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Terrorists-GAIDI Wa KIKIRISTO Ndiye Muuaji wa Bomu la Norway

Discussion in 'Habari na Hoja mchanganyiko' started by Mr.Right, Jul 24, 2011.

  1. M

    Mr.Right JF-Expert Member

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    Jul 24, 2011
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    Terrorists-GAIDI Wa KIKIRISTO Ndiye Muuaji wa Bomu la Norway
    The BBC is reporting that at least 84 people were killed in a shooting spree at a youth camp in Norway. This tragedy followed closely behind the bombing in Oslo that killed at least seven. As news of the attacks first broke, virtually everyone seemed to assume that Muslim terrorists were responsible. It now appears that the culprit may have been a Christian terrorist.

    Norwegian police have identified Anders Behring Breivik, a 32 year-old man who police have described as a right-wing Christian fundamentalist, as a suspect. There are conflicting reports, with some describing Breivik as a suspect being questioned and others claiming that he has been arrested.

    My thoughts are with the families and friends of the victims of this senseless attack. We will have plenty of time to learn about the motives of those responsible. ​
     
  2. Masanilo

    Masanilo JF-Expert Member

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    Lazima anandugu waIslam huyu Anders Behring Breivik
     
  3. M

    Mr.Right JF-Expert Member

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    McVeigh alifanya mauaji makubwa sana kule Oklahoma, kwa njia kama ya huyu jamaa. Anatumia dini kufanya mauaji makubwa ya kuua binadamu, hii ni hatari sana.
     
  4. MaxShimba

    MaxShimba JF-Expert Member

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    Islam (Arabic: الإسلام‎ al-'islām, pronounced [ʔɪsˈlæːm] ( listen)[note 1]) is the monotheistic religion articulated by the Qur'an, a text considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God (Arabic: الله‎, Allah), and by the teachings and normative example (called the Sunnah and composed of Hadith) of Muhammad, considered by them to be the last prophet of God. An adherent of Islam is called a Muslim.
    Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable.[1] Muslims also believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith that was revealed at many times and places before, including through Abraham, Moses and Jesus, whom they consider prophets .[2] Muslims maintain that previous messages and revelations have been partially changed or corrupted over time,[3] but consider the Qur'an to be both the unaltered and the final revelation of God (the Final Testament, following the Old and New Testaments).[4] Religious concepts and practices include the five pillars of Islam, which are basic concepts and obligatory acts of worship, and following Islamic law, which touches on virtually every aspect of life and society, providing guidance on multifarious topics from banking, politics, and welfare, to warfare and the environment.[5][6]
    Most Muslims belong to one of two denominations; with 80-90% being Sunni and 10-20% being Shia.[7][8][9] About 13% of Muslims live in Indonesia, the largest Muslim country,[10] 25% in South Asia,[10] 20% in the Middle East,[11] 2% in Central Asia, 4% in the remaining South East Asian countries, and 15% in Sub-saharan Africa.[12] Sizable communities are also found in China and Russia, and parts of Europe. Converts and immigrant communities are found in almost every part of the world (see Islam by country). With about 1.41-1.57 billion Muslims, comprising about 21-23% of the world's population,[12][13] Islam is the second-largest religion and one of the fastest-growing religions in the world.[14][15]
    [h=2]Contents[/h][hide]
    1 Etymology and meaning
    2 Articles of faith
    2.1 God
    2.2 Angels
    2.3 Revelations
    2.4 Prophets
    2.5 Resurrection and judgment
    2.6 Predestination
    3 Five pillars
    3.1 Testimony
    3.2 Prayer
    3.3 Fasting
    3.4 Alms-giving
    3.5 Pilgrimage
    4 Law and Jurisprudence
    4.1 Jurists
    4.2 Etiquette and diet
    4.3 Family life
    4.4 Government
    4.5 Military
    5 History
    5.1 Muhammad (610–632)
    5.2 Rise of the caliphate and civil war (632–750)
    5.3 Golden Age (750–1258)
    5.4 Fragmentation and invasions
    5.5 New dynasties and colonialism (1030–1918)
    5.6 Modern times (1918–present)
    6 Denominations
    6.1 Sunni
    6.2 Shia
    6.3 Sufism
    6.4 Minor denominations
    7 Demographics
    8 Culture
    8.1 Architecture
    8.2 Art
    8.3 Calendar
    9 See also
    10 References
    10.1 Citations
    10.2 Footnotes
    10.3 Books and journals
    10.3.1 Encyclopedias
    11 Further reading
    12 External links
    [h=2]Etymology and meaning[/h]Islam is a verbal noun originating from the triliteral root s-l-m which forms a large class of words mostly relating to concepts of wholeness, completion and bonding/joining.[16] In a religious context it means "voluntary submission to God".[17][18] Muslim, the word for an adherent of Islam, is the active participle of the same verb of which Islām is the infinitive. Believers demonstrate submission to God by worshipping Him, following His commands, and avoiding polytheism. The word sometimes has distinct connotations in its various occurrences in the Qur'an. In some verses (ayat), there is stress on the quality of Islam as an internal conviction: "Whomsoever God desires to guide, He expands his breast to Islam."[19] Other verses connect islām and dīn (usually translated as "religion"): "Today, I have perfected your religion (dīn) for you; I have completed My blessing upon you; I have approved Islam for your religion."[20] Still others describe Islam as an action of returning to God-more than just a verbal affirmation of faith.[21] Another technical meaning in Islamic thought is as one part of a triad of islam, imān (faith), and ihsān (excellence) where it represents acts of worship (`ibādah) and Islamic law (sharia).[22]
    [h=2]Articles of faith[/h]Main articles: Aqidah and Iman
    [h=3]God[/h]Main article: God in Islam

    Allah means God in Arabic


    Islam's fundamental concept is a rigorous monotheism, called tawhīd. God is described in chapter 112 of the Qur'an as:[23] "Say: He is God, the One and Only; God, the Eternal, Absolute; He begetteth not, nor is He begotten; And there is none like unto Him." (112:1-4) Muslims repudiate the Christian doctrine of the Trinity and divinity of Jesus, comparing it to polytheism, but accept Jesus as a prophet. In Islam, God is beyond all comprehension and Muslims are not expected to visualize God. God is described and referred to by certain names or attributes, the most common being Al-Rahman, meaning "The Compassionate" and Al-Rahim, meaning "The Merciful" (See Names of God in Islam).[24]
    Muslims believe that the purpose of existence is to worship God.[25] He is viewed as a personal God who states "We are nearer to him than (his) jugular vein"[26] and responds whenever a person in need or distress calls Him.[7][27] There are no intermediaries, such as clergy, between God and the creation that he brought into being by the sheer command "‘Be' and it is."[7][28]
    Allāh is the term with no plural or gender used by Muslims to refer to the one God, while ʾilāh is the term used for a deity or a god in general.[29] Other non-Arab Muslims might use different names as much as Allah, for instance "Tanrı" in Turkish or "Khodā" in Persian.
    [h=3]Angels[/h]Main article: Islamic view of angels
    Belief in angels is fundamental to the faith of Islam. The Arabic word for angel (malak) means "messenger", like its counterparts in Hebrew (malakh) and Greek (angelos). According to the Qur'an, angels do not possess free will, and worship God in total obedience.[30] Angels' duties include communicating revelations from God, glorifying God, recording every person's actions, and taking a person's soul at the time of death. They are also thought to intercede on man's behalf. The Qur'an describes angels as "messengers with wings-two, or three, or four (pairs): He [God] adds to Creation as He pleases..."[31]
    [h=3]Revelations[/h]Main articles: Islamic holy books and Qur'an
    See also: History of the Qur'an

    The first sura in a Qur'anic manuscript by Hattat Aziz Efendi


    The Islamic holy books are the records which most Muslims believe were dictated by God to various prophets. Muslims believe that parts of the previously revealed scriptures, the Tawrat (Torah) and the Injil (Gospels), had become distorted-either in interpretation, in text, or both.[3] The Qur'an (literally, "Reading" or "Recitation") is viewed by Muslims as the final revelation and literal Word of God and is widely regarded as the finest piece of literature work in the Arabic language.[32][33][34] Muslims believe that the verses of the Qur'an were revealed to Muhammad by God through the archangel Gabriel (Jibrīl). On many occasions between 610 and his death on June 8, 632.[35] The Qur'an was reportedly written down by Muhammad's companions (sahabah) while he was alive, although the prime method of transmission was orally. It was compiled in the time of Abu Bakr, the first caliph, and was standardized under the administration of Uthman, the third caliph.
    The Qur'an is divided into 114 suras, or chapters, which combined, contain 6,236 āyāt, or verses. The chronologically earlier suras, revealed at Mecca, are primarily concerned with ethical and spiritual topics. The later Medinan suras mostly discuss social and moral issues relevant to the Muslim community.[36] The Qur'an is more concerned with moral guidance than legal instruction, and is considered the "sourcebook of Islamic principles and values".[37] Muslim jurists consult the hadith, or the written record of Prophet Muhammad's life, to both supplement the Qur'an and assist with its interpretation. The science of Qur'anic commentary and exegesis is known as tafsir.[38]
    When Muslims speak in the abstract about "the Qur'an", they usually mean the scripture as recited in Arabic rather than the printed work or any translation of it. To Muslims, the Qur'an is perfect only as revealed in the original Arabic; translations are necessarily deficient because of language differences, the fallibility of translators, and the impossibility of preserving the original's inspired style. Translations are therefore regarded only as commentaries on the Qur'an, or "interpretations of its meaning", not as the Qur'an itself.[39]
    [h=3]Prophets[/h]
    Hadith collections


    Six major collections Sahih al-Bukhari
    Sahih Muslim
    al-Sunan al-Sughra
    Sunan Abi Dawood
    Sunan al-Tirmidhi
    Sunan Ibn Maja

    Other Sunni collections
    Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal
    Sahih Ibn Khuzaymah
    Sahih Ibn Hibbaan
    Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain
    Mawdu'at al-Kubra
    Riyadh as-Saaliheen
    Mishkat al-Masabih
    Talkhis al-Mustadrak
    Majma al-Zawa'id
    Bulugh al-Maram
    Kanz al-Ummal
    Zujajat al-Masabih
    Minhaj us Sawi
    The Four Books Kitab al-Kafi
    Man la yahduruhu al-Faqih
    Tahdhib al-Ahkam
    al-Istibsar

    Other Shi'a collections
    Nahj al-Balagha
    The book of Sulaym ibn Qays
    Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya
    Wasael ush-Shia
    Bihar al-Anwar
    Haqq al-Yaqeen
    Ain Al-Hayat
    Sharh Usul al-Kafi
    al-Jami' as-Sahih
    Tartib al-Musnad
    Nahj with comments
    This box: view · talk · edit
    Main article: Prophets of Islam
    Muslims identify the prophets of Islam (Arabic: نبي‎) as those humans chosen by God to be His messengers. According to the Qur'an [40] the descendants of Abraham and Imran were chosen by God to bring the "Will of God" to the peoples of the nations. Muslims believe that prophets are human and not divine, though some are able to perform miracles to prove their claim. Islamic theology says that all of God's messengers preached the message of Islam-submission to the Will of God. The Qur'an mentions the names of numerous figures considered prophets in Islam, including Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses and Jesus, among others.[41] Muslims believe that God finally sent Muhammad (Seal of the Prophets) to convey the divine message to the whole world (to sum up and to finalize the word of God). In Islam, the "normative" example of Muhammad's life is called the Sunnah (literally "trodden path"). This example is preserved in traditions known as hadith ("reports"), which recount his words, his actions, and his personal characteristics. The classical Muslim jurist ash-Shafi'i (d. 820) emphasized the importance of the Sunnah in Islamic law, and Muslims are encouraged to emulate Muhammad's actions in their daily lives. The Sunnah is seen as crucial to guiding interpretation of the Qur'an. Six of these collections, compiled in the 3rd century AH (9th century CE), came to be regarded as especially authoritative by the largest group in Islām, the Sunnites. Another large group, the Shīʾah, has its own Ḥadīth contained in four canonical collections.[7]
    [h=3]Resurrection and judgment[/h]Main article: Qiyama
    Belief in the "Day of Resurrection", Qiyamah (also known as yawm ad-dīn, "Day of Judgment" and as-sā`a, "the Last Hour") is also crucial for Muslims. They believe that the time of Qiyāmah is preordained by God but unknown to man. The trials and tribulations preceding and during the Qiyāmah are described in the Qur'an and the hadith, and also in the commentaries of scholars. The Qur'an emphasizes bodily resurrection, a break from the pre-Islamic Arabian understanding of death.[42]
    The Qur'an lists several sins that can condemn a person to hell, such as disbelief, riba, and dishonesty. Muslims view heaven as a place of joy and bliss, with Qur'anic references describing its features and the physical pleasures to come. There are also references to ridwān.[43] Mystical traditions in Islam place these heavenly delights in the context of an ecstatic awareness of God.[44]
    [h=3]Predestination[/h]Main article: Predestination in Islam
    In accordance with the Islamic belief in predestination, or divine preordainment (al-qadā wa'l-qadar), God has full knowledge and control over all that occurs. This is explained in Qur'anic verses such as "Say: 'Nothing will happen to us except what Allah has decreed for us: He is our protector'..."[45] For Muslims, everything in the world that occurs, good or evil, has been preordained and nothing can happen unless permitted by God. According to Muslim theologians, although events are pre-ordained, man possesses free will in that he has the faculty to choose between right and wrong, and is thus responsible for his actions. According to Islamic tradition, all that has been decreed by God is written in al-Lawh al-Mahfūz, the "Preserved Tablet".[46]
    [h=2]Five pillars[/h]Main article: Five Pillars of Islam
    The Pillars of Islam (arkan al-Islam; also arkan ad-din, "pillars of religion") are five basic acts in Islam, considered obligatory for all believers. The Quran presents them as a framework for worship and a sign of commitment to the faith. They are (1) the shahadah (creed), (2) daily prayers (salat), (3) almsgiving (zakah), (4) fasting during Ramadan and (5) the pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj) at least once in a lifetime. The Shia and Sunni sects both agree on the essential details for the performance of these acts.[47]
    [h=3]Testimony[/h]Main article: Shahadah
    The Shahadah,[48] which is the basic creed of Islam that must be recited under oath with the specific statement: "'ašhadu 'al-lā ilāha illā-llāhu wa 'ašhadu 'anna muħammadan rasūlu-llāh", or "I testify that there is none worthy of worship except God and I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of God." This testament is a foundation for all other beliefs and practices in Islam. Muslims must repeat the shahadah in prayer, and non-Muslims wishing to convert to Islam are required to recite the creed.[49]
    [h=3]Prayer[/h]Main article: Salah
    See also: Mosque

    Muslims praying


    Ritual prayers, called Ṣalāh or Ṣalāt (Arabic: صلاة), must be performed five times a day. Salah is intended to focus the mind on God, and is seen as a personal communication with him that expresses gratitude and worship. Salah is compulsory but flexibility in the specifics is allowed depending on circumstances. The prayers are recited in the Arabic language, and consist of verses from the Qur'an.[50]
    A mosque is a place of worship for Muslims, who often refer to it by its Arabic name, masjid. The word mosque in English refers to all types of buildings dedicated to Islamic worship, although there is a distinction in Arabic between the smaller, privately owned mosque and the larger, "collective" mosque (masjid jāmi`).[51] Although the primary purpose of the mosque is to serve as a place of prayer, it is also important to the Muslim community as a place to meet and study. Modern mosques have evolved greatly from the early designs of the 7th century, and contain a variety of architectural elements such as minarets.[52]
    [h=3]Fasting[/h]Main article: Sawm
    Further information: Sawm of Ramadan
    Fasting, called "Sawm" (Arabic: صوم‎), from food and drink (among other things) must be performed from dawn to dusk during the month of Ramadhan. The fast is to encourage a feeling of nearness to God, and during it Muslims should express their gratitude for and dependence on him, atone for their past sins, and think of the needy. Sawm is not obligatory for several groups for whom it would constitute an undue burden. For others, flexibility is allowed depending on circumstances, but missed fasts usually must be made up quickly.[53]
    [h=3]Alms-giving[/h]Main articles: Zakat and Sadaqah
    "Zakāt" (Arabic: زكاة‎) is giving a fixed portion of accumulated wealth by those who can afford it to help the poor or needy, and also to assist the spread of Islam. It is considered a religious obligation (as opposed to voluntary charity) that the well-off owe to the needy because their wealth is seen as a "trust from God's bounty". The Qur'an and the hadith also suggest a Muslim give even more as an act of voluntary alms-giving (sadaqah).[54]




    The Kaaba during Hajj


    [h=3]Pilgrimage[/h]Main article: Hajj
    The pilgrimage, called the Hajj (Arabic: حج‎ Ḥajj) during the Islamic month of Dhu al-Hijjah in the city of Mecca. Every able-bodied Muslim who can afford it must make the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in his or her lifetime. Rituals of the Hajj include walking seven times around the Kaaba, touching the black stone if possible, walking or running seven times between Mount Safa and Mount Marwah, and symbolically stoning the Devil in Mina.[55]
    [h=2]Law and Jurisprudence[/h]Main articles: Sharia and Fiqh
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    Bayt al-mal
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    Inheritance
    Political[show]

    Political aspects of Islam
    Islamic leadership
    Caliphate · Imamah
    Wilayat al-faqih
    Bay'ah · Dhimmi

    Marital[show]

    Intentions · Contract
    Rights and obligations
    Mahr
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    Khula · Nikah Mut‘ah
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    Ma malakat aymanukum
    Adoption
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    Techniques
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    (Haram zada)
    Criminal[show]

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    Diyya (compensation)
    Etiquette[show]

    Adab
    Sex segregation
    Mahram
    Honorifics
    Toilet

    Theological[show]

    Baligh
    Salat
    Raka'ah · Qibla · Turbah
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    (Tahajjud • Tarawih)
    Nafl salat
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    Compared with kashrut
    Military[show]

