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The Auxiliaries ‘Do’, ‘May’, and ‘Can’

Discussion in 'Jukwaa la Lugha' started by Aqua, Sep 27, 2012.

  1. Aqua

    Aqua JF-Expert Member

    #1
    Sep 27, 2012
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    [FONT=&quot]Do[/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot]1. Form[/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot]Principal parts: do-did-done[/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot]Present tense:[/FONT]
    [TABLE="class: MsoNormalTable"]
    [TR]
    [TD="width: 205"] [FONT=&quot]Affirmative[/FONT]
    [/TD]
    [TD="width: 205"] [FONT=&quot]Negative[/FONT]
    [/TD]
    [TD="width: 205"] [FONT=&quot]Interogative[/FONT]
    [/TD]
    [/TR]
    [TR]
    [TD="width: 205"] [FONT=&quot]I do[/FONT]
    [/TD]
    [TD="width: 205"] [FONT=&quot]I do not(don’t)[/FONT]
    [/TD]
    [TD="width: 205"] [FONT=&quot]do I?[/FONT]
    [/TD]
    [/TR]
    [TR]
    [TD="width: 205"] [FONT=&quot]You do[/FONT]
    [/TD]
    [TD="width: 205"] [FONT=&quot]You do not[/FONT]
    [/TD]
    [TD="width: 205"] [FONT=&quot]do you?[/FONT]
    [/TD]
    [/TR]
    [TR]
    [TD="width: 205"] [FONT=&quot]He does[/FONT]
    [/TD]
    [TD="width: 205"] [FONT=&quot]He does not(doesn’t)[/FONT]
    [/TD]
    [TD="width: 205"] [FONT=&quot]does he?[/FONT]
    [/TD]
    [/TR]
    [TR]
    [TD="width: 205"] [FONT=&quot]It does[/FONT]
    [/TD]
    [TD="width: 205"] [FONT=&quot]It does not(doesn’t)[/FONT]
    [/TD]
    [TD="width: 205"] [FONT=&quot]does it?[/FONT]
    [/TD]
    [/TR]
    [TR]
    [TD="width: 205"] [FONT=&quot]They do[/FONT]
    [/TD]
    [TD="width: 205"] [FONT=&quot]They do not(don’t)[/FONT]
    [/TD]
    [TD="width: 205"] [FONT=&quot] do they?[/FONT]
    [/TD]
    [/TR]
    [TR]
    [TD="width: 205"] [FONT=&quot]We do[/FONT]
    [/TD]
    [TD="width: 205"] [FONT=&quot]We do not(don’t)[/FONT]
    [/TD]
    [TD="width: 205"] [FONT=&quot]do we?[/FONT]
    [/TD]
    [/TR]
    [TR]
    [TD="width: 205"] [FONT=&quot]She does[/FONT]
    [/TD]
    [TD="width: 205"] [FONT=&quot]She does not[/FONT]
    [/TD]
    [TD="width: 205"] [FONT=&quot]does she?[/FONT]
    [/TD]
    [/TR]
    [/TABLE]
    [FONT=&quot] [/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot]The negative interrogative form is: do I not?(don’t I?)[/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot]Past tense: did for all persons, negative did not (didn’t), interrogative did I?, negative interrogative did I not?(didn’t?)[/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot]do [/FONT][FONT=&quot]is followed by the infinitive without to:[/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot]I don’t know. Did you see it? He doesn’t like me.[/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot]2.do used as an auxiliary[/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot]a).[/FONT][FONT=&quot] do is used to form the negative and interrogative of the present simple and past simple tenses of ordinary verbs:[/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot]eg.[/FONT]
    [TABLE="class: MsoNormalTable"]
    [TR]
    [TD="width: 205"] [FONT=&quot]Affirmative[/FONT]
    [/TD]
    [TD="width: 205"] [FONT=&quot]He works[/FONT]
    [/TD]
    [TD="width: 205"] [FONT=&quot]He worked[/FONT]
    [/TD]
    [/TR]
    [TR]
    [TD="width: 205"] [FONT=&quot]Negative[/FONT]
    [/TD]
    [TD="width: 205"] [FONT=&quot]He doesn’t work[/FONT]
    [/TD]
    [TD="width: 205"] [FONT=&quot]He didn’t work[/FONT]
    [/TD]
    [/TR]
    [TR]
    [TD="width: 205"] [FONT=&quot]Interrogative[/FONT]
    [/TD]
    [TD="width: 205"] [FONT=&quot]Does he work?[/FONT]
    [/TD]
    [TD="width: 205"] [FONT=&quot]Did he work?[/FONT]
    [/TD]
    [/TR]
    [/TABLE]
    [FONT=&quot] [/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot]b).[/FONT][FONT=&quot]It is possible to use do/did+ infinitive in the affirmative also when we wish to add special emphasis. It is chiefly used when another speaker has expressed doubt about the action referred to:[/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot]‘You didn’t see him.’ ‘I did see him’.(I did see him badala ya I saw him kuonyesha msisitizo)[/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot](The ‘did’ is strongly stressed in speech. This is more emphatic than the normal ‘I saw him’.)[/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot]‘I know you didn’t expect me to go, but ‘I did go.’ (I did go badala ya I went pia kuonyesha msisitizo kwamba ulienda)[/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot]Nb:[/FONT][FONT=&quot]Hii point hapa juu ni muhimu uielewe kwani ndiyo imenifanya niande kwenye library yangu nitafute reference baada ya mtu mmoja ambaye of course anafahamu lugha kiasi chake ila hapendi kufundishwa anahisi ukifundisha unaonekana kilaza au p itashuka kunibishia sana kumbe yeye alimiss hii point.No one knows every thing,sometimes you have to pretend you do not know so that you can know more.[/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot]c).do[/FONT][FONT=&quot] is used to avoid repetition of a previous ordinary verb:[/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot]i)In short agreement:[/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot]‘Michael speaks a lot.’’Yes,he does.’