswali ambayo yanapelekea jaribio hili lifanyike.

    ....kingine, hebu fikiria kama tunagundua jinsi ya ku- accelerate radioactive compound decay kutokana na jaribio kama hili? Huoni kuwa tunaweza baada ya miaka michache kujenga nuclear power stations bila kuhofu jinsi tutakavyo angamiza nuclear waste zake?.... Huu miye naamini ni moja ya upeo ambao Mwenyezi Mungu ametujalia, ili tuweze kumudu mazingira yetu wenyewe. Bila majaribio hatuwezi kujua.

    je kwa binadamu na wanyama waliokaribu na eneo hilo iwapo zero potential ya dunia itakuwa raised iwapo hicho kifaa kitaburst na matokeo yake umeme kutiririka kutoka ardhini kwenda kwenye miili, je itakuwaje?

    ...hapa Gamba nitakukumbushia tu uhanga wa Marie Curie na wengineo. Bila uhanga katika majaribio mbalimbali, leo hii tusingekuwa tuna andikiana hapa mtandaoni ndugu yangu!! Let's go explore our universe!

    SteveD.
     
  12. Steve Dii

    Steve Dii JF-Expert Member

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    First beam to fine tune the collision pathway released. Further adjustment are needed to get 99.9% accuracy... still in fine tuning stages.
     
  13. Sanda Matuta

    Sanda Matuta JF-Expert Member

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    9. sept si ni jana leo bado hamna jipya???
     
  14. Steve Dii

    Steve Dii JF-Expert Member

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    ...first complete circular adjustment test has completed.
    ...has been done to check whether parts of the particle accelerator, the LHC including giant magnets are properly working.

    ...first beams were released at different intervals and captured/blocked in their pathways by special gates so that the pathway the beams would travel in can be fine tuned. Then a beam was released and allowed to complete the circle.
     
  15. Gamba la Nyoka

    Gamba la Nyoka JF-Expert Member

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    so what is going to be the next phase?
     
  16. Pundit

    Pundit JF-Expert Member

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    Large Hadron Collider doesn't cause the end of the world - yet
    Last Updated: 11:01am BST 10/09/2008



    The Earth didn't move, or even twitch. And it certainly didn't end - as you can tell by the fact you are reading this. By Neil Tweedie at CERN

    Full coverage of the Large Hadron Collider atom smasher
    Subatomic particles complete first circuit | How it works
    Legal bid to stop CERN atom smasher from 'destroying the world'
    The Large Hadron Collider, the greatest atom smasher ever created, the world's biggest machine, was switched on today at CERN, the European nuclear research centre outside Geneva. And the result: rather less than earth shattering.

    "Five, four, three, two, one, zero - nothing," joked Lyn Evans, leader of the LHC project, before a fuzzy dot appeared on a monitor.

    It was 9.30am local time when a stream of protons was introduced into a short stretch of the circular 17-mile underground racetrack, buried in the Jura Mountains on the Franco-Swiss border.

    The fuzzy dot registered their arrival, and then - well, not a lot. But to the scientists who have devoted their working lives to the project it was a moment of consummation.

    Protons streams were then introduced into more and more of the machine until less than an hour later - far earlier than predicted - a stream whizzed around the entire circumference of the particle accelerator at a shade under the speed of light. The LHC had passed its first crucial landmark.

    A host of Jeremiahs have been predicting that the collider, costing £5bn and a quarter of a century in the making, will destroy the world by spawning mini black holes which will sink to the Earth's core before gobbling it up

    Watch: Stephen Hawking on the Large Hadron Collider experiment
    Watch: Telegraph TV visits CERN on the trail of the Higgs particle
    Watch: Large Hadron Collider workers' rap is YouTube hit
    The scientists at CERN have dismissed the claim as ill-informed nonsense, and it certainly wasn't going to happen on today's inaugural test run, which did not include the sub-atomic collisions needed to produce an Earth-munching singularity.

    Dr Evans, the coal miner's son from Aberdare, south Wales, who grew to lead the LHC project, the biggest thing in so-called Big Science, was so moved by the first completed circuit that he could muster only a few words.

    Asked to speak, he said: "I'm too happy to continue." And he left it at that.

    advertisementEarlier, he said: "This is really the biggest and most complex scientific project ever undertaken, and you cannot do a thing like this without engineers and applied scientists of very top quality."