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    Islamic studies
    v · d · e
    The Sharia (literally "the path leading to the watering place") is Islamic law formed by traditional Islamic scholarship, which most Muslim groups adhere to. In Islam, Sharia is the expression of the divine will, and "constitutes a system of duties that are incumbent upon a Muslim by virtue of his religious belief".[56]
    Islamic law covers all aspects of life, from matters of state, like governance and foreign relations, to issues of daily living. The Qur'an defines hudud as the punishments for five specific crimes: unlawful intercourse, false accusation of unlawful intercourse, consumption of alcohol, theft, and highway robbery. The Qur'an and Sunnah also contain laws of inheritance, marriage, and restitution for injuries and murder, as well as rules for fasting, charity, and prayer. However, these prescriptions and prohibitions may be broad, so their application in practice varies. Islamic scholars (known as ulema) have elaborated systems of law on the basis of these rules and their interpretations.[57] Over the years there have been changing views on Islamic law but many such as Zahiri and Jariri[clarification needed] have since died out.[58][59]
    Fiqh, or "jurisprudence", is defined as the knowledge of the practical rules of the religion. The method Islamic jurists use to derive rulings is known as usul al-fiqh ("legal theory", or "principles of jurisprudence"). According to Islamic legal theory, law has four fundamental roots, which are given precedence in this order: the Qur'an, the Sunnah (actions and sayings of Muhammad), the consensus of the Muslim jurists (ijma), and analogical reasoning (qiyas). For early Islamic jurists, theory was less important than pragmatic application of the law. In the 9th century, the jurist ash-Shafi'i provided a theoretical basis for Islamic law by codifying the principles of jurisprudence (including the four fundamental roots) in his book ar-Risālah.[60]
    [h=3]Jurists[/h]Main articles: Ulama, Sheikh, and Imam

    Ottoman miniature painters


    There are many terms in Islam to refer to religiously sanctioned positions of Islam, but "jurist" generally refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. In a broader sense, the term ulema is used to describe the body of Muslim clergy who have completed several years of training and study of Islamic sciences, such as a mufti, qadi, faqih, or muhaddith. Some Muslims include under this term the village mullahs, imams, and maulvis-who have attained only the lowest rungs on the ladder of Islamic scholarship; other Muslims would say that clerics must meet higher standards to be considered ulema. Some Muslims practise ijtihad whereby they do not accept the authority of clergy.[61]

    Islam (Arabic: الإسلام‎ al-'islām, pronounced [ʔɪsˈlæːm] ( listen)[note 1]) is the monotheistic religion articulated by the Qur'an, a text considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God (Arabic: الله‎, Allah), and by the teachings and normative example (called the Sunnah and composed of Hadith) of Muhammad, considered by them to be the last prophet of God. An adherent of Islam is called a Muslim.
    Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable.[1] Muslims also believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith that was revealed at many times and places before, including through Abraham, Moses and Jesus, whom they consider prophets .[2] Muslims maintain that previous messages and revelations have been partially changed or corrupted over time,[3] but consider the Qur'an to be both the unaltered and the final revelation of God (the Final Testament, following the Old and New Testaments).[4] Religious concepts and practices include the five pillars of Islam, which are basic concepts and obligatory acts of worship, and following Islamic law, which touches on virtually every aspect of life and society, providing guidance on multifarious topics from banking, politics, and welfare, to warfare and the environment.[5][6]
    Most Muslims belong to one of two denominations; with 80-90% being Sunni and 10-20% being Shia.[7][8][9] About 13% of Muslims live in Indonesia, the largest Muslim country,[10] 25% in South Asia,[10] 20% in the Middle East,[11] 2% in Central Asia, 4% in the remaining South East Asian countries, and 15% in Sub-saharan Africa.[12] Sizable communities are also found in China and Russia, and parts of Europe. Converts and immigrant communities are found in almost every part of the world (see Islam by country). With about 1.41-1.57 billion Muslims, comprising about 21-23% of the world's population,[12][13] Islam is the second-largest religion and one of the fastest-growing religions in the world.[14][15]
    [h=2]Contents[/h][hide]
    1 Etymology and meaning
    2 Articles of faith
    2.1 God
    2.2 Angels
    2.3 Revelations
    2.4 Prophets
    2.5 Resurrection and judgment
    2.6 Predestination
    3 Five pillars
    3.1 Testimony
    3.2 Prayer
    3.3 Fasting
    3.4 Alms-giving
    3.5 Pilgrimage
    4 Law and Jurisprudence
    4.1 Jurists
    4.2 Etiquette and diet
    4.3 Family life
    4.4 Government
    4.5 Military
    5 History
    5.1 Muhammad (610–632)
    5.2 Rise of the caliphate and civil war (632–750)
    5.3 Golden Age (750–1258)
    5.4 Fragmentation and invasions
    5.5 New dynasties and colonialism (1030–1918)
    5.6 Modern times (1918–present)
    6 Denominations
    6.1 Sunni
    6.2 Shia
    6.3 Sufism
    6.4 Minor denominations
    7 Demographics
    8 Culture
    8.1 Architecture
    8.2 Art
    8.3 Calendar
    9 See also
    10 References
    10.1 Citations
    10.2 Footnotes
    10.3 Books and journals
    10.3.1 Encyclopedias
    11 Further reading
    12 External links
    [h=2]Etymology and meaning[/h]Islam is a verbal noun originating from the triliteral root s-l-m which forms a large class of words mostly relating to concepts of wholeness, completion and bonding/joining.[16] In a religious context it means "voluntary submission to God".[17][18] Muslim, the word for an adherent of Islam, is the active participle of the same verb of which Islām is the infinitive. Believers demonstrate submission to God by worshipping Him, following His commands, and avoiding polytheism. The word sometimes has distinct connotations in its various occurrences in the Qur'an. In some verses (ayat), there is stress on the quality of Islam as an internal conviction: "Whomsoever God desires to guide, He expands his breast to Islam."[19] Other verses connect islām and dīn (usually translated as "religion"): "Today, I have perfected your religion (dīn) for you; I have completed My blessing upon you; I have approved Islam for your religion."[20] Still others describe Islam as an action of returning to God-more than just a verbal affirmation of faith.[21] Another technical meaning in Islamic thought is as one part of a triad of islam, imān (faith), and ihsān (excellence) where it represents acts of worship (`ibādah) and Islamic law (sharia).[22]
    [h=2]Articles of faith[/h]Main articles: Aqidah and Iman
    [h=3]God[/h]Main article: God in Islam

    Allah means God in Arabic


    Islam's fundamental concept is a rigorous monotheism, called tawhīd. God is described in chapter 112 of the Qur'an as:[23] "Say: He is God, the One and Only; God, the Eternal, Absolute; He begetteth not, nor is He begotten; And there is none like unto Him." (112:1-4) Muslims repudiate the Christian doctrine of the Trinity and divinity of Jesus, comparing it to polytheism, but accept Jesus as a prophet. In Islam, God is beyond all comprehension and Muslims are not expected to visualize God. God is described and referred to by certain names or attributes, the most common being Al-Rahman, meaning "The Compassionate" and Al-Rahim, meaning "The Merciful" (See Names of God in Islam).[24]
    Muslims believe that the purpose of existence is to worship God.[25] He is viewed as a personal God who states "We are nearer to him than (his) jugular vein"[26] and responds whenever a person in need or distress calls Him.[7][27] There are no intermediaries, such as clergy, between God and the creation that he brought into being by the sheer command "‘Be' and it is."[7][28]
    Allāh is the term with no plural or gender used by Muslims to refer to the one God, while ʾilāh is the term used for a deity or a god in general.[29] Other non-Arab Muslims might use different names as much as Allah, for instance "Tanrı" in Turkish or "Khodā" in Persian.
    [h=3]Angels[/h]Main article: Islamic view of angels
    Belief in angels is fundamental to the faith of Islam. The Arabic word for angel (malak) means "messenger", like its counterparts in Hebrew (malakh) and Greek (angelos). According to the Qur'an, angels do not possess free will, and worship God in total obedience.[30] Angels' duties include communicating revelations from God, glorifying God, recording every person's actions, and taking a person's soul at the time of death. They are also thought to intercede on man's behalf. The Qur'an describes angels as "messengers with wings-two, or three, or four (pairs): He [God] adds to Creation as He pleases..."[31]
    [h=3]Revelations[/h]Main articles: Islamic holy books and Qur'an
    See also: History of the Qur'an

    The first sura in a Qur'anic manuscript by Hattat Aziz Efendi


    The Islamic holy books are the records which most Muslims believe were dictated by God to various prophets. Muslims believe that parts of the previously revealed scriptures, the Tawrat (Torah) and the Injil (Gospels), had become distorted-either in interpretation, in text, or both.[3] The Qur'an (literally, "Reading" or "Recitation") is viewed by Muslims as the final revelation and literal Word of God and is widely regarded as the finest piece of literature work in the Arabic language.[32][33][34] Muslims believe that the verses of the Qur'an were revealed to Muhammad by God through the archangel Gabriel (Jibrīl). On many occasions between 610 and his death on June 8, 632.[35] The Qur'an was reportedly written down by Muhammad's companions (sahabah) while he was alive, although the prime method of transmission was orally. It was compiled in the time of Abu Bakr, the first caliph, and was standardized under the administration of Uthman, the third caliph.
    The Qur'an is divided into 114 suras, or chapters, which combined, contain 6,236 āyāt, or verses. The chronologically earlier suras, revealed at Mecca, are primarily concerned with ethical and spiritual topics. The later Medinan suras mostly discuss social and moral issues relevant to the Muslim community.[36] The Qur'an is more concerned with moral guidance than legal instruction, and is considered the "sourcebook of Islamic principles and values".[37] Muslim jurists consult the hadith, or the written record of Prophet Muhammad's life, to both supplement the Qur'an and assist with its interpretation. The science of Qur'anic commentary and exegesis is known as tafsir.[38]
    When Muslims speak in the abstract about "the Qur'an", they usually mean the scripture as recited in Arabic rather than the printed work or any translation of it. To Muslims, the Qur'an is perfect only as revealed in the original Arabic; translations are necessarily deficient because of language differences, the fallibility of translators, and the impossibility of preserving the original's inspired style. Translations are therefore regarded only as commentaries on the Qur'an, or "interpretations of its meaning", not as the Qur'an itself.[39]
    [h=3]Prophets[/h]
    Hadith collections


    Six major collections Sahih al-Bukhari
    Sahih Muslim
    al-Sunan al-Sughra
    Sunan Abi Dawood
    Sunan al-Tirmidhi
    Sunan Ibn Maja

    Other Sunni collections
    Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal
    Sahih Ibn Khuzaymah
    Sahih Ibn Hibbaan
    Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain
    Mawdu'at al-Kubra
    Riyadh as-Saaliheen
    Mishkat al-Masabih
    Talkhis al-Mustadrak
    Majma al-Zawa'id
    Bulugh al-Maram
    Kanz al-Ummal
    Zujajat al-Masabih
    Minhaj us Sawi
    The Four Books Kitab al-Kafi
    Man la yahduruhu al-Faqih
    Tahdhib al-Ahkam
    al-Istibsar

    Other Shi'a collections
    Nahj al-Balagha
    The book of Sulaym ibn Qays
    Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya
    Wasael ush-Shia
    Bihar al-Anwar
    Haqq al-Yaqeen
    Ain Al-Hayat
    Sharh Usul al-Kafi
    al-Jami' as-Sahih
    Tartib al-Musnad
    Nahj with comments
    This box: view · talk · edit
    Main article: Prophets of Islam
    Muslims identify the prophets of Islam (Arabic: نبي‎) as those humans chosen by God to be His messengers. According to the Qur'an [40] the descendants of Abraham and Imran were chosen by God to bring the "Will of God" to the peoples of the nations. Muslims believe that prophets are human and not divine, though some are able to perform miracles to prove their claim. Islamic theology says that all of God's messengers preached the message of Islam-submission to the Will of God. The Qur'an mentions the names of numerous figures considered prophets in Islam, including Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses and Jesus, among others.[41] Muslims believe that God finally sent Muhammad (Seal of the Prophets) to convey the divine message to the whole world (to sum up and to finalize the word of God). In Islam, the "normative" example of Muhammad's life is called the Sunnah (literally "trodden path"). This example is preserved in traditions known as hadith ("reports"), which recount his words, his actions, and his personal characteristics. The classical Muslim jurist ash-Shafi'i (d. 820) emphasized the importance of the Sunnah in Islamic law, and Muslims are encouraged to emulate Muhammad's actions in their daily lives. The Sunnah is seen as crucial to guiding interpretation of the Qur'an. Six of these collections, compiled in the 3rd century AH (9th century CE), came to be regarded as especially authoritative by the largest group in Islām, the Sunnites. Another large group, the Shīʾah, has its own Ḥadīth contained in four canonical collections.[7]
    [h=3]Resurrection and judgment[/h]Main article: Qiyama
    Belief in the "Day of Resurrection", Qiyamah (also known as yawm ad-dīn, "Day of Judgment" and as-sā`a, "the Last Hour") is also crucial for Muslims. They believe that the time of Qiyāmah is preordained by God but unknown to man. The trials and tribulations preceding and during the Qiyāmah are described in the Qur'an and the hadith, and also in the commentaries of scholars. The Qur'an emphasizes bodily resurrection, a break from the pre-Islamic Arabian understanding of death.[42]
    The Qur'an lists several sins that can condemn a person to hell, such as disbelief, riba, and dishonesty. Muslims view heaven as a place of joy and bliss, with Qur'anic references describing its features and the physical pleasures to come. There are also references to ridwān.[43] Mystical traditions in Islam place these heavenly delights in the context of an ecstatic awareness of God.[44]
    [h=3]Predestination[/h]Main article: Predestination in Islam
    In accordance with the Islamic belief in predestination, or divine preordainment (al-qadā wa'l-qadar), God has full knowledge and control over all that occurs. This is explained in Qur'anic verses such as "Say: 'Nothing will happen to us except what Allah has decreed for us: He is our protector'..."[45] For Muslims, everything in the world that occurs, good or evil, has been preordained and nothing can happen unless permitted by God. According to Muslim theologians, although events are pre-ordained, man possesses free will in that he has the faculty to choose between right and wrong, and is thus responsible for his actions. According to Islamic tradition, all that has been decreed by God is written in al-Lawh al-Mahfūz, the "Preserved Tablet".[46]
    [h=2]Five pillars[/h]Main article: Five Pillars of Islam
    The Pillars of Islam (arkan al-Islam; also arkan ad-din, "pillars of religion") are five basic acts in Islam, considered obligatory for all believers. The Quran presents them as a framework for worship and a sign of commitment to the faith. They are (1) the shahadah (creed), (2) daily prayers (salat), (3) almsgiving (zakah), (4) fasting during Ramadan and (5) the pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj) at least once in a lifetime. The Shia and Sunni sects both agree on the essential details for the performance of these acts.[47]
    [h=3]Testimony[/h]Main article: Shahadah
    The Shahadah,[48] which is the basic creed of Islam that must be recited under oath with the specific statement: "'ašhadu 'al-lā ilāha illā-llāhu wa 'ašhadu 'anna muħammadan rasūlu-llāh", or "I testify that there is none worthy of worship except God and I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of God." This testament is a foundation for all other beliefs and practices in Islam. Muslims must repeat the shahadah in prayer, and non-Muslims wishing to convert to Islam are required to recite the creed.[49]
    [h=3]Prayer[/h]Main article: Salah
    See also: Mosque

    Muslims praying


    Ritual prayers, called Ṣalāh or Ṣalāt (Arabic: صلاة), must be performed five times a day. Salah is intended to focus the mind on God, and is seen as a personal communication with him that expresses gratitude and worship. Salah is compulsory but flexibility in the specifics is allowed depending on circumstances. The prayers are recited in the Arabic language, and consist of verses from the Qur'an.[50]
    A mosque is a place of worship for Muslims, who often refer to it by its Arabic name, masjid. The word mosque in English refers to all types of buildings dedicated to Islamic worship, although there is a distinction in Arabic between the smaller, privately owned mosque and the larger, "collective" mosque (masjid jāmi`).[51] Although the primary purpose of the mosque is to serve as a place of prayer, it is also important to the Muslim community as a place to meet and study. Modern mosques have evolved greatly from the early designs of the 7th century, and contain a variety of architectural elements such as minarets.[52]
    [h=3]Fasting[/h]Main article: Sawm
    Further information: Sawm of Ramadan
    Fasting, called "Sawm" (Arabic: صوم‎), from food and drink (among other things) must be performed from dawn to dusk during the month of Ramadhan. The fast is to encourage a feeling of nearness to God, and during it Muslims should express their gratitude for and dependence on him, atone for their past sins, and think of the needy. Sawm is not obligatory for several groups for whom it would constitute an undue burden. For others, flexibility is allowed depending on circumstances, but missed fasts usually must be made up quickly.[53]
    [h=3]Alms-giving[/h]Main articles: Zakat and Sadaqah
    "Zakāt" (Arabic: زكاة‎) is giving a fixed portion of accumulated wealth by those who can afford it to help the poor or needy, and also to assist the spread of Islam. It is considered a religious obligation (as opposed to voluntary charity) that the well-off owe to the needy because their wealth is seen as a "trust from God's bounty". The Qur'an and the hadith also suggest a Muslim give even more as an act of voluntary alms-giving (sadaqah).[54]




    The Kaaba during Hajj


    [h=3]Pilgrimage[/h]Main article: Hajj
    The pilgrimage, called the Hajj (Arabic: حج‎ Ḥajj) during the Islamic month of Dhu al-Hijjah in the city of Mecca. Every able-bodied Muslim who can afford it must make the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in his or her lifetime. Rituals of the Hajj include walking seven times around the Kaaba, touching the black stone if possible, walking or running seven times between Mount Safa and Mount Marwah, and symbolically stoning the Devil in Mina.[55]
    [h=2]Law and Jurisprudence[/h]Main articles: Sharia and Fiqh
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    Political aspects of Islam
    Islamic leadership
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    (Haram zada)
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    Etiquette[show]

    Adab
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    Theological[show]

    Baligh
    Salat
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    Islamic studies
    v · d · e
    The Sharia (literally "the path leading to the watering place") is Islamic law formed by traditional Islamic scholarship, which most Muslim groups adhere to. In Islam, Sharia is the expression of the divine will, and "constitutes a system of duties that are incumbent upon a Muslim by virtue of his religious belief".[56]
    Islamic law covers all aspects of life, from matters of state, like governance and foreign relations, to issues of daily living. The Qur'an defines hudud as the punishments for five specific crimes: unlawful intercourse, false accusation of unlawful intercourse, consumption of alcohol, theft, and highway robbery. The Qur'an and Sunnah also contain laws of inheritance, marriage, and restitution for injuries and murder, as well as rules for fasting, charity, and prayer. However, these prescriptions and prohibitions may be broad, so their application in practice varies. Islamic scholars (known as ulema) have elaborated systems of law on the basis of these rules and their interpretations.[57] Over the years there have been changing views on Islamic law but many such as Zahiri and Jariri[clarification needed] have since died out.[58][59]
    Fiqh, or "jurisprudence", is defined as the knowledge of the practical rules of the religion. The method Islamic jurists use to derive rulings is known as usul al-fiqh ("legal theory", or "principles of jurisprudence"). According to Islamic legal theory, law has four fundamental roots, which are given precedence in this order: the Qur'an, the Sunnah (actions and sayings of Muhammad), the consensus of the Muslim jurists (ijma), and analogical reasoning (qiyas). For early Islamic jurists, theory was less important than pragmatic application of the law. In the 9th century, the jurist ash-Shafi'i provided a theoretical basis for Islamic law by codifying the principles of jurisprudence (including the four fundamental roots) in his book ar-Risālah.[60]
    [h=3]Jurists[/h]Main articles: Ulama, Sheikh, and Imam