[/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot]‘She sang well.’ ‘yes,she did.’[/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot]‘He didn’t go.’ ‘No,he didn’t.’[/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot]ii)in short disagreements:[/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot]‘Your dog barks a lot.’ ‘No,he doesn’t.’[/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot]‘You eat too much.’ ‘No,I don’t.’[/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot]iii)in additions:[/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot]He likes wine and so do we (note inversion)[/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot]He doesn’t like caviar and neither do I[/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot]He lives at home but I don’t. He doesn’t drive a car but I do.[/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot]iv)in question tags:[/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot]He lives here, doesn’t he? He didn’t see you, did he?[/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot]d).do[/FONT][FONT=&quot] is used in short answers to avoid repetition of the main verb:[/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot]Do you smoke?- Yes,I do( not ‘yes,I smoke)-No,I don’t[/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot]Did you see him?- Yes,I did.-No,I didn’t.[/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot]Does he love you?-Yes,he does-No,I am afraid he doesn’t.[/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot]e).do [/FONT][FONT=&quot]is placed before the imperative to make a request or invitation more persuasive:[/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot]‘Do come with us’ (more persuasive than ‘come with us’).[/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot]‘Do work a little harder.’ ‘Do help me, please’[/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot]f).[/FONT][FONT=&quot]It can similarly be used as an approving or encouraging affirmative answer to someone asking for approval of,or permission to do,some action.[/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot]‘Shall I write to him?’ ‘Yes,do’ or ‘Do’ alone.[/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot]3.do used as an ordinary verb[/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot]Do like have can be used as an ordinary verb.It then form its negative and interrogative in the simple present and simple past with do and did:[/FONT]
    [TABLE="class: MsoNormalTable"]
    [TR]
    [TD="width: 205"] [FONT=&quot]I do not do[/FONT]
    [/TD]
    [TD="width: 205"] [FONT=&quot]Do you do?[/FONT]
    [/TD]
    [TD="width: 205"] [FONT=&quot]Don’t you do?[/FONT]
    [/TD]
    [/TR]
    [TR]
    [TD="width: 205"] [FONT=&quot]He does not do[/FONT]
    [/TD]
    [TD="width: 205"] [FONT=&quot]Does he do?[/FONT]
    [/TD]
    [TD="width: 205"] [FONT=&quot]Doesn’t he do?[/FONT]
    [/TD]
    [/TR]
    [TR]
    [TD="width: 205"] [FONT=&quot]I did not do[/FONT]
    [/TD]
    [TD="width: 205"] [FONT=&quot]Did he do?[/FONT]
    [/TD]
    [TD="width: 205"] [FONT=&quot]Didn’t he do?[/FONT]
    [/TD]
    [/TR]
    [/TABLE]
    [FONT=&quot] [/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot]It can be used in the continuous forms, or simple forms:[/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot]What are you doing (now)?I am doing my homework.[/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot]What is he doing tomorrow?(near future)[/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot]What does he do in the evenings?(habit)[/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot]How did you do it? I did it with my little axe.[/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot]‘How do you do’ is said by both parties after an introduction :(hapa wengi huwa wanachemka)[/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot]Hostess:[/FONT][FONT=&quot]Mrs Day,may I introduce Miss Knight?Miss Knight,Mrs Day.[/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot]Mrs day[/FONT][FONT=&quot]:How do you do?[/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot]Miss Knight:[/FONT][FONT=&quot]How do you do?[/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot]Originally this was an inquiry about the other person’s health. Now it is merely a formal greeting, used only at introductions.[/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot] *************[/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot] ‘ May’ and ‘Can’ will be covered by the end of next week.[/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot] [/FONT]
    [FONT=&quot] [/FONT]
     
  2. Mama wawilii

    Mama wawilii Senior Member

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    Sep 28, 2012
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    Thanks Aqua for opening my eyes with this post.I have learnt something new here,the notices are very comprehensive and supportive to me,because they are in a simple way which make me understand them well,
    here with my notebook taking some notices,I am waiting for the use of 'May'and 'can'
     
  3. Roulette

    Roulette JF-Expert Member

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    Sep 28, 2012
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    Asante sana...
     