    Around him in the collider's control room, a few miles outside Geneva, scientists burst into applause.

    They will now get a proton beam to travel in the opposite direction before beginning the work of smashing sub-atomic particles together in an effort to discover the greatest question in science: why we came to be.

    John Ellis, a British theoretical physicist, who like Dr Evans has devoted most of his career to CERN, said: "I've been here 35 years and this is the culmination of that time. I've just completed a paper on what we might discover with the LHC. It's such an exciting time."

    Meanwhile, William Hill celebrated Man's continued existence. It had taken £119 from punters willing to bet that September 10 2008 would see the end of the world.

    A spokesman said: "Our standard odds are 1,000,000/1, but anyone wanting longer or shorter odds is at liberty to take them. A number of customers took us up; on our offer and have bet that the world will end as a result of the Large Hadron Collider experiment."

    As the doom-mongers would say, there's still time. The LHC will not get going in earnest until the end of the year, when hopefully it will begin to produce data shedding light on the origin of the universe, the dark matter and energy that makes up its bulk and the existence or not of the Higgs boson - an as yet theoretical particle believed to impart mass to other particles.
     
  17. Sanda Matuta

    Sanda Matuta JF-Expert Member

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    So imetokea na hamana la kutisha lolote ila mafanikio.

    i found this on yahoo


    2 hours, 7 minutes ago



    GENEVA - The world's largest particle collider passed its first major tests by firing two beams of protons in opposite directions around a 17-mile (27-kilometer) underground ring Wednesday in what scientists hope is the next great step to understanding the makeup of the universe.

    ADVERTISEMENT

    After a series of trial runs, two white dots flashed on a computer screen at 10:26 a.m. (0826 GMT) indicating that the protons had traveled clockwise along the full length of the 4 billion Swiss franc (US$3.8 billion) Large Hadron Collider - described as the biggest physics experiment in history.

    "There it is," project leader Lyn Evans said when the beam completed its lap.

    Champagne corks popped in labs as far away as Chicago, where contributing and competing scientists watched the proceedings by satellite.

    Five hours later, scientists successfully fired a beam counterclockwise.

    Physicists around the world now have much greater power to smash the components of atoms together in attempts to learn about their structure.

    "Well done, everybody," said Robert Aymar, director-general of the European Organization for Nuclear Research, to cheers from the assembled scientists in the collider's control room at the Swiss-French border.

    The organization, known by its French acronym CERN, began firing the protons - a type of subatomic particle - around the tunnel in stages less than an hour earlier, with the first beam injection at 9:35 a.m. (0735 GMT).

    Eventually two beams will be fired at the same time in opposite directions with the aim of recreating conditions a split second after the big bang, which scientists theorize was the massive explosion that created the universe.

    "My first thought was relief," said Evans, who has been working on the project since its inception in 1984. "This is a machine of enormous complexity. Things can go wrong at any time. But this morning has been a great start."

    He didn't want to set a date, but said that he expected scientists would be able to conduct collisions for their experiments "within a few months."

    The collider is designed to push the proton beam close to the speed of light, whizzing 11,000 times a second around the tunnel.

    Scientists hope to eventually send two beams of protons through two tubes about the width of fire hoses, speeding through a vacuum that is colder and emptier than outer space. The paths of these beams will cross, and a few protons will collide. The collider's two largest detectors - essentially huge digital cameras weighing thousands of tons - are capable of taking millions of snapshots a second.

    The CERN experiments could reveal more about "dark matter," antimatter and possibly hidden dimensions of space and time. It could also find evidence of the hypothetical particle - the Higgs boson - which is sometimes called the "God particle" because it is believed to give mass to all other particles, and thus to matter that makes up the universe.

    The supercooled magnets that guide the proton beam heated slightly in the morning's first test, leading to a pause to recool them before trying the opposite direction.

    The start of the collider came over the objections of some who feared the collision of protons could eventually imperil the Earth by creating micro-black holes, subatomic versions of collapsed stars whose gravity is so strong they can suck in planets and other stars.

    "It's nonsense," said James Gillies, chief spokesman for CERN.

    CERN was backed by leading scientists like Britain's Stephen Hawking , who declared the experiments to be absolutely safe.