    Ottoman miniature painters


    There are many terms in Islam to refer to religiously sanctioned positions of Islam, but "jurist" generally refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. In a broader sense, the term ulema is used to describe the body of Muslim clergy who have completed several years of training and study of Islamic sciences, such as a mufti, qadi, faqih, or muhaddith. Some Muslims include under this term the village mullahs, imams, and maulvis-who have attained only the lowest rungs on the ladder of Islamic scholarship; other Muslims would say that clerics must meet higher standards to be considered ulema. Some Muslims practise ijtihad whereby they do not accept the authority of clergy.[61]

    Islam (Arabic: الإسلام‎ al-'islām, pronounced [ʔɪsˈlæːm] ( listen)[note 1]) is the monotheistic religion articulated by the Qur'an, a text considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God (Arabic: الله‎, Allah), and by the teachings and normative example (called the Sunnah and composed of Hadith) of Muhammad, considered by them to be the last prophet of God. An adherent of Islam is called a Muslim.
    Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable.[1] Muslims also believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith that was revealed at many times and places before, including through Abraham, Moses and Jesus, whom they consider prophets .[2] Muslims maintain that previous messages and revelations have been partially changed or corrupted over time,[3] but consider the Qur'an to be both the unaltered and the final revelation of God (the Final Testament, following the Old and New Testaments).[4] Religious concepts and practices include the five pillars of Islam, which are basic concepts and obligatory acts of worship, and following Islamic law, which touches on virtually every aspect of life and society, providing guidance on multifarious topics from banking, politics, and welfare, to warfare and the environment.[5][6]
    Most Muslims belong to one of two denominations; with 80-90% being Sunni and 10-20% being Shia.[7][8][9] About 13% of Muslims live in Indonesia, the largest Muslim country,[10] 25% in South Asia,[10] 20% in the Middle East,[11] 2% in Central Asia, 4% in the remaining South East Asian countries, and 15% in Sub-saharan Africa.[12] Sizable communities are also found in China and Russia, and parts of Europe. Converts and immigrant communities are found in almost every part of the world (see Islam by country). With about 1.41-1.57 billion Muslims, comprising about 21-23% of the world's population,[12][13] Islam is the second-largest religion and one of the fastest-growing religions in the world.[14][15]
    [h=2]Contents[/h][hide]
    1 Etymology and meaning
    2 Articles of faith
    2.1 God
    2.2 Angels
    2.3 Revelations
    2.4 Prophets
    2.5 Resurrection and judgment
    2.6 Predestination
    3 Five pillars
    3.1 Testimony
    3.2 Prayer
    3.3 Fasting
    3.4 Alms-giving
    3.5 Pilgrimage
    4 Law and Jurisprudence
    4.1 Jurists
    4.2 Etiquette and diet
    4.3 Family life
    4.4 Government
    4.5 Military
    5 History
    5.1 Muhammad (610–632)
    5.2 Rise of the caliphate and civil war (632–750)
    5.3 Golden Age (750–1258)
    5.4 Fragmentation and invasions
    5.5 New dynasties and colonialism (1030–1918)
    5.6 Modern times (1918–present)
    6 Denominations
    6.1 Sunni
    6.2 Shia
    6.3 Sufism
    6.4 Minor denominations
    7 Demographics
    8 Culture
    8.1 Architecture
    8.2 Art
    8.3 Calendar
    9 See also
    10 References
    10.1 Citations
    10.2 Footnotes
    10.3 Books and journals
    10.3.1 Encyclopedias
    11 Further reading
    12 External links
    [h=2]Etymology and meaning[/h]Islam is a verbal noun originating from the triliteral root s-l-m which forms a large class of words mostly relating to concepts of wholeness, completion and bonding/joining.[16] In a religious context it means "voluntary submission to God".[17][18] Muslim, the word for an adherent of Islam, is the active participle of the same verb of which Islām is the infinitive. Believers demonstrate submission to God by worshipping Him, following His commands, and avoiding polytheism. The word sometimes has distinct connotations in its various occurrences in the Qur'an. In some verses (ayat), there is stress on the quality of Islam as an internal conviction: "Whomsoever God desires to guide, He expands his breast to Islam."[19] Other verses connect islām and dīn (usually translated as "religion"): "Today, I have perfected your religion (dīn) for you; I have completed My blessing upon you; I have approved Islam for your religion."[20] Still others describe Islam as an action of returning to God-more than just a verbal affirmation of faith.[21] Another technical meaning in Islamic thought is as one part of a triad of islam, imān (faith), and ihsān (excellence) where it represents acts of worship (`ibādah) and Islamic law (sharia).[22]
    [h=2]Articles of faith[/h]Main articles: Aqidah and Iman
    [h=3]God[/h]Main article: God in Islam

    Allah means God in Arabic


    Islam's fundamental concept is a rigorous monotheism, called tawhīd. God is described in chapter 112 of the Qur'an as:[23] "Say: He is God, the One and Only; God, the Eternal, Absolute; He begetteth not, nor is He begotten; And there is none like unto Him." (112:1-4) Muslims repudiate the Christian doctrine of the Trinity and divinity of Jesus, comparing it to polytheism, but accept Jesus as a prophet. In Islam, God is beyond all comprehension and Muslims are not expected to visualize God. God is described and referred to by certain names or attributes, the most common being Al-Rahman, meaning "The Compassionate" and Al-Rahim, meaning "The Merciful" (See Names of God in Islam).[24]
    Muslims believe that the purpose of existence is to worship God.[25] He is viewed as a personal God who states "We are nearer to him than (his) jugular vein"[26] and responds whenever a person in need or distress calls Him.[7][27] There are no intermediaries, such as clergy, between God and the creation that he brought into being by the sheer command "‘Be' and it is."[7][28]
    Allāh is the term with no plural or gender used by Muslims to refer to the one God, while ʾilāh is the term used for a deity or a god in general.[29] Other non-Arab Muslims might use different names as much as Allah, for instance "Tanrı" in Turkish or "Khodā" in Persian.
    [h=3]Angels[/h]Main article: Islamic view of angels
    Belief in angels is fundamental to the faith of Islam. The Arabic word for angel (malak) means "messenger", like its counterparts in Hebrew (malakh) and Greek (angelos). According to the Qur'an, angels do not possess free will, and worship God in total obedience.[30] Angels' duties include communicating revelations from God, glorifying God, recording every person's actions, and taking a person's soul at the time of death. They are also thought to intercede on man's behalf. The Qur'an describes angels as "messengers with wings-two, or three, or four (pairs): He [God] adds to Creation as He pleases..."[31]
    [h=3]Revelations[/h]Main articles: Islamic holy books and Qur'an
    See also: History of the Qur'an

    The first sura in a Qur'anic manuscript by Hattat Aziz Efendi


    The Islamic holy books are the records which most Muslims believe were dictated by God to various prophets. Muslims believe that parts of the previously revealed scriptures, the Tawrat (Torah) and the Injil (Gospels), had become distorted-either in interpretation, in text, or both.[3] The Qur'an (literally, "Reading" or "Recitation") is viewed by Muslims as the final revelation and literal Word of God and is widely regarded as the finest piece of literature work in the Arabic language.[32][33][34] Muslims believe that the verses of the Qur'an were revealed to Muhammad by God through the archangel Gabriel (Jibrīl). On many occasions between 610 and his death on June 8, 632.[35] The Qur'an was reportedly written down by Muhammad's companions (sahabah) while he was alive, although the prime method of transmission was orally. It was compiled in the time of Abu Bakr, the first caliph, and was standardized under the administration of Uthman, the third caliph.
    The Qur'an is divided into 114 suras, or chapters, which combined, contain 6,236 āyāt, or verses. The chronologically earlier suras, revealed at Mecca, are primarily concerned with ethical and spiritual topics. The later Medinan suras mostly discuss social and moral issues relevant to the Muslim community.[36] The Qur'an is more concerned with moral guidance than legal instruction, and is considered the "sourcebook of Islamic principles and values".[37] Muslim jurists consult the hadith, or the written record of Prophet Muhammad's life, to both supplement the Qur'an and assist with its interpretation. The science of Qur'anic commentary and exegesis is known as tafsir.[38]
    When Muslims speak in the abstract about "the Qur'an", they usually mean the scripture as recited in Arabic rather than the printed work or any translation of it. To Muslims, the Qur'an is perfect only as revealed in the original Arabic; translations are necessarily deficient because of language differences, the fallibility of translators, and the impossibility of preserving the original's inspired style. Translations are therefore regarded only as commentaries on the Qur'an, or "interpretations of its meaning", not as the Qur'an itself.[39]
    [h=3]Prophets[/h]
    Hadith collections


    Six major collections Sahih al-Bukhari
    Sahih Muslim
    al-Sunan al-Sughra
    Sunan Abi Dawood
    Sunan al-Tirmidhi
    Sunan Ibn Maja

    Other Sunni collections
    Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal
    Sahih Ibn Khuzaymah
    Sahih Ibn Hibbaan
    Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain
    Mawdu'at al-Kubra
    Riyadh as-Saaliheen
    Mishkat al-Masabih
    Talkhis al-Mustadrak
    Majma al-Zawa'id
    Bulugh al-Maram
    Kanz al-Ummal
    Zujajat al-Masabih
    Minhaj us Sawi
    The Four Books Kitab al-Kafi
    Man la yahduruhu al-Faqih
    Tahdhib al-Ahkam
    al-Istibsar

    Other Shi'a collections
    Nahj al-Balagha
    The book of Sulaym ibn Qays
    Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya
    Wasael ush-Shia
    Bihar al-Anwar
    Haqq al-Yaqeen
    Ain Al-Hayat
    Sharh Usul al-Kafi
    al-Jami' as-Sahih
    Tartib al-Musnad
    Nahj with comments
    This box: view · talk · edit
    Main article: Prophets of Islam
    Muslims identify the prophets of Islam (Arabic: نبي‎) as those humans chosen by God to be His messengers. According to the Qur'an [40] the descendants of Abraham and Imran were chosen by God to bring the "Will of God" to the peoples of the nations. Muslims believe that prophets are human and not divine, though some are able to perform miracles to prove their claim. Islamic theology says that all of God's messengers preached the message of Islam-submission to the Will of God. The Qur'an mentions the names of numerous figures considered prophets in Islam, including Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses and Jesus, among others.[41] Muslims believe that God finally sent Muhammad (Seal of the Prophets) to convey the divine message to the whole world (to sum up and to finalize the word of God). In Islam, the "normative" example of Muhammad's life is called the Sunnah (literally "trodden path"). This example is preserved in traditions known as hadith ("reports"), which recount his words, his actions, and his personal characteristics. The classical Muslim jurist ash-Shafi'i (d. 820) emphasized the importance of the Sunnah in Islamic law, and Muslims are encouraged to emulate Muhammad's actions in their daily lives. The Sunnah is seen as crucial to guiding interpretation of the Qur'an. Six of these collections, compiled in the 3rd century AH (9th century CE), came to be regarded as especially authoritative by the largest group in Islām, the Sunnites. Another large group, the Shīʾah, has its own Ḥadīth contained in four canonical collections.[7]
    [h=3]Resurrection and judgment[/h]Main article: Qiyama
    Belief in the "Day of Resurrection", Qiyamah (also known as yawm ad-dīn, "Day of Judgment" and as-sā`a, "the Last Hour") is also crucial for Muslims. They believe that the time of Qiyāmah is preordained by God but unknown to man. The trials and tribulations preceding and during the Qiyāmah are described in the Qur'an and the hadith, and also in the commentaries of scholars. The Qur'an emphasizes bodily resurrection, a break from the pre-Islamic Arabian understanding of death.[42]
    The Qur'an lists several sins that can condemn a person to hell, such as disbelief, riba, and dishonesty. Muslims view heaven as a place of joy and bliss, with Qur'anic references describing its features and the physical pleasures to come. There are also references to ridwān.[43] Mystical traditions in Islam place these heavenly delights in the context of an ecstatic awareness of God.[44]
    [h=3]Predestination[/h]Main article: Predestination in Islam
    In accordance with the Islamic belief in predestination, or divine preordainment (al-qadā wa'l-qadar), God has full knowledge and control over all that occurs. This is explained in Qur'anic verses such as "Say: 'Nothing will happen to us except what Allah has decreed for us: He is our protector'..."[45] For Muslims, everything in the world that occurs, good or evil, has been preordained and nothing can happen unless permitted by God. According to Muslim theologians, although events are pre-ordained, man possesses free will in that he has the faculty to choose between right and wrong, and is thus responsible for his actions. According to Islamic tradition, all that has been decreed by God is written in al-Lawh al-Mahfūz, the "Preserved Tablet".[46]
    [h=2]Five pillars[/h]Main article: Five Pillars of Islam
    The Pillars of Islam (arkan al-Islam; also arkan ad-din, "pillars of religion") are five basic acts in Islam, considered obligatory for all believers. The Quran presents them as a framework for worship and a sign of commitment to the faith. They are (1) the shahadah (creed), (2) daily prayers (salat), (3) almsgiving (zakah), (4) fasting during Ramadan and (5) the pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj) at least once in a lifetime. The Shia and Sunni sects both agree on the essential details for the performance of these acts.[47]
    [h=3]Testimony[/h]Main article: Shahadah
    The Shahadah,[48] which is the basic creed of Islam that must be recited under oath with the specific statement: "'ašhadu 'al-lā ilāha illā-llāhu wa 'ašhadu 'anna muħammadan rasūlu-llāh", or "I testify that there is none worthy of worship except God and I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of God." This testament is a foundation for all other beliefs and practices in Islam. Muslims must repeat the shahadah in prayer, and non-Muslims wishing to convert to Islam are required to recite the creed.[49]
    [h=3]Prayer[/h]Main article: Salah
    See also: Mosque

    Muslims praying


    Ritual prayers, called Ṣalāh or Ṣalāt (Arabic: صلاة), must be performed five times a day. Salah is intended to focus the mind on God, and is seen as a personal communication with him that expresses gratitude and worship. Salah is compulsory but flexibility in the specifics is allowed depending on circumstances. The prayers are recited in the Arabic language, and consist of verses from the Qur'an.[50]
    A mosque is a place of worship for Muslims, who often refer to it by its Arabic name, masjid. The word mosque in English refers to all types of buildings dedicated to Islamic worship, although there is a distinction in Arabic between the smaller, privately owned mosque and the larger, "collective" mosque (masjid jāmi`).[51] Although the primary purpose of the mosque is to serve as a place of prayer, it is also important to the Muslim community as a place to meet and study. Modern mosques have evolved greatly from the early designs of the 7th century, and contain a variety of architectural elements such as minarets.[52]
    [h=3]Fasting[/h]Main article: Sawm
    Further information: Sawm of Ramadan
    Fasting, called "Sawm" (Arabic: صوم‎), from food and drink (among other things) must be performed from dawn to dusk during the month of Ramadhan. The fast is to encourage a feeling of nearness to God, and during it Muslims should express their gratitude for and dependence on him, atone for their past sins, and think of the needy. Sawm is not obligatory for several groups for whom it would constitute an undue burden. For others, flexibility is allowed depending on circumstances, but missed fasts usually must be made up quickly.[53]
    [h=3]Alms-giving[/h]Main articles: Zakat and Sadaqah
    "Zakāt" (Arabic: زكاة‎) is giving a fixed portion of accumulated wealth by those who can afford it to help the poor or needy, and also to assist the spread of Islam. It is considered a religious obligation (as opposed to voluntary charity) that the well-off owe to the needy because their wealth is seen as a "trust from God's bounty". The Qur'an and the hadith also suggest a Muslim give even more as an act of voluntary alms-giving (sadaqah).[54]




    The Kaaba during Hajj


    [h=3]Pilgrimage[/h]Main article: Hajj
    The pilgrimage, called the Hajj (Arabic: حج‎ Ḥajj) during the Islamic month of Dhu al-Hijjah in the city of Mecca. Every able-bodied Muslim who can afford it must make the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in his or her lifetime. Rituals of the Hajj include walking seven times around the Kaaba, touching the black stone if possible, walking or running seven times between Mount Safa and Mount Marwah, and symbolically stoning the Devil in Mina.[55]
    [h=2]Law and Jurisprudence[/h]Main articles: Sharia and Fiqh
    Part of a series on
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    History
    Zakat
    Jizya · Nisab · Khums
    Sadaqah (Waqf)
    Bayt al-mal
    Banking
    Riba · Murabaha
    Takaful · Sukuk
    Inheritance
    Political[show]

    Political aspects of Islam
    Islamic leadership
    Caliphate · Imamah
    Wilayat al-faqih
    Bay'ah · Dhimmi

    Marital[show]

    Intentions · Contract
    Rights and obligations
    Mahr
    Nikah
    Misyar · Halala · Urfi
    Khula · Nikah Mut‘ah
    Polygyny · Talaq · Iddah
    Ma malakat aymanukum
    Adoption
    Sexual[show]

    Techniques
    Masturbation
    Hygiene
    Extramarital sex
    (Haram zada)
    Criminal[show]

    Hudud
    Blasphemy
    Maisir (gambling)
    Zina (extramarital sex)
    Hirabah (unlawful warfare)
    Fasad (mischief)
    Rajm (stoning)
    Tazir (discretionary)
    Qisas (retribution)
    Diyya (compensation)
    Etiquette[show]

    Adab
    Sex segregation
    Mahram
    Honorifics
    Toilet

    Theological[show]

    Baligh
    Salat
    Raka'ah · Qibla · Turbah
    Sunnah salat
    (Tahajjud • Tarawih)
    Nafl salat
    Sawm
    Hajj
    Ihram (Clothing • Mut'ah)
    Tawaf
    Umrah (with Hajj)
    Hygiene[show]

    Sexual · Toilet
    Taharah · Ihram
    Wudu · Masah
    Ghusl · Tayammum
    Miswak · Najis
    Dietary
    Dhabihah
    Alcohol · Pork
    Compared with kashrut
    Military[show]