  4. Aqua

    Aqua JF-Expert Member

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    Ok.Thanks ,we are here to help one another.
     
  5. Aqua

    Aqua JF-Expert Member

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    Sep 28, 2012
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    Don't mention it.
     
  6. R

    Reginald12 JF-Expert Member

    #6
    Sep 29, 2012
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    Hello Mama Wawili! I assume that you mean 'NOTES' when you write 'notices'. "Notice" in Kiswahili is 'Ilani' and that means something totally different from what you are writing. Just one more item of vocabulary for you. Words that have the same sounds can be quite confusing!
     
  7. Mama wawilii

    Mama wawilii Senior Member

    #7
    Oct 1, 2012
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    ooops!Real it has changed the meaning of the sentence(meanless).Iam glad you have noted the mispelling and you assumed as I was thinking.Thats good of you Regenald.And I have observed that you are reading word by word and correct me without getting tired.
    thanks
     
  8. Aqua

    Aqua JF-Expert Member

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    Oct 7, 2012
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    Hello members,hope you are enjoying you weekend.Sorry ,I was occupied but at last I managed to have time to keep my promise.See the attachment for the use of May and can.Have a nice weekend.
     

    Attached Files:

  9. PrN-kazi

    PrN-kazi JF-Expert Member

    #9
    Oct 8, 2012
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    man! for sure, you have done your real best to sharpen my english, particularly the uses of the word ''do''. Thanks a lot.
     
  10. Aqua

    Aqua JF-Expert Member

    #10
    Oct 8, 2012
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    My pleasure.You are welcome.
     
  11. Mama wawilii

    Mama wawilii Senior Member

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    Oct 14, 2012
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    Thanks for sharing!Give me one week I will be ready for the test,teh teh teh im joking
     
  12. Aqua

    Aqua JF-Expert Member

    #12
    Oct 15, 2012
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    Ok.Whey you are ready for the exam just let me know.Remember when cheating don't copy everything you may copy even your neighbor's examination number thinking yours is not correct.Just kiddin'.
     
  13. Iron Lady

    Iron Lady JF-Expert Member

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    very impressive.
     
  14. TUKUTUKU

    TUKUTUKU JF-Expert Member

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    Thank you for your constructive lesson!!
     
  15. chardams

    chardams JF-Expert Member

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    Oct 17, 2012
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    i)In short agreement:
    ‘Michael speaks a lot.’’Yes,he does.’
    ‘She sang well.’ ‘yes,she did.’
    ‘He didn’t go.’ ‘No,he didn’t.

    I don't understand the above could you please make me understand?
     
  16. Aqua

    Aqua JF-Expert Member

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    Oct 19, 2012
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    do-did -does

    speaks inaonyesha hari ya mazoea au tabia so kwa kujibu utatumia does na si do(simple present) au did(past tense).
    Hapa ukiwa unakubaliana na mtu,badala ya kuirudia verb e.g Yes,he speaks a lot(hapa umeirudia verb husika speaks),unamjibu kwa kifupi "Yes,he does''.Hapa kwa sababu ni mtu ulikuwa unaongea naye anajua unarefer nini,ila kama nikikutana na wewe mara ya kwanza nakukwambia "Yes,he does",hapa lazima utauliza maswali by "he" who do I refer and "does" inasimama badala ya kitendo kipi.

    Vivyo hivyo"She sang well" hii ni inarefer past time(sang ni past ya sing,so kwa sababu ni kitu kilichopita tutatumia "did" na si "do" au "does".
    Badala ya kumjibu " Yes,she sang well" utamjibu kwa kifupi hapa wote mnajua verb mnayoiongelea ni kuimba(sing-sang) utasema "Yes,she did" ni sawa na kusema "Yes,she sang well" ila hii ya mwisho ni maneno mengi.Ndiyo maana tunatumia do(did,does) in short agreement /disagreement.

    Unajua tena kuelimishana kwa kuandika kuna kaugumu fulani.Kama bado itakusumbua tafuta mtu anayefahamu English kiasi cha kutosha ambaye utaweza kuwa naye physically mpe hicho kipengele anaweza akakusaidia zaidi.Thanks
     
  17. Aqua

    Aqua JF-Expert Member

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    Oct 19, 2012
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    My pleasure.
     
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