    Gillies told the AP that the most dangerous thing that could happen would be if a beam at full power were to go out of control, and that would only damage the accelerator itself and burrow into the rock around the tunnel.

    Nothing of the sort occurred Wednesday, though the accelerator is still probably a year away from full power.

    The project organized by the 20 European member nations of CERN has attracted researchers from 80 nations. Some 1,200 are from the United States, an observer country that contributed US$531 million. Japan, another observer, also is a major contributor.

    Some scientists have been waiting for 20 years to use the LHC.

    The complexity of manufacturing it required groundbreaking advances in the use of supercooled, superconducting equipment. The 2001 start and 2005 completion dates were pushed back by two years each, and the cost of the construction was 25 percent higher than originally budgeted in 1996, Luciano Maiani, who was CERN director-general at the time, told The Associated Press.

    Maiani and the other three living former directors-general attended the launch Wednesday.

    Smaller colliders have been used for decades to study the makeup of the atom. Less than 100 years ago scientists thought protons and neutrons were the smallest components of an atom's nucleus, but in stages since then experiments have shown they were made of still smaller quarks and gluons and that there were other forces and particles.

    ___

    On the Net:
     
  18. Sanda Matuta

    Sanda Matuta JF-Expert Member

    #18
    Sep 10, 2008
    Joined: May 9, 2007
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    So imetokea na hamana la kutisha lolote ila mafanikio.

    i found this on yahoo


    2 hours, 7 minutes ago



    GENEVA - The world's largest particle collider passed its first major tests by firing two beams of protons in opposite directions around a 17-mile (27-kilometer) underground ring Wednesday in what scientists hope is the next great step to understanding the makeup of the universe.

    ADVERTISEMENT

    After a series of trial runs, two white dots flashed on a computer screen at 10:26 a.m. (0826 GMT) indicating that the protons had traveled clockwise along the full length of the 4 billion Swiss franc (US$3.8 billion) Large Hadron Collider — described as the biggest physics experiment in history.

    "There it is," project leader Lyn Evans said when the beam completed its lap.

    Champagne corks popped in labs as far away as Chicago, where contributing and competing scientists watched the proceedings by satellite.

    Five hours later, scientists successfully fired a beam counterclockwise.

    Physicists around the world now have much greater power to smash the components of atoms together in attempts to learn about their structure.

    "Well done, everybody," said Robert Aymar, director-general of the European Organization for Nuclear Research, to cheers from the assembled scientists in the collider's control room at the Swiss-French border.

    The organization, known by its French acronym CERN, began firing the protons — a type of subatomic particle — around the tunnel in stages less than an hour earlier, with the first beam injection at 9:35 a.m. (0735 GMT).

    Eventually two beams will be fired at the same time in opposite directions with the aim of recreating conditions a split second after the big bang, which scientists theorize was the massive explosion that created the universe.

    "My first thought was relief," said Evans, who has been working on the project since its inception in 1984. "This is a machine of enormous complexity. Things can go wrong at any time. But this morning has been a great start."

    He didn't want to set a date, but said that he expected scientists would be able to conduct collisions for their experiments "within a few months."

    The collider is designed to push the proton beam close to the speed of light, whizzing 11,000 times a second around the tunnel.

    Scientists hope to eventually send two beams of protons through two tubes about the width of fire hoses, speeding through a vacuum that is colder and emptier than outer space. The paths of these beams will cross, and a few protons will collide. The collider's two largest detectors — essentially huge digital cameras weighing thousands of tons — are capable of taking millions of snapshots a second.

    The CERN experiments could reveal more about "dark matter," antimatter and possibly hidden dimensions of space and time. It could also find evidence of the hypothetical particle — the Higgs boson — which is sometimes called the "God particle" because it is believed to give mass to all other particles, and thus to matter that makes up the universe.

    The supercooled magnets that guide the proton beam heated slightly in the morning's first test, leading to a pause to recool them before trying the opposite direction.

    The start of the collider came over the objections of some who feared the collision of protons could eventually imperil the Earth by creating micro-black holes, subatomic versions of collapsed stars whose gravity is so strong they can suck in planets and other stars.

    "It's nonsense," said James Gillies, chief spokesman for CERN.

    CERN was backed by leading scientists like Britain's Stephen Hawking , who declared the experiments to be absolutely safe.