    Defensive jihad
    Offensive jihad
    Hudna
    Istijarah (asylum)
    Ma malakat aymanukum
    Prisoners of war

    Islamic studies
    v · d · e
    The Sharia (literally "the path leading to the watering place") is Islamic law formed by traditional Islamic scholarship, which most Muslim groups adhere to. In Islam, Sharia is the expression of the divine will, and "constitutes a system of duties that are incumbent upon a Muslim by virtue of his religious belief".[56]
    Islamic law covers all aspects of life, from matters of state, like governance and foreign relations, to issues of daily living. The Qur'an defines hudud as the punishments for five specific crimes: unlawful intercourse, false accusation of unlawful intercourse, consumption of alcohol, theft, and highway robbery. The Qur'an and Sunnah also contain laws of inheritance, marriage, and restitution for injuries and murder, as well as rules for fasting, charity, and prayer. However, these prescriptions and prohibitions may be broad, so their application in practice varies. Islamic scholars (known as ulema) have elaborated systems of law on the basis of these rules and their interpretations.[57] Over the years there have been changing views on Islamic law but many such as Zahiri and Jariri[clarification needed] have since died out.[58][59]
    Fiqh, or "jurisprudence", is defined as the knowledge of the practical rules of the religion. The method Islamic jurists use to derive rulings is known as usul al-fiqh ("legal theory", or "principles of jurisprudence"). According to Islamic legal theory, law has four fundamental roots, which are given precedence in this order: the Qur'an, the Sunnah (actions and sayings of Muhammad), the consensus of the Muslim jurists (ijma), and analogical reasoning (qiyas). For early Islamic jurists, theory was less important than pragmatic application of the law. In the 9th century, the jurist ash-Shafi'i provided a theoretical basis for Islamic law by codifying the principles of jurisprudence (including the four fundamental roots) in his book ar-Risālah.[60]
    [h=3]Jurists[/h]Main articles: Ulama, Sheikh, and Imam

    Ottoman miniature painters


    There are many terms in Islam to refer to religiously sanctioned positions of Islam, but "jurist" generally refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. In a broader sense, the term ulema is used to describe the body of Muslim clergy who have completed several years of training and study of Islamic sciences, such as a mufti, qadi, faqih, or muhaddith. Some Muslims include under this term the village mullahs, imams, and maulvis-who have attained only the lowest rungs on the ladder of Islamic scholarship; other Muslims would say that clerics must meet higher standards to be considered ulema. Some Muslims practise ijtihad whereby they do not accept the authority of clergy.[61]

    Islam (Arabic: الإسلام‎ al-'islām, pronounced [ʔɪsˈlæːm] ( listen)[note 1]) is the monotheistic religion articulated by the Qur'an, a text considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God (Arabic: الله‎, Allah), and by the teachings and normative example (called the Sunnah and composed of Hadith) of Muhammad, considered by them to be the last prophet of God. An adherent of Islam is called a Muslim.
    Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable.[1] Muslims also believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith that was revealed at many times and places before, including through Abraham, Moses and Jesus, whom they consider prophets .[2] Muslims maintain that previous messages and revelations have been partially changed or corrupted over time,[3] but consider the Qur'an to be both the unaltered and the final revelation of God (the Final Testament, following the Old and New Testaments).[4] Religious concepts and practices include the five pillars of Islam, which are basic concepts and obligatory acts of worship, and following Islamic law, which touches on virtually every aspect of life and society, providing guidance on multifarious topics from banking, politics, and welfare, to warfare and the environment.[5][6]
    Most Muslims belong to one of two denominations; with 80-90% being Sunni and 10-20% being Shia.[7][8][9] About 13% of Muslims live in Indonesia, the largest Muslim country,[10] 25% in South Asia,[10] 20% in the Middle East,[11] 2% in Central Asia, 4% in the remaining South East Asian countries, and 15% in Sub-saharan Africa.[12] Sizable communities are also found in China and Russia, and parts of Europe. Converts and immigrant communities are found in almost every part of the world (see Islam by country). With about 1.41-1.57 billion Muslims, comprising about 21-23% of the world's population,[12][13] Islam is the second-largest religion and one of the fastest-growing religions in the world.[14][15]
    [h=2]Contents[/h][hide]
    1 Etymology and meaning
    2 Articles of faith
    2.1 God
    2.2 Angels
    2.3 Revelations
    2.4 Prophets
    2.5 Resurrection and judgment
    2.6 Predestination
    3 Five pillars
    3.1 Testimony
    3.2 Prayer
    3.3 Fasting
    3.4 Alms-giving
    3.5 Pilgrimage
    4 Law and Jurisprudence
    4.1 Jurists
    4.2 Etiquette and diet
    4.3 Family life
    4.4 Government
    4.5 Military
    5 History
    5.1 Muhammad (610–632)
    5.2 Rise of the caliphate and civil war (632–750)
    5.3 Golden Age (750–1258)
    5.4 Fragmentation and invasions
    5.5 New dynasties and colonialism (1030–1918)
    5.6 Modern times (1918–present)
    6 Denominations
    6.1 Sunni
    6.2 Shia
    6.3 Sufism
    6.4 Minor denominations
    7 Demographics
    8 Culture
    8.1 Architecture
    8.2 Art
    8.3 Calendar
    9 See also
    10 References
    10.1 Citations
    10.2 Footnotes
    10.3 Books and journals
    10.3.1 Encyclopedias
    11 Further reading
    12 External links
    [h=2]Etymology and meaning[/h]Islam is a verbal noun originating from the triliteral root s-l-m which forms a large class of words mostly relating to concepts of wholeness, completion and bonding/joining.[16] In a religious context it means "voluntary submission to God".[17][18] Muslim, the word for an adherent of Islam, is the active participle of the same verb of which Islām is the infinitive. Believers demonstrate submission to God by worshipping Him, following His commands, and avoiding polytheism. The word sometimes has distinct connotations in its various occurrences in the Qur'an. In some verses (ayat), there is stress on the quality of Islam as an internal conviction: "Whomsoever God desires to guide, He expands his breast to Islam."[19] Other verses connect islām and dīn (usually translated as "religion"): "Today, I have perfected your religion (dīn) for you; I have completed My blessing upon you; I have approved Islam for your religion."[20] Still others describe Islam as an action of returning to God-more than just a verbal affirmation of faith.[21] Another technical meaning in Islamic thought is as one part of a triad of islam, imān (faith), and ihsān (excellence) where it represents acts of worship (`ibādah) and Islamic law (sharia).[22]
    [h=2]Articles of faith[/h]Main articles: Aqidah and Iman
    [h=3]God[/h]Main article: God in Islam

    Allah means God in Arabic


    Islam's fundamental concept is a rigorous monotheism, called tawhīd. God is described in chapter 112 of the Qur'an as:[23] "Say: He is God, the One and Only; God, the Eternal, Absolute; He begetteth not, nor is He begotten; And there is none like unto Him." (112:1-4) Muslims repudiate the Christian doctrine of the Trinity and divinity of Jesus, comparing it to polytheism, but accept Jesus as a prophet. In Islam, God is beyond all comprehension and Muslims are not expected to visualize God. God is described and referred to by certain names or attributes, the most common being Al-Rahman, meaning "The Compassionate" and Al-Rahim, meaning "The Merciful" (See Names of God in Islam).[24]
    Muslims believe that the purpose of existence is to worship God.[25] He is viewed as a personal God who states "We are nearer to him than (his) jugular vein"[26] and responds whenever a person in need or distress calls Him.[7][27] There are no intermediaries, such as clergy, between God and the creation that he brought into being by the sheer command "‘Be' and it is."[7][28]
    Allāh is the term with no plural or gender used by Muslims to refer to the one God, while ʾilāh is the term used for a deity or a god in general.[29] Other non-Arab Muslims might use different names as much as Allah, for instance "Tanrı" in Turkish or "Khodā" in Persian.
    [h=3]Angels[/h]Main article: Islamic view of angels
    Belief in angels is fundamental to the faith of Islam. The Arabic word for angel (malak) means "messenger", like its counterparts in Hebrew (malakh) and Greek (angelos). According to the Qur'an, angels do not possess free will, and worship God in total obedience.[30] Angels' duties include communicating revelations from God, glorifying God, recording every person's actions, and taking a person's soul at the time of death. They are also thought to intercede on man's behalf. The Qur'an describes angels as "messengers with wings-two, or three, or four (pairs): He [God] adds to Creation as He pleases..."[31]
    [h=3]Revelations[/h]Main articles: Islamic holy books and Qur'an
    See also: History of the Qur'an

    The first sura in a Qur'anic manuscript by Hattat Aziz Efendi


    The Islamic holy books are the records which most Muslims believe were dictated by God to various prophets. Muslims believe that parts of the previously revealed scriptures, the Tawrat (Torah) and the Injil (Gospels), had become distorted-either in interpretation, in text, or both.[3] The Qur'an (literally, "Reading" or "Recitation") is viewed by Muslims as the final revelation and literal Word of God and is widely regarded as the finest piece of literature work in the Arabic language.[32][33][34] Muslims believe that the verses of the Qur'an were revealed to Muhammad by God through the archangel Gabriel (Jibrīl). On many occasions between 610 and his death on June 8, 632.[35] The Qur'an was reportedly written down by Muhammad's companions (sahabah) while he was alive, although the prime method of transmission was orally. It was compiled in the time of Abu Bakr, the first caliph, and was standardized under the administration of Uthman, the third caliph.
    The Qur'an is divided into 114 suras, or chapters, which combined, contain 6,236 āyāt, or verses. The chronologically earlier suras, revealed at Mecca, are primarily concerned with ethical and spiritual topics. The later Medinan suras mostly discuss social and moral issues relevant to the Muslim community.[36] The Qur'an is more concerned with moral guidance than legal instruction, and is considered the "sourcebook of Islamic principles and values".[37] Muslim jurists consult the hadith, or the written record of Prophet Muhammad's life, to both supplement the Qur'an and assist with its interpretation. The science of Qur'anic commentary and exegesis is known as tafsir.[38]
    When Muslims speak in the abstract about "the Qur'an", they usually mean the scripture as recited in Arabic rather than the printed work or any translation of it. To Muslims, the Qur'an is perfect only as revealed in the original Arabic; translations are necessarily deficient because of language differences, the fallibility of translators, and the impossibility of preserving the original's inspired style. Translations are therefore regarded only as commentaries on the Qur'an, or "interpretations of its meaning", not as the Qur'an itself.[39]
    [h=3]Prophets[/h]
    Hadith collections


    Six major collections Sahih al-Bukhari
    Sahih Muslim
    al-Sunan al-Sughra
    Sunan Abi Dawood
    Sunan al-Tirmidhi
    Sunan Ibn Maja

    Other Sunni collections
    Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal
    Sahih Ibn Khuzaymah
    Sahih Ibn Hibbaan
    Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain
    Mawdu'at al-Kubra
    Riyadh as-Saaliheen
    Mishkat al-Masabih
    Talkhis al-Mustadrak
    Majma al-Zawa'id
    Bulugh al-Maram
    Kanz al-Ummal
    Zujajat al-Masabih
    Minhaj us Sawi
    The Four Books Kitab al-Kafi
    Man la yahduruhu al-Faqih
    Tahdhib al-Ahkam
    al-Istibsar

    Other Shi'a collections
    Nahj al-Balagha
    The book of Sulaym ibn Qays
    Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya
    Wasael ush-Shia
    Bihar al-Anwar
    Haqq al-Yaqeen
    Ain Al-Hayat
    Sharh Usul al-Kafi
    al-Jami' as-Sahih
    Tartib al-Musnad
    Nahj with comments
    This box: view · talk · edit
    Main article: Prophets of Islam
    Muslims identify the prophets of Islam (Arabic: نبي‎) as those humans chosen by God to be His messengers. According to the Qur'an [40] the descendants of Abraham and Imran were chosen by God to bring the "Will of God" to the peoples of the nations. Muslims believe that prophets are human and not divine, though some are able to perform miracles to prove their claim. Islamic theology says that all of God's messengers preached the message of Islam-submission to the Will of God. The Qur'an mentions the names of numerous figures considered prophets in Islam, including Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses and Jesus, among others.[41] Muslims believe that God finally sent Muhammad (Seal of the Prophets) to convey the divine message to the whole world (to sum up and to finalize the word of God). In Islam, the "normative" example of Muhammad's life is called the Sunnah (literally "trodden path"). This example is preserved in traditions known as hadith ("reports"), which recount his words, his actions, and his personal characteristics. The classical Muslim jurist ash-Shafi'i (d. 820) emphasized the importance of the Sunnah in Islamic law, and Muslims are encouraged to emulate Muhammad's actions in their daily lives. The Sunnah is seen as crucial to guiding interpretation of the Qur'an. Six of these collections, compiled in the 3rd century AH (9th century CE), came to be regarded as especially authoritative by the largest group in Islām, the Sunnites. Another large group, the Shīʾah, has its own Ḥadīth contained in four canonical collections.[7]
    [h=3]Resurrection and judgment[/h]Main article: Qiyama
    Belief in the "Day of Resurrection", Qiyamah (also known as yawm ad-dīn, "Day of Judgment" and as-sā`a, "the Last Hour") is also crucial for Muslims. They believe that the time of Qiyāmah is preordained by God but unknown to man. The trials and tribulations preceding and during the Qiyāmah are described in the Qur'an and the hadith, and also in the commentaries of scholars. The Qur'an emphasizes bodily resurrection, a break from the pre-Islamic Arabian understanding of death.[42]
    The Qur'an lists several sins that can condemn a person to hell, such as disbelief, riba, and dishonesty. Muslims view heaven as a place of joy and bliss, with Qur'anic references describing its features and the physical pleasures to come. There are also references to ridwān.[43] Mystical traditions in Islam place these heavenly delights in the context of an ecstatic awareness of God.[44]
    [h=3]Predestination[/h]Main article: Predestination in Islam
    In accordance with the Islamic belief in predestination, or divine preordainment (al-qadā wa'l-qadar), God has full knowledge and control over all that occurs. This is explained in Qur'anic verses such as "Say: 'Nothing will happen to us except what Allah has decreed for us: He is our protector'..."[45] For Muslims, everything in the world that occurs, good or evil, has been preordained and nothing can happen unless permitted by God. According to Muslim theologians, although events are pre-ordained, man possesses free will in that he has the faculty to choose between right and wrong, and is thus responsible for his actions. According to Islamic tradition, all that has been decreed by God is written in al-Lawh al-Mahfūz, the "Preserved Tablet".[46]
    [h=2]Five pillars[/h]Main article: Five Pillars of Islam
    The Pillars of Islam (arkan al-Islam; also arkan ad-din, "pillars of religion") are five basic acts in Islam, considered obligatory for all believers. The Quran presents them as a framework for worship and a sign of commitment to the faith. They are (1) the shahadah (creed), (2) daily prayers (salat), (3) almsgiving (zakah), (4) fasting during Ramadan and (5) the pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj) at least once in a lifetime. The Shia and Sunni sects both agree on the essential details for the performance of these acts.[47]
    [h=3]Testimony[/h]Main article: Shahadah
    The Shahadah,[48] which is the basic creed of Islam that must be recited under oath with the specific statement: "'ašhadu 'al-lā ilāha illā-llāhu wa 'ašhadu 'anna muħammadan rasūlu-llāh", or "I testify that there is none worthy of worship except God and I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of God." This testament is a foundation for all other beliefs and practices in Islam. Muslims must repeat the shahadah in prayer, and non-Muslims wishing to convert to Islam are required to recite the creed.[49]
    [h=3]Prayer[/h]Main article: Salah
    See also: Mosque

    Muslims praying


    Ritual prayers, called Ṣalāh or Ṣalāt (Arabic: صلاة), must be performed five times a day. Salah is intended to focus the mind on God, and is seen as a personal communication with him that expresses gratitude and worship. Salah is compulsory but flexibility in the specifics is allowed depending on circumstances. The prayers are recited in the Arabic language, and consist of verses from the Qur'an.[50]
    A mosque is a place of worship for Muslims, who often refer to it by its Arabic name, masjid. The word mosque in English refers to all types of buildings dedicated to Islamic worship, although there is a distinction in Arabic between the smaller, privately owned mosque and the larger, "collective" mosque (masjid jāmi`).[51] Although the primary purpose of the mosque is to serve as a place of prayer, it is also important to the Muslim community as a place to meet and study. Modern mosques have evolved greatly from the early designs of the 7th century, and contain a variety of architectural elements such as minarets.[52]
    [h=3]Fasting[/h]Main article: Sawm
    Further information: Sawm of Ramadan
    Fasting, called "Sawm" (Arabic: صوم‎), from food and drink (among other things) must be performed from dawn to dusk during the month of Ramadhan. The fast is to encourage a feeling of nearness to God, and during it Muslims should express their gratitude for and dependence on him, atone for their past sins, and think of the needy. Sawm is not obligatory for several groups for whom it would constitute an undue burden. For others, flexibility is allowed depending on circumstances, but missed fasts usually must be made up quickly.[53]
    [h=3]Alms-giving[/h]Main articles: Zakat and Sadaqah
    "Zakāt" (Arabic: زكاة‎) is giving a fixed portion of accumulated wealth by those who can afford it to help the poor or needy, and also to assist the spread of Islam. It is considered a religious obligation (as opposed to voluntary charity) that the well-off owe to the needy because their wealth is seen as a "trust from God's bounty". The Qur'an and the hadith also suggest a Muslim give even more as an act of voluntary alms-giving (sadaqah).[54]




    The Kaaba during Hajj


    [h=3]Pilgrimage[/h]Main article: Hajj
    The pilgrimage, called the Hajj (Arabic: حج‎ Ḥajj) during the Islamic month of Dhu al-Hijjah in the city of Mecca. Every able-bodied Muslim who can afford it must make the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in his or her lifetime. Rituals of the Hajj include walking seven times around the Kaaba, touching the black stone if possible, walking or running seven times between Mount Safa and Mount Marwah, and symbolically stoning the Devil in Mina.[55]
    [h=2]Law and Jurisprudence[/h]Main articles: Sharia and Fiqh
    Part of a series on
    Economic[show]

    History
    Zakat
    Jizya · Nisab · Khums
    Sadaqah (Waqf)
    Bayt al-mal
    Banking
    Riba · Murabaha
    Takaful · Sukuk
    Inheritance
    Political[show]

    Political aspects of Islam
    Islamic leadership
    Caliphate · Imamah
    Wilayat al-faqih
    Bay'ah · Dhimmi

    Marital[show]

    Intentions · Contract
    Rights and obligations
    Mahr
    Nikah
    Misyar · Halala · Urfi
    Khula · Nikah Mut‘ah
    Polygyny · Talaq · Iddah
    Ma malakat aymanukum
    Adoption
    Sexual[show]

    Techniques
    Masturbation
    Hygiene
    Extramarital sex
    (Haram zada)
    Criminal[show]

    Hudud
    Blasphemy
    Maisir (gambling)
    Zina (extramarital sex)
    Hirabah (unlawful warfare)
    Fasad (mischief)
    Rajm (stoning)
    Tazir (discretionary)
    Qisas (retribution)
    Diyya (compensation)
    Etiquette[show]

    Adab
    Sex segregation
    Mahram
    Honorifics
    Toilet

    Theological[show]

    Baligh
    Salat
    Raka'ah · Qibla · Turbah
    Sunnah salat
    (Tahajjud • Tarawih)
    Nafl salat
    Sawm
    Hajj
    Ihram (Clothing • Mut'ah)
    Tawaf
    Umrah (with Hajj)
    Hygiene[show]

    Sexual · Toilet
    Taharah · Ihram
    Wudu · Masah
    Ghusl · Tayammum
    Miswak · Najis
    Dietary
    Dhabihah
    Alcohol · Pork
    Compared with kashrut
    Military[show]

    Defensive jihad
    Offensive jihad
    Hudna
    Istijarah (asylum)
    Ma malakat aymanukum
    Prisoners of war

    Islamic studies
    v · d · e
    The Sharia (literally "the path leading to the watering place") is Islamic law formed by traditional Islamic scholarship, which most Muslim groups adhere to. In Islam, Sharia is the expression of the divine will, and "constitutes a system of duties that are incumbent upon a Muslim by virtue of his religious belief".[56]
    Islamic law covers all aspects of life, from matters of state, like governance and foreign relations, to issues of daily living. The Qur'an defines hudud as the punishments for five specific crimes: unlawful intercourse, false accusation of unlawful intercourse, consumption of alcohol, theft, and highway robbery. The Qur'an and Sunnah also contain laws of inheritance, marriage, and restitution for injuries and murder, as well as rules for fasting, charity, and prayer. However, these prescriptions and prohibitions may be broad, so their application in practice varies. Islamic scholars (known as ulema) have elaborated systems of law on the basis of these rules and their interpretations.[57] Over the years there have been changing views on Islamic law but many such as Zahiri and Jariri[clarification needed] have since died out.[58][59]
    Fiqh, or "jurisprudence", is defined as the knowledge of the practical rules of the religion. The method Islamic jurists use to derive rulings is known as usul al-fiqh ("legal theory", or "principles of jurisprudence"). According to Islamic legal theory, law has four fundamental roots, which are given precedence in this order: the Qur'an, the Sunnah (actions and sayings of Muhammad), the consensus of the Muslim jurists (ijma), and analogical reasoning (qiyas). For early Islamic jurists, theory was less important than pragmatic application of the law. In the 9th century, the jurist ash-Shafi'i provided a theoretical basis for Islamic law by codifying the principles of jurisprudence (including the four fundamental roots) in his book ar-Risālah.[60]
    [h=3]Jurists[/h]Main articles: Ulama, Sheikh, and Imam

    Ottoman miniature painters


    There are many terms in Islam to refer to religiously sanctioned positions of Islam, but "jurist" generally refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. In a broader sense, the term ulema is used to describe the body of Muslim clergy who have completed several years of training and study of Islamic sciences, such as a mufti, qadi, faqih, or muhaddith. Some Muslims include under this term the village mullahs, imams, and maulvis-who have attained only the lowest rungs on the ladder of Islamic scholarship; other Muslims would say that clerics must meet higher standards to be considered ulema. Some Muslims practise ijtihad whereby they do not accept the authority of clergy.[61]

    Islam (Arabic: الإسلام‎ al-'islām, pronounced [ʔɪsˈlæːm] ( listen)[note 1]) is the monotheistic religion articulated by the Qur'an, a text considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God (Arabic: الله‎, Allah), and by the teachings and normative example (called the Sunnah and composed of Hadith) of Muhammad, considered by them to be the last prophet of God. An adherent of Islam is called a Muslim.
    Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable.[1] Muslims also believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith that was revealed at many times and places before, including through Abraham, Moses and Jesus, whom they consider prophets .[2] Muslims maintain that previous messages and revelations have been partially changed or corrupted over time,[3] but consider the Qur'an to be both the unaltered and the final revelation of God (the Final Testament, following the Old and New Testaments).[4] Religious concepts and practices include the five pillars of Islam, which are basic concepts and obligatory acts of worship, and following Islamic law, which touches on virtually every aspect of life and society, providing guidance on multifarious topics from banking, politics, and welfare, to warfare and the environment.[5][6]
    Most Muslims belong to one of two denominations; with 80-90% being Sunni and 10-20% being Shia.[7][8][9] About 13% of Muslims live in Indonesia, the largest Muslim country,[10] 25% in South Asia,[10] 20% in the Middle East,[11] 2% in Central Asia, 4% in the remaining South East Asian countries, and 15% in Sub-saharan Africa.[12] Sizable communities are also found in China and Russia, and parts of Europe. Converts and immigrant communities are found in almost every part of the world (see Islam by country). With about 1.41-1.57 billion Muslims, comprising about 21-23% of the world's population,[12][13] Islam is the second-largest religion and one of the fastest-growing religions in the world.[14][15]
    [h=2]Contents[/h][hide]
    1 Etymology and meaning
    2 Articles of faith
    2.1 God
    2.2 Angels
    2.3 Revelations
    2.4 Prophets
    2.5 Resurrection and judgment
    2.6 Predestination
    3 Five pillars
    3.1 Testimony
    3.2 Prayer
    3.3 Fasting
    3.4 Alms-giving
    3.5 Pilgrimage
    4 Law and Jurisprudence
    4.1 Jurists
    4.2 Etiquette and diet
    4.3 Family life
    4.4 Government
    4.5 Military
    5 History
    5.1 Muhammad (610–632)
    5.2 Rise of the caliphate and civil war (632–750)
    5.3 Golden Age (750–1258)
    5.4 Fragmentation and invasions
    5.5 New dynasties and colonialism (1030–1918)
    5.6 Modern times (1918–present)
    6 Denominations
    6.1 Sunni
    6.2 Shia
    6.3 Sufism
    6.4 Minor denominations
    7 Demographics
    8 Culture
    8.1 Architecture
    8.2 Art
    8.3 Calendar
    9 See also
    10 References
    10.1 Citations
    10.2 Footnotes
    10.3 Books and journals
    10.3.1 Encyclopedias
    11 Further reading
    12 External links
    [h=2]Etymology and meaning[/h]Islam is a verbal noun originating from the triliteral root s-l-m which forms a large class of words mostly relating to concepts of wholeness, completion and bonding/joining.[16] In a religious context it means "voluntary submission to God".[17][18] Muslim, the word for an adherent of Islam, is the active participle of the same verb of which Islām is the infinitive. Believers demonstrate submission to God by worshipping Him, following His commands, and avoiding polytheism. The word sometimes has distinct connotations in its various occurrences in the Qur'an. In some verses (ayat), there is stress on the quality of Islam as an internal conviction: "Whomsoever God desires to guide, He expands his breast to Islam."[19] Other verses connect islām and dīn (usually translated as "religion"): "Today, I have perfected your religion (dīn) for you; I have completed My blessing upon you; I have approved Islam for your religion."[20] Still others describe Islam as an action of returning to God-more than just a verbal affirmation of faith.[21] Another technical meaning in Islamic thought is as one part of a triad of islam, imān (faith), and ihsān (excellence) where it represents acts of worship (`ibādah) and Islamic law (sharia).[22]
    [h=2]Articles of faith[/h]Main articles: Aqidah and Iman
    [h=3]God[/h]Main article: God in Islam

    Allah means God in Arabic


    Islam's fundamental concept is a rigorous monotheism, called tawhīd. God is described in chapter 112 of the Qur'an as:[23] "Say: He is God, the One and Only; God, the Eternal, Absolute; He begetteth not, nor is He begotten; And there is none like unto Him." (112:1-4) Muslims repudiate the Christian doctrine of the Trinity and divinity of Jesus, comparing it to polytheism, but accept Jesus as a prophet. In Islam, God is beyond all comprehension and Muslims are not expected to visualize God. God is described and referred to by certain names or attributes, the most common being Al-Rahman, meaning "The Compassionate" and Al-Rahim, meaning "The Merciful" (See Names of God in Islam).[24]
    Muslims believe that the purpose of existence is to worship God.[25] He is viewed as a personal God who states "We are nearer to him than (his) jugular vein"[26] and responds whenever a person in need or distress calls Him.[7][27] There are no intermediaries, such as clergy, between God and the creation that he brought into being by the sheer command "‘Be' and it is."[7][28]
    Allāh is the term with no plural or gender used by Muslims to refer to the one God, while ʾilāh is the term used for a deity or a god in general.[29] Other non-Arab Muslims might use different names as much as Allah, for instance "Tanrı" in Turkish or "Khodā" in Persian.
    [h=3]Angels[/h]Main article: Islamic view of angels
    Belief in angels is fundamental to the faith of Islam. The Arabic word for angel (malak) means "messenger", like its counterparts in Hebrew (malakh) and Greek (angelos). According to the Qur'an, angels do not possess free will, and worship God in total obedience.[30] Angels' duties include communicating revelations from God, glorifying God, recording every person's actions, and taking a person's soul at the time of death. They are also thought to intercede on man's behalf. The Qur'an describes angels as "messengers with wings-two, or three, or four (pairs): He [God] adds to Creation as He pleases..."[31]
    [h=3]Revelations[/h]Main articles: Islamic holy books and Qur'an
    See also: History of the Qur'an

    The first sura in a Qur'anic manuscript by Hattat Aziz Efendi


    The Islamic holy books are the records which most Muslims believe were dictated by God to various prophets. Muslims believe that parts of the previously revealed scriptures, the Tawrat (Torah) and the Injil (Gospels), had become distorted-either in interpretation, in text, or both.[3] The Qur'an (literally, "Reading" or "Recitation") is viewed by Muslims as the final revelation and literal Word of God and is widely regarded as the finest piece of literature work in the Arabic language.[32][33][34] Muslims believe that the verses of the Qur'an were revealed to Muhammad by God through the archangel Gabriel (Jibrīl). On many occasions between 610 and his death on June 8, 632.[35] The Qur'an was reportedly written down by Muhammad's companions (sahabah) while he was alive, although the prime method of transmission was orally. It was compiled in the time of Abu Bakr, the first caliph, and was standardized under the administration of Uthman, the third caliph.
    The Qur'an is divided into 114 suras, or chapters, which combined, contain 6,236 āyāt, or verses. The chronologically earlier suras, revealed at Mecca, are primarily concerned with ethical and spiritual topics. The later Medinan suras mostly discuss social and moral issues relevant to the Muslim community.[36] The Qur'an is more concerned with moral guidance than legal instruction, and is considered the "sourcebook of Islamic principles and values".[37] Muslim jurists consult the hadith, or the written record of Prophet Muhammad's life, to both supplement the Qur'an and assist with its interpretation. The science of Qur'anic commentary and exegesis is known as tafsir.[38]
    When Muslims speak in the abstract about "the Qur'an", they usually mean the scripture as recited in Arabic rather than the printed work or any translation of it. To Muslims, the Qur'an is perfect only as revealed in the original Arabic; translations are necessarily deficient because of language differences, the fallibility of translators, and the impossibility of preserving the original's inspired style. Translations are therefore regarded only as commentaries on the Qur'an, or "interpretations of its meaning", not as the Qur'an itself.[39]
    [h=3]Prophets[/h]
    Hadith collections


    Six major collections Sahih al-Bukhari
    Sahih Muslim
    al-Sunan al-Sughra
    Sunan Abi Dawood
    Sunan al-Tirmidhi
    Sunan Ibn Maja

    Other Sunni collections
    Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal
    Sahih Ibn Khuzaymah
    Sahih Ibn Hibbaan
    Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain
    Mawdu'at al-Kubra
    Riyadh as-Saaliheen
    Mishkat al-Masabih
    Talkhis al-Mustadrak
    Majma al-Zawa'id
    Bulugh al-Maram
    Kanz al-Ummal
    Zujajat al-Masabih
    Minhaj us Sawi
    The Four Books Kitab al-Kafi
    Man la yahduruhu al-Faqih
    Tahdhib al-Ahkam
    al-Istibsar

    Other Shi'a collections
    Nahj al-Balagha
    The book of Sulaym ibn Qays
    Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya
    Wasael ush-Shia
    Bihar al-Anwar
    Haqq al-Yaqeen
    Ain Al-Hayat
    Sharh Usul al-Kafi
    al-Jami' as-Sahih
    Tartib al-Musnad
    Nahj with comments
    This box: view · talk · edit
    Main article: Prophets of Islam
    Muslims identify the prophets of Islam (Arabic: نبي‎) as those humans chosen by God to be His messengers. According to the Qur'an [40] the descendants of Abraham and Imran were chosen by God to bring the "Will of God" to the peoples of the nations. Muslims believe that prophets are human and not divine, though some are able to perform miracles to prove their claim. Islamic theology says that all of God's messengers preached the message of Islam-submission to the Will of God. The Qur'an mentions the names of numerous figures considered prophets in Islam, including Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses and Jesus, among others.[41] Muslims believe that God finally sent Muhammad (Seal of the Prophets) to convey the divine message to the whole world (to sum up and to finalize the word of God). In Islam, the "normative" example of Muhammad's life is called the Sunnah (literally "trodden path"). This example is preserved in traditions known as hadith ("reports"), which recount his words, his actions, and his personal characteristics. The classical Muslim jurist ash-Shafi'i (d. 820) emphasized the importance of the Sunnah in Islamic law, and Muslims are encouraged to emulate Muhammad's actions in their daily lives. The Sunnah is seen as crucial to guiding interpretation of the Qur'an. Six of these collections, compiled in the 3rd century AH (9th century CE), came to be regarded as especially authoritative by the largest group in Islām, the Sunnites. Another large group, the Shīʾah, has its own Ḥadīth contained in four canonical collections.[7]
    [h=3]Resurrection and judgment[/h]Main article: Qiyama
    Belief in the "Day of Resurrection", Qiyamah (also known as yawm ad-dīn, "Day of Judgment" and as-sā`a, "the Last Hour") is also crucial for Muslims. They believe that the time of Qiyāmah is preordained by God but unknown to man. The trials and tribulations preceding and during the Qiyāmah are described in the Qur'an and the hadith, and also in the commentaries of scholars. The Qur'an emphasizes bodily resurrection, a break from the pre-Islamic Arabian understanding of death.[42]
    The Qur'an lists several sins that can condemn a person to hell, such as disbelief, riba, and dishonesty. Muslims view heaven as a place of joy and bliss, with Qur'anic references describing its features and the physical pleasures to come. There are also references to ridwān.[43] Mystical traditions in Islam place these heavenly delights in the context of an ecstatic awareness of God.[44]
    [h=3]Predestination[/h]Main article: Predestination in Islam
    In accordance with the Islamic belief in predestination, or divine preordainment (al-qadā wa'l-qadar), God has full knowledge and control over all that occurs. This is explained in Qur'anic verses such as "Say: 'Nothing will happen to us except what Allah has decreed for us: He is our protector'..."[45] For Muslims, everything in the world that occurs, good or evil, has been preordained and nothing can happen unless permitted by God. According to Muslim theologians, although events are pre-ordained, man possesses free will in that he has the faculty to choose between right and wrong, and is thus responsible for his actions. According to Islamic tradition, all that has been decreed by God is written in al-Lawh al-Mahfūz, the "Preserved Tablet".[46]
    [h=2]Five pillars[/h]Main article: Five Pillars of Islam
    The Pillars of Islam (arkan al-Islam; also arkan ad-din, "pillars of religion") are five basic acts in Islam, considered obligatory for all believers. The Quran presents them as a framework for worship and a sign of commitment to the faith. They are (1) the shahadah (creed), (2) daily prayers (salat), (3) almsgiving (zakah), (4) fasting during Ramadan and (5) the pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj) at least once in a lifetime. The Shia and Sunni sects both agree on the essential details for the performance of these acts.[47]
    [h=3]Testimony[/h]Main article: Shahadah
    The Shahadah,[48] which is the basic creed of Islam that must be recited under oath with the specific statement: "'ašhadu 'al-lā ilāha illā-llāhu wa 'ašhadu 'anna muħammadan rasūlu-llāh", or "I testify that there is none worthy of worship except God and I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of God." This testament is a foundation for all other beliefs and practices in Islam. Muslims must repeat the shahadah in prayer, and non-Muslims wishing to convert to Islam are required to recite the creed.[49]
    [h=3]Prayer[/h]Main article: Salah
    See also: Mosque

    Muslims praying


    Ritual prayers, called Ṣalāh or Ṣalāt (Arabic: صلاة), must be performed five times a day. Salah is intended to focus the mind on God, and is seen as a personal communication with him that expresses gratitude and worship. Salah is compulsory but flexibility in the specifics is allowed depending on circumstances. The prayers are recited in the Arabic language, and consist of verses from the Qur'an.[50]
    A mosque is a place of worship for Muslims, who often refer to it by its Arabic name, masjid. The word mosque in English refers to all types of buildings dedicated to Islamic worship, although there is a distinction in Arabic between the smaller, privately owned mosque and the larger, "collective" mosque (masjid jāmi`).[51] Although the primary purpose of the mosque is to serve as a place of prayer, it is also important to the Muslim community as a place to meet and study. Modern mosques have evolved greatly from the early designs of the 7th century, and contain a variety of architectural elements such as minarets.[52]
    [h=3]Fasting[/h]Main article: Sawm
    Further information: Sawm of Ramadan
    Fasting, called "Sawm" (Arabic: صوم‎), from food and drink (among other things) must be performed from dawn to dusk during the month of Ramadhan. The fast is to encourage a feeling of nearness to God, and during it Muslims should express their gratitude for and dependence on him, atone for their past sins, and think of the needy. Sawm is not obligatory for several groups for whom it would constitute an undue burden. For others, flexibility is allowed depending on circumstances, but missed fasts usually must be made up quickly.[53]
    [h=3]Alms-giving[/h]Main articles: Zakat and Sadaqah
    "Zakāt" (Arabic: زكاة‎) is giving a fixed portion of accumulated wealth by those who can afford it to help the poor or needy, and also to assist the spread of Islam. It is considered a religious obligation (as opposed to voluntary charity) that the well-off owe to the needy because their wealth is seen as a "trust from God's bounty". The Qur'an and the hadith also suggest a Muslim give even more as an act of voluntary alms-giving (sadaqah).[54]