    Gillies told the AP that the most dangerous thing that could happen would be if a beam at full power were to go out of control, and that would only damage the accelerator itself and burrow into the rock around the tunnel.

    Nothing of the sort occurred Wednesday, though the accelerator is still probably a year away from full power.

    The project organized by the 20 European member nations of CERN has attracted researchers from 80 nations. Some 1,200 are from the United States, an observer country that contributed US$531 million. Japan, another observer, also is a major contributor.

    Some scientists have been waiting for 20 years to use the LHC.

    The complexity of manufacturing it required groundbreaking advances in the use of supercooled, superconducting equipment. The 2001 start and 2005 completion dates were pushed back by two years each, and the cost of the construction was 25 percent higher than originally budgeted in 1996, Luciano Maiani, who was CERN director-general at the time, told The Associated Press.

    Maiani and the other three living former directors-general attended the launch Wednesday.

    Smaller colliders have been used for decades to study the makeup of the atom. Less than 100 years ago scientists thought protons and neutrons were the smallest components of an atom's nucleus, but in stages since then experiments have shown they were made of still smaller quarks and gluons and that there were other forces and particles.

    ___

    On the Net:
     
  19. M

    MiratKad JF-Expert Member

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    Who can actually be so daft to put money on this, How would you enjoy it?
     
  20. Sanda Matuta

    Sanda Matuta JF-Expert Member

    #20
    Sep 19, 2008
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    Transformer glitch shuts down biggest atom smasher

    By ALEXANDER G. HIGGINS, Associated Press Writer Thu Sep 18, 5:18 PM ET

    GENEVA - The world's largest particle collider malfunctioned within hours of its launch to great fanfare, but its operator didn't report the problem for a week.
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    In a statement Thursday, the European Organization for Nuclear Research reported for the first time that a 30-ton transformer that cools part of the collider broke, forcing physicists to stop using the atom smasher just a day after starting it up last week.

    The faulty transformer has been replaced and the ring in the 17-mile circular tunnel under the Swiss-French border has been cooled back down to near zero on the Kelvin scale - minus 459.67 degrees Fahrenheit - the most efficient operating temperature, said a statement by CERN, as the organization is known.

    When the transformer malfunctioned, operating temperatures rose from below 2 Kelvin to 4.5 Kelvin - extraordinarily cold by most standards, but warmer than the normal operating temperature.

    CERN had not reported any problems with the project since its launch Sept. 10, but issued its statement shortly after The Associated Press called asking about rumors of troubles.

    Physicists said it wasn't surprising problems would occur in getting a huge and immensely complicated collection of equipment like the Large Hadron Collider up and running smoothly.

    "This is arguably the largest machine built by humankind, is incredibly complex, and involves components of varying ages and origins, so I'm not at all surprised to hear of some glitches," Steve Giddings, physics professor at University of California, Santa Barbara. "It's a real challenge requiring incredible talent, brain power and coordination to get it running."

    Judith Jackson, spokesman for the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, Ill., echoed that view.

    "We know how complex and extraordinary it is to start up one of these machines. No one's built one of these before and in the process of starting it up there will inevitably be glitches," she said.

    Fermilab is home to the Tevatron, an accelerator that collides protons and antiprotons in a 4-mile-long underground ring to allow physicists to study subatomic particles. Jackson said transformer malfunctions can be common and aren't dangerous.

    "These things happen," she said. "It's a little setback and it sounds like they've dealt with it and are moving forward."

    The Large Hadron Collider is designed to collide protons in the beams so that they shatter and reveal more about the makeup of matter and the universe.

    After it was started up Sept. 10, scientists circled a beam of protons in a clockwise direction at the speed of light. They shut that down, then turned on a counterclockwise beam.

    "Several hundred orbits" were made, CERN's statement said.

    On the evening of Sept. 11, scientists had succeeded in controlling the counterclockwise beam with equipment that keeps the protons in the tightly bunched stream that will be needed for collisions, but then the transformer failed and the system was shut down, the statement said.

    The clockwise beam was not on at the time. Now that the transformer has been replaced and the equipment rechilled, scientists expect to try soon to tighten the clockwise beam and prepare experiments in coming weeks, the statement said.

    Before the problem occurred, scientists had said it would probably be several weeks before the first significant collisions were attempted.
     
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