    The Kaaba during Hajj


    [h=3]Pilgrimage[/h]Main article: Hajj
    The pilgrimage, called the Hajj (Arabic: حج‎ Ḥajj) during the Islamic month of Dhu al-Hijjah in the city of Mecca. Every able-bodied Muslim who can afford it must make the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in his or her lifetime. Rituals of the Hajj include walking seven times around the Kaaba, touching the black stone if possible, walking or running seven times between Mount Safa and Mount Marwah, and symbolically stoning the Devil in Mina.[55]
    [h=2]Law and Jurisprudence[/h]Main articles: Sharia and Fiqh
    Part of a series on
    Economic[show]

    History
    Zakat
    Jizya · Nisab · Khums
    Sadaqah (Waqf)
    Bayt al-mal
    Banking
    Riba · Murabaha
    Takaful · Sukuk
    Inheritance
    Political[show]

    Political aspects of Islam
    Islamic leadership
    Caliphate · Imamah
    Wilayat al-faqih
    Bay'ah · Dhimmi

    Marital[show]

    Intentions · Contract
    Rights and obligations
    Mahr
    Nikah
    Misyar · Halala · Urfi
    Khula · Nikah Mut‘ah
    Polygyny · Talaq · Iddah
    Ma malakat aymanukum
    Adoption
    Sexual[show]

    Techniques
    Masturbation
    Hygiene
    Extramarital sex
    (Haram zada)
    Criminal[show]

    Hudud
    Blasphemy
    Maisir (gambling)
    Zina (extramarital sex)
    Hirabah (unlawful warfare)
    Fasad (mischief)
    Rajm (stoning)
    Tazir (discretionary)
    Qisas (retribution)
    Diyya (compensation)
    Etiquette[show]

    Adab
    Sex segregation
    Mahram
    Honorifics
    Toilet

    Theological[show]

    Baligh
    Salat
    Raka'ah · Qibla · Turbah
    Sunnah salat
    (Tahajjud • Tarawih)
    Nafl salat
    Sawm
    Hajj
    Ihram (Clothing • Mut'ah)
    Tawaf
    Umrah (with Hajj)
    Hygiene[show]

    Sexual · Toilet
    Taharah · Ihram
    Wudu · Masah
    Ghusl · Tayammum
    Miswak · Najis
    Dietary
    Dhabihah
    Alcohol · Pork
    Compared with kashrut
    Military[show]

    Defensive jihad
    Offensive jihad
    Hudna
    Istijarah (asylum)
    Ma malakat aymanukum
    Prisoners of war

    Islamic studies
    v · d · e
    The Sharia (literally "the path leading to the watering place") is Islamic law formed by traditional Islamic scholarship, which most Muslim groups adhere to. In Islam, Sharia is the expression of the divine will, and "constitutes a system of duties that are incumbent upon a Muslim by virtue of his religious belief".[56]
    Islamic law covers all aspects of life, from matters of state, like governance and foreign relations, to issues of daily living. The Qur'an defines hudud as the punishments for five specific crimes: unlawful intercourse, false accusation of unlawful intercourse, consumption of alcohol, theft, and highway robbery. The Qur'an and Sunnah also contain laws of inheritance, marriage, and restitution for injuries and murder, as well as rules for fasting, charity, and prayer. However, these prescriptions and prohibitions may be broad, so their application in practice varies. Islamic scholars (known as ulema) have elaborated systems of law on the basis of these rules and their interpretations.[57] Over the years there have been changing views on Islamic law but many such as Zahiri and Jariri[clarification needed] have since died out.[58][59]
    Fiqh, or "jurisprudence", is defined as the knowledge of the practical rules of the religion. The method Islamic jurists use to derive rulings is known as usul al-fiqh ("legal theory", or "principles of jurisprudence"). According to Islamic legal theory, law has four fundamental roots, which are given precedence in this order: the Qur'an, the Sunnah (actions and sayings of Muhammad), the consensus of the Muslim jurists (ijma), and analogical reasoning (qiyas). For early Islamic jurists, theory was less important than pragmatic application of the law. In the 9th century, the jurist ash-Shafi'i provided a theoretical basis for Islamic law by codifying the principles of jurisprudence (including the four fundamental roots) in his book ar-Risālah.[60]
    [h=3]Jurists[/h]Main articles: Ulama, Sheikh, and Imam

    Ottoman miniature painters


    There are many terms in Islam to refer to religiously sanctioned positions of Islam, but "jurist" generally refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. In a broader sense, the term ulema is used to describe the body of Muslim clergy who have completed several years of training and study of Islamic sciences, such as a mufti, qadi, faqih, or muhaddith. Some Muslims include under this term the village mullahs, imams, and maulvis-who have attained only the lowest rungs on the ladder of Islamic scholarship; other Muslims would say that clerics must meet higher standards to be considered ulema. Some Muslims practise ijtihad whereby they do not accept the authority of clergy.[61]
     
  5. MaxShimba

    MaxShimba JF-Expert Member

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    Islam (Arabic: الإسلام‎ al-’islām, pronounced [ʔɪsˈlæːm] ( listen)[note 1]) is the monotheistic religion articulated by the Qur’an, a text considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God (Arabic: الله‎, Allah), and by the teachings and normative example (called the Sunnah and composed of Hadith) of Muhammad, considered by them to be the last prophet of God. An adherent of Islam is called a Muslim.
    Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable.[1] Muslims also believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith that was revealed at many times and places before, including through Abraham, Moses and Jesus, whom they consider prophets .[2] Muslims maintain that previous messages and revelations have been partially changed or corrupted over time,[3] but consider the Qur'an to be both the unaltered and the final revelation of God (the Final Testament, following the Old and New Testaments).[4] Religious concepts and practices include the five pillars of Islam, which are basic concepts and obligatory acts of worship, and following Islamic law, which touches on virtually every aspect of life and society, providing guidance on multifarious topics from banking, politics, and welfare, to warfare and the environment.[5][6]
    Most Muslims belong to one of two denominations; with 80-90% being Sunni and 10-20% being Shia.[7][8][9] About 13% of Muslims live in Indonesia, the largest Muslim country,[10] 25% in South Asia,[10] 20% in the Middle East,[11] 2% in Central Asia, 4% in the remaining South East Asian countries, and 15% in Sub-saharan Africa.[12] Sizable communities are also found in China and Russia, and parts of Europe. Converts and immigrant communities are found in almost every part of the world (see Islam by country). With about 1.41-1.57 billion Muslims, comprising about 21-23% of the world's population,[12][13] Islam is the second-largest religion and one of the fastest-growing religions in the world.[14][15]
    [h=2]Contents[/h][hide]
    1 Etymology and meaning
    2 Articles of faith
    2.1 God
    2.2 Angels
    2.3 Revelations
    2.4 Prophets
    2.5 Resurrection and judgment
    2.6 Predestination
    3 Five pillars
    3.1 Testimony
    3.2 Prayer
    3.3 Fasting
    3.4 Alms-giving
    3.5 Pilgrimage
    4 Law and Jurisprudence
    4.1 Jurists
    4.2 Etiquette and diet
    4.3 Family life
    4.4 Government
    4.5 Military
    5 History
    5.1 Muhammad (610–632)
    5.2 Rise of the caliphate and civil war (632–750)
    5.3 Golden Age (750–1258)
    5.4 Fragmentation and invasions
    5.5 New dynasties and colonialism (1030–1918)
    5.6 Modern times (1918–present)
    6 Denominations
    6.1 Sunni
    6.2 Shia
    6.3 Sufism
    6.4 Minor denominations
    7 Demographics
    8 Culture
    8.1 Architecture
    8.2 Art
    8.3 Calendar
    9 See also
    10 References
    10.1 Citations
    10.2 Footnotes
    10.3 Books and journals
    10.3.1 Encyclopedias
    11 Further reading
    12 External links
    [h=2]Etymology and meaning[/h]Islam is a verbal noun originating from the triliteral root s-l-m which forms a large class of words mostly relating to concepts of wholeness, completion and bonding/joining.[16] In a religious context it means "voluntary submission to God".[17][18] Muslim, the word for an adherent of Islam, is the active participle of the same verb of which Islām is the infinitive. Believers demonstrate submission to God by worshipping Him, following His commands, and avoiding polytheism. The word sometimes has distinct connotations in its various occurrences in the Qur'an. In some verses (ayat), there is stress on the quality of Islam as an internal conviction: "Whomsoever God desires to guide, He expands his breast to Islam."[19] Other verses connect islām and dīn (usually translated as "religion"): "Today, I have perfected your religion (dīn) for you; I have completed My blessing upon you; I have approved Islam for your religion."[20] Still others describe Islam as an action of returning to God—more than just a verbal affirmation of faith.[21] Another technical meaning in Islamic thought is as one part of a triad of islam, imān (faith), and ihsān (excellence) where it represents acts of worship (`ibādah) and Islamic law (sharia).[22]
    [h=2]Articles of faith[/h]Main articles: Aqidah and Iman
    [h=3]God[/h]Main article: God in Islam

    Allah means God in Arabic


    Islam's fundamental concept is a rigorous monotheism, called tawhīd. God is described in chapter 112 of the Qur'an as:[23] "Say: He is God, the One and Only; God, the Eternal, Absolute; He begetteth not, nor is He begotten; And there is none like unto Him." (112:1-4) Muslims repudiate the Christian doctrine of the Trinity and divinity of Jesus, comparing it to polytheism, but accept Jesus as a prophet. In Islam, God is beyond all comprehension and Muslims are not expected to visualize God. God is described and referred to by certain names or attributes, the most common being Al-Rahman, meaning "The Compassionate" and Al-Rahim, meaning "The Merciful" (See Names of God in Islam).[24]
    Muslims believe that the purpose of existence is to worship God.[25] He is viewed as a personal God who states “We are nearer to him than (his) jugular vein”[26] and responds whenever a person in need or distress calls Him.[7][27] There are no intermediaries, such as clergy, between God and the creation that he brought into being by the sheer command “‘Be’ and it is.”[7][28]
    Allāh is the term with no plural or gender used by Muslims to refer to the one God, while ʾilāh is the term used for a deity or a god in general.[29] Other non-Arab Muslims might use different names as much as Allah, for instance "Tanrı" in Turkish or "Khodā" in Persian.
    [h=3]Angels[/h]Main article: Islamic view of angels
    Belief in angels is fundamental to the faith of Islam. The Arabic word for angel (malak) means "messenger", like its counterparts in Hebrew (malakh) and Greek (angelos). According to the Qur'an, angels do not possess free will, and worship God in total obedience.[30] Angels' duties include communicating revelations from God, glorifying God, recording every person's actions, and taking a person's soul at the time of death. They are also thought to intercede on man's behalf. The Qur'an describes angels as "messengers with wings—two, or three, or four (pairs): He [God] adds to Creation as He pleases..."[31]
    [h=3]Revelations[/h]Main articles: Islamic holy books and Qur'an
    See also: History of the Qur'an

    The first sura in a Qur'anic manuscript by Hattat Aziz Efendi


    The Islamic holy books are the records which most Muslims believe were dictated by God to various prophets. Muslims believe that parts of the previously revealed scriptures, the Tawrat (Torah) and the Injil (Gospels), had become distorted—either in interpretation, in text, or both.[3] The Qur'an (literally, “Reading” or “Recitation”) is viewed by Muslims as the final revelation and literal Word of God and is widely regarded as the finest piece of literature work in the Arabic language.[32][33][34] Muslims believe that the verses of the Qur'an were revealed to Muhammad by God through the archangel Gabriel (Jibrīl). On many occasions between 610 and his death on June 8, 632.[35] The Qur'an was reportedly written down by Muhammad's companions (sahabah) while he was alive, although the prime method of transmission was orally. It was compiled in the time of Abu Bakr, the first caliph, and was standardized under the administration of Uthman, the third caliph.
    The Qur'an is divided into 114 suras, or chapters, which combined, contain 6,236 āyāt, or verses. The chronologically earlier suras, revealed at Mecca, are primarily concerned with ethical and spiritual topics. The later Medinan suras mostly discuss social and moral issues relevant to the Muslim community.[36] The Qur'an is more concerned with moral guidance than legal instruction, and is considered the "sourcebook of Islamic principles and values".[37] Muslim jurists consult the hadith, or the written record of Prophet Muhammad's life, to both supplement the Qur'an and assist with its interpretation. The science of Qur'anic commentary and exegesis is known as tafsir.[38]
    When Muslims speak in the abstract about "the Qur'an", they usually mean the scripture as recited in Arabic rather than the printed work or any translation of it. To Muslims, the Qur'an is perfect only as revealed in the original Arabic; translations are necessarily deficient because of language differences, the fallibility of translators, and the impossibility of preserving the original's inspired style. Translations are therefore regarded only as commentaries on the Qur'an, or "interpretations of its meaning", not as the Qur'an itself.[39]
    [h=3]Prophets[/h]
    Hadith collections


    Six major collections Sahih al-Bukhari
    Sahih Muslim
    al-Sunan al-Sughra
    Sunan Abi Dawood
    Sunan al-Tirmidhi
    Sunan Ibn Maja

    Other Sunni collections
    Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal
    Sahih Ibn Khuzaymah
    Sahih Ibn Hibbaan
    Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain
    Mawdu'at al-Kubra
    Riyadh as-Saaliheen
    Mishkat al-Masabih
    Talkhis al-Mustadrak
    Majma al-Zawa'id
    Bulugh al-Maram
    Kanz al-Ummal
    Zujajat al-Masabih
    Minhaj us Sawi
    The Four Books Kitab al-Kafi
    Man la yahduruhu al-Faqih
    Tahdhib al-Ahkam
    al-Istibsar

    Other Shi'a collections
    Nahj al-Balagha
    The book of Sulaym ibn Qays
    Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya
    Wasael ush-Shia
    Bihar al-Anwar
    Haqq al-Yaqeen
    Ain Al-Hayat
    Sharh Usul al-Kafi
    al-Jami' as-Sahih
    Tartib al-Musnad
    Nahj with comments
    This box: view · talk · edit
    Main article: Prophets of Islam
    Muslims identify the prophets of Islam (Arabic: نبي‎) as those humans chosen by God to be His messengers. According to the Qur'an [40] the descendants of Abraham and Imran were chosen by God to bring the "Will of God" to the peoples of the nations. Muslims believe that prophets are human and not divine, though some are able to perform miracles to prove their claim. Islamic theology says that all of God's messengers preached the message of Islam—submission to the Will of God. The Qur'an mentions the names of numerous figures considered prophets in Islam, including Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses and Jesus, among others.[41] Muslims believe that God finally sent Muhammad (Seal of the Prophets) to convey the divine message to the whole world (to sum up and to finalize the word of God). In Islam, the "normative" example of Muhammad's life is called the Sunnah (literally "trodden path"). This example is preserved in traditions known as hadith ("reports"), which recount his words, his actions, and his personal characteristics. The classical Muslim jurist ash-Shafi'i (d. 820) emphasized the importance of the Sunnah in Islamic law, and Muslims are encouraged to emulate Muhammad's actions in their daily lives. The Sunnah is seen as crucial to guiding interpretation of the Qur'an. Six of these collections, compiled in the 3rd century AH (9th century CE), came to be regarded as especially authoritative by the largest group in Islām, the Sunnites. Another large group, the Shīʾah, has its own Ḥadīth contained in four canonical collections.[7]
    [h=3]Resurrection and judgment[/h]Main article: Qiyama
    Belief in the "Day of Resurrection", Qiyamah (also known as yawm ad-dīn, "Day of Judgment" and as-sā`a, "the Last Hour") is also crucial for Muslims. They believe that the time of Qiyāmah is preordained by God but unknown to man. The trials and tribulations preceding and during the Qiyāmah are described in the Qur'an and the hadith, and also in the commentaries of scholars. The Qur'an emphasizes bodily resurrection, a break from the pre-Islamic Arabian understanding of death.[42]
    The Qur'an lists several sins that can condemn a person to hell, such as disbelief, riba, and dishonesty. Muslims view heaven as a place of joy and bliss, with Qur'anic references describing its features and the physical pleasures to come. There are also references to ridwān.[43] Mystical traditions in Islam place these heavenly delights in the context of an ecstatic awareness of God.[44]
    [h=3]Predestination[/h]Main article: Predestination in Islam
    In accordance with the Islamic belief in predestination, or divine preordainment (al-qadā wa'l-qadar), God has full knowledge and control over all that occurs. This is explained in Qur'anic verses such as "Say: 'Nothing will happen to us except what Allah has decreed for us: He is our protector'..."[45] For Muslims, everything in the world that occurs, good or evil, has been preordained and nothing can happen unless permitted by God. According to Muslim theologians, although events are pre-ordained, man possesses free will in that he has the faculty to choose between right and wrong, and is thus responsible for his actions. According to Islamic tradition, all that has been decreed by God is written in al-Lawh al-Mahfūz, the "Preserved Tablet".[46]
    [h=2]Five pillars[/h]Main article: Five Pillars of Islam
    The Pillars of Islam (arkan al-Islam; also arkan ad-din, "pillars of religion") are five basic acts in Islam, considered obligatory for all believers. The Quran presents them as a framework for worship and a sign of commitment to the faith. They are (1) the shahadah (creed), (2) daily prayers (salat), (3) almsgiving (zakah), (4) fasting during Ramadan and (5) the pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj) at least once in a lifetime. The Shia and Sunni sects both agree on the essential details for the performance of these acts.[47]
    [h=3]Testimony[/h]Main article: Shahadah
    The Shahadah,[48] which is the basic creed of Islam that must be recited under oath with the specific statement: "'ašhadu 'al-lā ilāha illā-llāhu wa 'ašhadu 'anna muħammadan rasūlu-llāh", or "I testify that there is none worthy of worship except God and I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of God." This testament is a foundation for all other beliefs and practices in Islam. Muslims must repeat the shahadah in prayer, and non-Muslims wishing to convert to Islam are required to recite the creed.[49]
    [h=3]Prayer[/h]Main article: Salah
    See also: Mosque

    Muslims praying


    Ritual prayers, called Ṣalāh or Ṣalāt (Arabic: صلاة), must be performed five times a day. Salah is intended to focus the mind on God, and is seen as a personal communication with him that expresses gratitude and worship. Salah is compulsory but flexibility in the specifics is allowed depending on circumstances. The prayers are recited in the Arabic language, and consist of verses from the Qur'an.[50]
    A mosque is a place of worship for Muslims, who often refer to it by its Arabic name, masjid. The word mosque in English refers to all types of buildings dedicated to Islamic worship, although there is a distinction in Arabic between the smaller, privately owned mosque and the larger, "collective" mosque (masjid jāmi`).[51] Although the primary purpose of the mosque is to serve as a place of prayer, it is also important to the Muslim community as a place to meet and study. Modern mosques have evolved greatly from the early designs of the 7th century, and contain a variety of architectural elements such as minarets.[52]
    [h=3]Fasting[/h]Main article: Sawm
    Further information: Sawm of Ramadan
    Fasting, called "Sawm" (Arabic: صوم‎), from food and drink (among other things) must be performed from dawn to dusk during the month of Ramadhan. The fast is to encourage a feeling of nearness to God, and during it Muslims should express their gratitude for and dependence on him, atone for their past sins, and think of the needy. Sawm is not obligatory for several groups for whom it would constitute an undue burden. For others, flexibility is allowed depending on circumstances, but missed fasts usually must be made up quickly.[53]
    [h=3]Alms-giving[/h]Main articles: Zakat and Sadaqah
    "Zakāt" (Arabic: زكاة‎) is giving a fixed portion of accumulated wealth by those who can afford it to help the poor or needy, and also to assist the spread of Islam. It is considered a religious obligation (as opposed to voluntary charity) that the well-off owe to the needy because their wealth is seen as a "trust from God's bounty". The Qur'an and the hadith also suggest a Muslim give even more as an act of voluntary alms-giving (sadaqah).[54]




    The Kaaba during Hajj


    [h=3]Pilgrimage[/h]Main article: Hajj
    The pilgrimage, called the Hajj (Arabic: حج‎ Ḥajj) during the Islamic month of Dhu al-Hijjah in the city of Mecca. Every able-bodied Muslim who can afford it must make the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in his or her lifetime. Rituals of the Hajj include walking seven times around the Kaaba, touching the black stone if possible, walking or running seven times between Mount Safa and Mount Marwah, and symbolically stoning the Devil in Mina.[55]
    [h=2]Law and Jurisprudence[/h]Main articles: Sharia and Fiqh
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    Islamic studies
    v · d · e
    The Sharia (literally "the path leading to the watering place") is Islamic law formed by traditional Islamic scholarship, which most Muslim groups adhere to. In Islam, Sharia is the expression of the divine will, and "constitutes a system of duties that are incumbent upon a Muslim by virtue of his religious belief".[56]
    Islamic law covers all aspects of life, from matters of state, like governance and foreign relations, to issues of daily living. The Qur'an defines hudud as the punishments for five specific crimes: unlawful intercourse, false accusation of unlawful intercourse, consumption of alcohol, theft, and highway robbery. The Qur'an and Sunnah also contain laws of inheritance, marriage, and restitution for injuries and murder, as well as rules for fasting, charity, and prayer. However, these prescriptions and prohibitions may be broad, so their application in practice varies. Islamic scholars (known as ulema) have elaborated systems of law on the basis of these rules and their interpretations.[57] Over the years there have been changing views on Islamic law but many such as Zahiri and Jariri[clarification needed] have since died out.[58][59]
    Fiqh, or "jurisprudence", is defined as the knowledge of the practical rules of the religion. The method Islamic jurists use to derive rulings is known as usul al-fiqh ("legal theory", or "principles of jurisprudence"). According to Islamic legal theory, law has four fundamental roots, which are given precedence in this order: the Qur'an, the Sunnah (actions and sayings of Muhammad), the consensus of the Muslim jurists (ijma), and analogical reasoning (qiyas). For early Islamic jurists, theory was less important than pragmatic application of the law. In the 9th century, the jurist ash-Shafi'i provided a theoretical basis for Islamic law by codifying the principles of jurisprudence (including the four fundamental roots) in his book ar-Risālah.[60]
    [h=3]Jurists[/h]Main articles: Ulama, Sheikh, and Imam

    Ottoman miniature painters


    There are many terms in Islam to refer to religiously sanctioned positions of Islam, but "jurist" generally refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. In a broader sense, the term ulema is used to describe the body of Muslim clergy who have completed several years of training and study of Islamic sciences, such as a mufti, qadi, faqih, or muhaddith. Some Muslims include under this term the village mullahs, imams, and maulvis—who have attained only the lowest rungs on the ladder of Islamic scholarship; other Muslims would say that clerics must meet higher standards to be considered ulema. Some Muslims practise ijtihad whereby they do not accept the authority of clergy.[61]

    Islam (Arabic: الإسلام‎ al-’islām, pronounced [ʔɪsˈlæːm] ( listen)[note 1]) is the monotheistic religion articulated by the Qur’an, a text considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God (Arabic: الله‎, Allah), and by the teachings and normative example (called the Sunnah and composed of Hadith) of Muhammad, considered by them to be the last prophet of God. An adherent of Islam is called a Muslim.
    Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable.[1] Muslims also believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith that was revealed at many times and places before, including through Abraham, Moses and Jesus, whom they consider prophets .[2] Muslims maintain that previous messages and revelations have been partially changed or corrupted over time,[3] but consider the Qur'an to be both the unaltered and the final revelation of God (the Final Testament, following the Old and New Testaments).[4] Religious concepts and practices include the five pillars of Islam, which are basic concepts and obligatory acts of worship, and following Islamic law, which touches on virtually every aspect of life and society, providing guidance on multifarious topics from banking, politics, and welfare, to warfare and the environment.[5][6]
    Most Muslims belong to one of two denominations; with 80-90% being Sunni and 10-20% being Shia.[7][8][9] About 13% of Muslims live in Indonesia, the largest Muslim country,[10] 25% in South Asia,[10] 20% in the Middle East,[11] 2% in Central Asia, 4% in the remaining South East Asian countries, and 15% in Sub-saharan Africa.[12] Sizable communities are also found in China and Russia, and parts of Europe. Converts and immigrant communities are found in almost every part of the world (see Islam by country). With about 1.41-1.57 billion Muslims, comprising about 21-23% of the world's population,[12][13] Islam is the second-largest religion and one of the fastest-growing religions in the world.[14][15]
    [h=2]Contents[/h][hide]
    1 Etymology and meaning
    2 Articles of faith
    2.1 God
    2.2 Angels
    2.3 Revelations
    2.4 Prophets
    2.5 Resurrection and judgment
    2.6 Predestination
    3 Five pillars
    3.1 Testimony
    3.2 Prayer
    3.3 Fasting
    3.4 Alms-giving
    3.5 Pilgrimage
    4 Law and Jurisprudence
    4.1 Jurists
    4.2 Etiquette and diet
    4.3 Family life
    4.4 Government
    4.5 Military
    5 History
    5.1 Muhammad (610–632)
    5.2 Rise of the caliphate and civil war (632–750)
    5.3 Golden Age (750–1258)
    5.4 Fragmentation and invasions
    5.5 New dynasties and colonialism (1030–1918)
    5.6 Modern times (1918–present)
    6 Denominations
    6.1 Sunni
    6.2 Shia
    6.3 Sufism
    6.4 Minor denominations
    7 Demographics
    8 Culture
    8.1 Architecture
    8.2 Art
    8.3 Calendar
    9 See also
    10 References
    10.1 Citations
    10.2 Footnotes
    10.3 Books and journals
    10.3.1 Encyclopedias
    11 Further reading
    12 External links
    [h=2]Etymology and meaning[/h]Islam is a verbal noun originating from the triliteral root s-l-m which forms a large class of words mostly relating to concepts of wholeness, completion and bonding/joining.[16] In a religious context it means "voluntary submission to God".[17][18] Muslim, the word for an adherent of Islam, is the active participle of the same verb of which Islām is the infinitive. Believers demonstrate submission to God by worshipping Him, following His commands, and avoiding polytheism. The word sometimes has distinct connotations in its various occurrences in the Qur'an. In some verses (ayat), there is stress on the quality of Islam as an internal conviction: "Whomsoever God desires to guide, He expands his breast to Islam."[19] Other verses connect islām and dīn (usually translated as "religion"): "Today, I have perfected your religion (dīn) for you; I have completed My blessing upon you; I have approved Islam for your religion."[20] Still others describe Islam as an action of returning to God—more than just a verbal affirmation of faith.[21] Another technical meaning in Islamic thought is as one part of a triad of islam, imān (faith), and ihsān (excellence) where it represents acts of worship (`ibādah) and Islamic law (sharia).[22]
    [h=2]Articles of faith[/h]Main articles: Aqidah and Iman
    [h=3]God[/h]Main article: God in Islam

    Allah means God in Arabic


    Islam's fundamental concept is a rigorous monotheism, called tawhīd. God is described in chapter 112 of the Qur'an as:[23] "Say: He is God, the One and Only; God, the Eternal, Absolute; He begetteth not, nor is He begotten; And there is none like unto Him." (112:1-4) Muslims repudiate the Christian doctrine of the Trinity and divinity of Jesus, comparing it to polytheism, but accept Jesus as a prophet. In Islam, God is beyond all comprehension and Muslims are not expected to visualize God. God is described and referred to by certain names or attributes, the most common being Al-Rahman, meaning "The Compassionate" and Al-Rahim, meaning "The Merciful" (See Names of God in Islam).[24]
    Muslims believe that the purpose of existence is to worship God.[25] He is viewed as a personal God who states “We are nearer to him than (his) jugular vein”[26] and responds whenever a person in need or distress calls Him.[7][27] There are no intermediaries, such as clergy, between God and the creation that he brought into being by the sheer command “‘Be’ and it is.”[7][28]
    Allāh is the term with no plural or gender used by Muslims to refer to the one God, while ʾilāh is the term used for a deity or a god in general.[29] Other non-Arab Muslims might use different names as much as Allah, for instance "Tanrı" in Turkish or "Khodā" in Persian.
    [h=3]Angels[/h]Main article: Islamic view of angels
    Belief in angels is fundamental to the faith of Islam. The Arabic word for angel (malak) means "messenger", like its counterparts in Hebrew (malakh) and Greek (angelos). According to the Qur'an, angels do not possess free will, and worship God in total obedience.[30] Angels' duties include communicating revelations from God, glorifying God, recording every person's actions, and taking a person's soul at the time of death. They are also thought to intercede on man's behalf. The Qur'an describes angels as "messengers with wings—two, or three, or four (pairs): He [God] adds to Creation as He pleases..."[31]
    [h=3]Revelations[/h]Main articles: Islamic holy books and Qur'an
    See also: History of the Qur'an

    The first sura in a Qur'anic manuscript by Hattat Aziz Efendi


    The Islamic holy books are the records which most Muslims believe were dictated by God to various prophets. Muslims believe that parts of the previously revealed scriptures, the Tawrat (Torah) and the Injil (Gospels), had become distorted—either in interpretation, in text, or both.[3] The Qur'an (literally, “Reading” or “Recitation”) is viewed by Muslims as the final revelation and literal Word of God and is widely regarded as the finest piece of literature work in the Arabic language.[32][33][34] Muslims believe that the verses of the Qur'an were revealed to Muhammad by God through the archangel Gabriel (Jibrīl). On many occasions between 610 and his death on June 8, 632.[35] The Qur'an was reportedly written down by Muhammad's companions (sahabah) while he was alive, although the prime method of transmission was orally. It was compiled in the time of Abu Bakr, the first caliph, and was standardized under the administration of Uthman, the third caliph.
    The Qur'an is divided into 114 suras, or chapters, which combined, contain 6,236 āyāt, or verses. The chronologically earlier suras, revealed at Mecca, are primarily concerned with ethical and spiritual topics. The later Medinan suras mostly discuss social and moral issues relevant to the Muslim community.[36] The Qur'an is more concerned with moral guidance than legal instruction, and is considered the "sourcebook of Islamic principles and values".[37] Muslim jurists consult the hadith, or the written record of Prophet Muhammad's life, to both supplement the Qur'an and assist with its interpretation. The science of Qur'anic commentary and exegesis is known as tafsir.[38]
    When Muslims speak in the abstract about "the Qur'an", they usually mean the scripture as recited in Arabic rather than the printed work or any translation of it. To Muslims, the Qur'an is perfect only as revealed in the original Arabic; translations are necessarily deficient because of language differences, the fallibility of translators, and the impossibility of preserving the original's inspired style. Translations are therefore regarded only as commentaries on the Qur'an, or "interpretations of its meaning", not as the Qur'an itself.[39]
    [h=3]Prophets[/h]
    Hadith collections


    Six major collections Sahih al-Bukhari
    Sahih Muslim
    al-Sunan al-Sughra
    Sunan Abi Dawood
    Sunan al-Tirmidhi
    Sunan Ibn Maja

    Other Sunni collections
    Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal
    Sahih Ibn Khuzaymah
    Sahih Ibn Hibbaan
    Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain
    Mawdu'at al-Kubra
    Riyadh as-Saaliheen
    Mishkat al-Masabih
    Talkhis al-Mustadrak
    Majma al-Zawa'id
    Bulugh al-Maram
    Kanz al-Ummal
    Zujajat al-Masabih
    Minhaj us Sawi
    The Four Books Kitab al-Kafi
    Man la yahduruhu al-Faqih
    Tahdhib al-Ahkam
    al-Istibsar

    Other Shi'a collections
    Nahj al-Balagha
    The book of Sulaym ibn Qays
    Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya
    Wasael ush-Shia
    Bihar al-Anwar
    Haqq al-Yaqeen
    Ain Al-Hayat
    Sharh Usul al-Kafi
    al-Jami' as-Sahih
    Tartib al-Musnad
    Nahj with comments
    This box: view · talk · edit
    Main article: Prophets of Islam
    Muslims identify the prophets of Islam (Arabic: نبي‎) as those humans chosen by God to be His messengers. According to the Qur'an [40] the descendants of Abraham and Imran were chosen by God to bring the "Will of God" to the peoples of the nations. Muslims believe that prophets are human and not divine, though some are able to perform miracles to prove their claim. Islamic theology says that all of God's messengers preached the message of Islam—submission to the Will of God. The Qur'an mentions the names of numerous figures considered prophets in Islam, including Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses and Jesus, among others.[41] Muslims believe that God finally sent Muhammad (Seal of the Prophets) to convey the divine message to the whole world (to sum up and to finalize the word of God). In Islam, the "normative" example of Muhammad's life is called the Sunnah (literally "trodden path"). This example is preserved in traditions known as hadith ("reports"), which recount his words, his actions, and his personal characteristics. The classical Muslim jurist ash-Shafi'i (d. 820) emphasized the importance of the Sunnah in Islamic law, and Muslims are encouraged to emulate Muhammad's actions in their daily lives. The Sunnah is seen as crucial to guiding interpretation of the Qur'an. Six of these collections, compiled in the 3rd century AH (9th century CE), came to be regarded as especially authoritative by the largest group in Islām, the Sunnites. Another large group, the Shīʾah, has its own Ḥadīth contained in four canonical collections.[7]
    [h=3]Resurrection and judgment[/h]Main article: Qiyama
    Belief in the "Day of Resurrection", Qiyamah (also known as yawm ad-dīn, "Day of Judgment" and as-sā`a, "the Last Hour") is also crucial for Muslims. They believe that the time of Qiyāmah is preordained by God but unknown to man. The trials and tribulations preceding and during the Qiyāmah are described in the Qur'an and the hadith, and also in the commentaries of scholars. The Qur'an emphasizes bodily resurrection, a break from the pre-Islamic Arabian understanding of death.[42]
    The Qur'an lists several sins that can condemn a person to hell, such as disbelief, riba, and dishonesty. Muslims view heaven as a place of joy and bliss, with Qur'anic references describing its features and the physical pleasures to come. There are also references to ridwān.[43] Mystical traditions in Islam place these heavenly delights in the context of an ecstatic awareness of God.[44]
    [h=3]Predestination[/h]Main article: Predestination in Islam
    In accordance with the Islamic belief in predestination, or divine preordainment (al-qadā wa'l-qadar), God has full knowledge and control over all that occurs. This is explained in Qur'anic verses such as "Say: 'Nothing will happen to us except what Allah has decreed for us: He is our protector'..."[45] For Muslims, everything in the world that occurs, good or evil, has been preordained and nothing can happen unless permitted by God. According to Muslim theologians, although events are pre-ordained, man possesses free will in that he has the faculty to choose between right and wrong, and is thus responsible for his actions. According to Islamic tradition, all that has been decreed by God is written in al-Lawh al-Mahfūz, the "Preserved Tablet".[46]
    [h=2]Five pillars[/h]Main article: Five Pillars of Islam
    The Pillars of Islam (arkan al-Islam; also arkan ad-din, "pillars of religion") are five basic acts in Islam, considered obligatory for all believers. The Quran presents them as a framework for worship and a sign of commitment to the faith. They are (1) the shahadah (creed), (2) daily prayers (salat), (3) almsgiving (zakah), (4) fasting during Ramadan and (5) the pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj) at least once in a lifetime. The Shia and Sunni sects both agree on the essential details for the performance of these acts.[47]
    [h=3]Testimony[/h]Main article: Shahadah
    The Shahadah,[48] which is the basic creed of Islam that must be recited under oath with the specific statement: "'ašhadu 'al-lā ilāha illā-llāhu wa 'ašhadu 'anna muħammadan rasūlu-llāh", or "I testify that there is none worthy of worship except God and I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of God." This testament is a foundation for all other beliefs and practices in Islam. Muslims must repeat the shahadah in prayer, and non-Muslims wishing to convert to Islam are required to recite the creed.[49]
    [h=3]Prayer[/h]Main article: Salah
    See also: Mosque

    Muslims praying


    Ritual prayers, called Ṣalāh or Ṣalāt (Arabic: صلاة), must be performed five times a day. Salah is intended to focus the mind on God, and is seen as a personal communication with him that expresses gratitude and worship. Salah is compulsory but flexibility in the specifics is allowed depending on circumstances. The prayers are recited in the Arabic language, and consist of verses from the Qur'an.[50]
    A mosque is a place of worship for Muslims, who often refer to it by its Arabic name, masjid. The word mosque in English refers to all types of buildings dedicated to Islamic worship, although there is a distinction in Arabic between the smaller, privately owned mosque and the larger, "collective" mosque (masjid jāmi`).[51] Although the primary purpose of the mosque is to serve as a place of prayer, it is also important to the Muslim community as a place to meet and study. Modern mosques have evolved greatly from the early designs of the 7th century, and contain a variety of architectural elements such as minarets.[52]
    [h=3]Fasting[/h]Main article: Sawm
    Further information: Sawm of Ramadan
    Fasting, called "Sawm" (Arabic: صوم‎), from food and drink (among other things) must be performed from dawn to dusk during the month of Ramadhan. The fast is to encourage a feeling of nearness to God, and during it Muslims should express their gratitude for and dependence on him, atone for their past sins, and think of the needy. Sawm is not obligatory for several groups for whom it would constitute an undue burden. For others, flexibility is allowed depending on circumstances, but missed fasts usually must be made up quickly.[53]
    [h=3]Alms-giving[/h]Main articles: Zakat and Sadaqah
    "Zakāt" (Arabic: زكاة‎) is giving a fixed portion of accumulated wealth by those who can afford it to help the poor or needy, and also to assist the spread of Islam. It is considered a religious obligation (as opposed to voluntary charity) that the well-off owe to the needy because their wealth is seen as a "trust from God's bounty". The Qur'an and the hadith also suggest a Muslim give even more as an act of voluntary alms-giving (sadaqah).[54]




    The Kaaba during Hajj


    [h=3]Pilgrimage[/h]Main article: Hajj
    The pilgrimage, called the Hajj (Arabic: حج‎ Ḥajj) during the Islamic month of Dhu al-Hijjah in the city of Mecca. Every able-bodied Muslim who can afford it must make the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in his or her lifetime. Rituals of the Hajj include walking seven times around the Kaaba, touching the black stone if possible, walking or running seven times between Mount Safa and Mount Marwah, and symbolically stoning the Devil in Mina.[55]
    [h=2]Law and Jurisprudence[/h]Main articles: Sharia and Fiqh
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    History
    Zakat
    Jizya · Nisab · Khums
    Sadaqah (Waqf)
    Bayt al-mal
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    Riba · Murabaha
    Takaful · Sukuk
    Inheritance
    Political[show]

    Political aspects of Islam
    Islamic leadership
    Caliphate · Imamah
    Wilayat al-faqih
    Bay'ah · Dhimmi

    Marital[show]

    Intentions · Contract
    Rights and obligations
    Mahr
    Nikah
    Misyar · Halala · Urfi
    Khula · Nikah Mut‘ah
    Polygyny · Talaq · Iddah
    Ma malakat aymanukum
    Adoption
    Sexual[show]

    Techniques
    Masturbation
    Hygiene
    Extramarital sex
    (Haram zada)
    Criminal[show]

    Hudud
    Blasphemy
    Maisir (gambling)
    Zina (extramarital sex)
    Hirabah (unlawful warfare)
    Fasad (mischief)
    Rajm (stoning)
    Tazir (discretionary)
    Qisas (retribution)
    Diyya (compensation)
    Etiquette[show]

    Adab
    Sex segregation
    Mahram
    Honorifics
    Toilet

    Theological[show]

    Baligh
    Salat
    Raka'ah · Qibla · Turbah
    Sunnah salat
    (Tahajjud • Tarawih)
    Nafl salat
    Sawm
    Hajj
    Ihram (Clothing • Mut'ah)
    Tawaf
    Umrah (with Hajj)
    Hygiene[show]

    Sexual · Toilet
    Taharah · Ihram
    Wudu · Masah
    Ghusl · Tayammum
    Miswak · Najis
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    Dhabihah
    Alcohol · Pork
    Compared with kashrut
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    Defensive jihad
    Offensive jihad
    Hudna
    Istijarah (asylum)
    Ma malakat aymanukum
    Prisoners of war

    Islamic studies
    v · d · e
    The Sharia (literally "the path leading to the watering place") is Islamic law formed by traditional Islamic scholarship, which most Muslim groups adhere to. In Islam, Sharia is the expression of the divine will, and "constitutes a system of duties that are incumbent upon a Muslim by virtue of his religious belief".[56]
    Islamic law covers all aspects of life, from matters of state, like governance and foreign relations, to issues of daily living. The Qur'an defines hudud as the punishments for five specific crimes: unlawful intercourse, false accusation of unlawful intercourse, consumption of alcohol, theft, and highway robbery. The Qur'an and Sunnah also contain laws of inheritance, marriage, and restitution for injuries and murder, as well as rules for fasting, charity, and prayer. However, these prescriptions and prohibitions may be broad, so their application in practice varies. Islamic scholars (known as ulema) have elaborated systems of law on the basis of these rules and their interpretations.[57] Over the years there have been changing views on Islamic law but many such as Zahiri and Jariri[clarification needed] have since died out.[58][59]
    Fiqh, or "jurisprudence", is defined as the knowledge of the practical rules of the religion. The method Islamic jurists use to derive rulings is known as usul al-fiqh ("legal theory", or "principles of jurisprudence"). According to Islamic legal theory, law has four fundamental roots, which are given precedence in this order: the Qur'an, the Sunnah (actions and sayings of Muhammad), the consensus of the Muslim jurists (ijma), and analogical reasoning (qiyas). For early Islamic jurists, theory was less important than pragmatic application of the law. In the 9th century, the jurist ash-Shafi'i provided a theoretical basis for Islamic law by codifying the principles of jurisprudence (including the four fundamental roots) in his book ar-Risālah.[60]
    [h=3]Jurists[/h]Main articles: Ulama, Sheikh, and Imam

    Ottoman miniature painters


    There are many terms in Islam to refer to religiously sanctioned positions of Islam, but "jurist" generally refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. In a broader sense, the term ulema is used to describe the body of Muslim clergy who have completed several years of training and study of Islamic sciences, such as a mufti, qadi, faqih, or muhaddith. Some Muslims include under this term the village mullahs, imams, and maulvis—who have attained only the lowest rungs on the ladder of Islamic scholarship; other Muslims would say that clerics must meet higher standards to be considered ulema. Some Muslims practise ijtihad whereby they do not accept the authority of clergy.[61]

    Islam (Arabic: الإسلام‎ al-’islām, pronounced [ʔɪsˈlæːm] ( listen)[note 1]) is the monotheistic religion articulated by the Qur’an, a text considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God (Arabic: الله‎, Allah), and by the teachings and normative example (called the Sunnah and composed of Hadith) of Muhammad, considered by them to be the last prophet of God. An adherent of Islam is called a Muslim.
    Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable.[1] Muslims also believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith that was revealed at many times and places before, including through Abraham, Moses and Jesus, whom they consider prophets .[2] Muslims maintain that previous messages and revelations have been partially changed or corrupted over time,[3] but consider the Qur'an to be both the unaltered and the final revelation of God (the Final Testament, following the Old and New Testaments).[4] Religious concepts and practices include the five pillars of Islam, which are basic concepts and obligatory acts of worship, and following Islamic law, which touches on virtually every aspect of life and society, providing guidance on multifarious topics from banking, politics, and welfare, to warfare and the environment.[5][6]
    Most Muslims belong to one of two denominations; with 80-90% being Sunni and 10-20% being Shia.[7][8][9] About 13% of Muslims live in Indonesia, the largest Muslim country,[10] 25% in South Asia,[10] 20% in the Middle East,[11] 2% in Central Asia, 4% in the remaining South East Asian countries, and 15% in Sub-saharan Africa.[12] Sizable communities are also found in China and Russia, and parts of Europe. Converts and immigrant communities are found in almost every part of the world (see Islam by country). With about 1.41-1.57 billion Muslims, comprising about 21-23% of the world's population,[12][13] Islam is the second-largest religion and one of the fastest-growing religions in the world.[14][15]
    [h=2]Contents[/h][hide]
    1 Etymology and meaning
    2 Articles of faith
    2.1 God
    2.2 Angels
    2.3 Revelations
    2.4 Prophets
    2.5 Resurrection and judgment
    2.6 Predestination
    3 Five pillars
    3.1 Testimony
    3.2 Prayer
    3.3 Fasting
    3.4 Alms-giving
    3.5 Pilgrimage
    4 Law and Jurisprudence
    4.1 Jurists
    4.2 Etiquette and diet
    4.3 Family life
    4.4 Government
    4.5 Military
    5 History
    5.1 Muhammad (610–632)
    5.2 Rise of the caliphate and civil war (632–750)
    5.3 Golden Age (750–1258)
    5.4 Fragmentation and invasions
    5.5 New dynasties and colonialism (1030–1918)
    5.6 Modern times (1918–present)
    6 Denominations
    6.1 Sunni
    6.2 Shia
    6.3 Sufism
    6.4 Minor denominations
    7 Demographics
    8 Culture
    8.1 Architecture
    8.2 Art
    8.3 Calendar
    9 See also
    10 References
    10.1 Citations
    10.2 Footnotes
    10.3 Books and journals
    10.3.1 Encyclopedias
    11 Further reading
    12 External links
    [h=2]Etymology and meaning[/h]Islam is a verbal noun originating from the triliteral root s-l-m which forms a large class of words mostly relating to concepts of wholeness, completion and bonding/joining.[16] In a religious context it means "voluntary submission to God".[17][18] Muslim, the word for an adherent of Islam, is the active participle of the same verb of which Islām is the infinitive. Believers demonstrate submission to God by worshipping Him, following His commands, and avoiding polytheism. The word sometimes has distinct connotations in its various occurrences in the Qur'an. In some verses (ayat), there is stress on the quality of Islam as an internal conviction: "Whomsoever God desires to guide, He expands his breast to Islam."[19] Other verses connect islām and dīn (usually translated as "religion"): "Today, I have perfected your religion (dīn) for you; I have completed My blessing upon you; I have approved Islam for your religion."[20] Still others describe Islam as an action of returning to God—more than just a verbal affirmation of faith.[21] Another technical meaning in Islamic thought is as one part of a triad of islam, imān (faith), and ihsān (excellence) where it represents acts of worship (`ibādah) and Islamic law (sharia).[22]
    [h=2]Articles of faith[/h]Main articles: Aqidah and Iman
    [h=3]God[/h]Main article: God in Islam

    Allah means God in Arabic


    Islam's fundamental concept is a rigorous monotheism, called tawhīd. God is described in chapter 112 of the Qur'an as:[23] "Say: He is God, the One and Only; God, the Eternal, Absolute; He begetteth not, nor is He begotten; And there is none like unto Him." (112:1-4) Muslims repudiate the Christian doctrine of the Trinity and divinity of Jesus, comparing it to polytheism, but accept Jesus as a prophet. In Islam, God is beyond all comprehension and Muslims are not expected to visualize God. God is described and referred to by certain names or attributes, the most common being Al-Rahman, meaning "The Compassionate" and Al-Rahim, meaning "The Merciful" (See Names of God in Islam).[24]
    Muslims believe that the purpose of existence is to worship God.[25] He is viewed as a personal God who states “We are nearer to him than (his) jugular vein”[26] and responds whenever a person in need or distress calls Him.[7][27] There are no intermediaries, such as clergy, between God and the creation that he brought into being by the sheer command “‘Be’ and it is.”[7][28]
    Allāh is the term with no plural or gender used by Muslims to refer to the one God, while ʾilāh is the term used for a deity or a god in general.[29] Other non-Arab Muslims might use different names as much as Allah, for instance "Tanrı" in Turkish or "Khodā" in Persian.
    [h=3]Angels[/h]Main article: Islamic view of angels
    Belief in angels is fundamental to the faith of Islam. The Arabic word for angel (malak) means "messenger", like its counterparts in Hebrew (malakh) and Greek (angelos). According to the Qur'an, angels do not possess free will, and worship God in total obedience.[30] Angels' duties include communicating revelations from God, glorifying God, recording every person's actions, and taking a person's soul at the time of death. They are also thought to intercede on man's behalf. The Qur'an describes angels as "messengers with wings—two, or three, or four (pairs): He [God] adds to Creation as He pleases..."[31]
    [h=3]Revelations[/h]Main articles: Islamic holy books and Qur'an
    See also: History of the Qur'an

    The first sura in a Qur'anic manuscript by Hattat Aziz Efendi


    The Islamic holy books are the records which most Muslims believe were dictated by God to various prophets. Muslims believe that parts of the previously revealed scriptures, the Tawrat (Torah) and the Injil (Gospels), had become distorted—either in interpretation, in text, or both.[3] The Qur'an (literally, “Reading” or “Recitation”) is viewed by Muslims as the final revelation and literal Word of God and is widely regarded as the finest piece of literature work in the Arabic language.[32][33][34] Muslims believe that the verses of the Qur'an were revealed to Muhammad by God through the archangel Gabriel (Jibrīl). On many occasions between 610 and his death on June 8, 632.[35] The Qur'an was reportedly written down by Muhammad's companions (sahabah) while he was alive, although the prime method of transmission was orally. It was compiled in the time of Abu Bakr, the first caliph, and was standardized under the administration of Uthman, the third caliph.
    The Qur'an is divided into 114 suras, or chapters, which combined, contain 6,236 āyāt, or verses. The chronologically earlier suras, revealed at Mecca, are primarily concerned with ethical and spiritual topics. The later Medinan suras mostly discuss social and moral issues relevant to the Muslim community.[36] The Qur'an is more concerned with moral guidance than legal instruction, and is considered the "sourcebook of Islamic principles and values".[37] Muslim jurists consult the hadith, or the written record of Prophet Muhammad's life, to both supplement the Qur'an and assist with its interpretation. The science of Qur'anic commentary and exegesis is known as tafsir.[38]
    When Muslims speak in the abstract about "the Qur'an", they usually mean the scripture as recited in Arabic rather than the printed work or any translation of it. To Muslims, the Qur'an is perfect only as revealed in the original Arabic; translations are necessarily deficient because of language differences, the fallibility of translators, and the impossibility of preserving the original's inspired style. Translations are therefore regarded only as commentaries on the Qur'an, or "interpretations of its meaning", not as the Qur'an itself.[39]
    [h=3]Prophets[/h]
    Hadith collections


    Six major collections Sahih al-Bukhari
    Sahih Muslim
    al-Sunan al-Sughra
    Sunan Abi Dawood
    Sunan al-Tirmidhi
    Sunan Ibn Maja

    Other Sunni collections
    Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal
    Sahih Ibn Khuzaymah
    Sahih Ibn Hibbaan
    Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain
    Mawdu'at al-Kubra
    Riyadh as-Saaliheen
    Mishkat al-Masabih
    Talkhis al-Mustadrak
    Majma al-Zawa'id
    Bulugh al-Maram
    Kanz al-Ummal
    Zujajat al-Masabih
    Minhaj us Sawi
    The Four Books Kitab al-Kafi
    Man la yahduruhu al-Faqih
    Tahdhib al-Ahkam
    al-Istibsar

    Other Shi'a collections
    Nahj al-Balagha
    The book of Sulaym ibn Qays
    Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya
    Wasael ush-Shia
    Bihar al-Anwar
    Haqq al-Yaqeen
    Ain Al-Hayat
    Sharh Usul al-Kafi
    al-Jami' as-Sahih
    Tartib al-Musnad
    Nahj with comments
    This box: view · talk · edit
    Main article: Prophets of Islam
    Muslims identify the prophets of Islam (Arabic: نبي‎) as those humans chosen by God to be His messengers. According to the Qur'an [40] the descendants of Abraham and Imran were chosen by God to bring the "Will of God" to the peoples of the nations. Muslims believe that prophets are human and not divine, though some are able to perform miracles to prove their claim. Islamic theology says that all of God's messengers preached the message of Islam—submission to the Will of God. The Qur'an mentions the names of numerous figures considered prophets in Islam, including Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses and Jesus, among others.[41] Muslims believe that God finally sent Muhammad (Seal of the Prophets) to convey the divine message to the whole world (to sum up and to finalize the word of God). In Islam, the "normative" example of Muhammad's life is called the Sunnah (literally "trodden path"). This example is preserved in traditions known as hadith ("reports"), which recount his words, his actions, and his personal characteristics. The classical Muslim jurist ash-Shafi'i (d. 820) emphasized the importance of the Sunnah in Islamic law, and Muslims are encouraged to emulate Muhammad's actions in their daily lives. The Sunnah is seen as crucial to guiding interpretation of the Qur'an. Six of these collections, compiled in the 3rd century AH (9th century CE), came to be regarded as especially authoritative by the largest group in Islām, the Sunnites. Another large group, the Shīʾah, has its own Ḥadīth contained in four canonical collections.[7]
    [h=3]Resurrection and judgment[/h]Main article: Qiyama
    Belief in the "Day of Resurrection", Qiyamah (also known as yawm ad-dīn, "Day of Judgment" and as-sā`a, "the Last Hour") is also crucial for Muslims. They believe that the time of Qiyāmah is preordained by God but unknown to man. The trials and tribulations preceding and during the Qiyāmah are described in the Qur'an and the hadith, and also in the commentaries of scholars. The Qur'an emphasizes bodily resurrection, a break from the pre-Islamic Arabian understanding of death.[42]
    The Qur'an lists several sins that can condemn a person to hell, such as disbelief, riba, and dishonesty. Muslims view heaven as a place of joy and bliss, with Qur'anic references describing its features and the physical pleasures to come. There are also references to ridwān.[43] Mystical traditions in Islam place these heavenly delights in the context of an ecstatic awareness of God.[44]
    [h=3]Predestination[/h]Main article: Predestination in Islam
    In accordance with the Islamic belief in predestination, or divine preordainment (al-qadā wa'l-qadar), God has full knowledge and control over all that occurs. This is explained in Qur'anic verses such as "Say: 'Nothing will happen to us except what Allah has decreed for us: He is our protector'..."[45] For Muslims, everything in the world that occurs, good or evil, has been preordained and nothing can happen unless permitted by God. According to Muslim theologians, although events are pre-ordained, man possesses free will in that he has the faculty to choose between right and wrong, and is thus responsible for his actions. According to Islamic tradition, all that has been decreed by God is written in al-Lawh al-Mahfūz, the "Preserved Tablet".[46]
    [h=2]Five pillars[/h]Main article: Five Pillars of Islam
    The Pillars of Islam (arkan al-Islam; also arkan ad-din, "pillars of religion") are five basic acts in Islam, considered obligatory for all believers. The Quran presents them as a framework for worship and a sign of commitment to the faith. They are (1) the shahadah (creed), (2) daily prayers (salat), (3) almsgiving (zakah), (4) fasting during Ramadan and (5) the pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj) at least once in a lifetime. The Shia and Sunni sects both agree on the essential details for the performance of these acts.[47]
    [h=3]Testimony[/h]Main article: Shahadah
    The Shahadah,[48] which is the basic creed of Islam that must be recited under oath with the specific statement: "'ašhadu 'al-lā ilāha illā-llāhu wa 'ašhadu 'anna muħammadan rasūlu-llāh", or "I testify that there is none worthy of worship except God and I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of God." This testament is a foundation for all other beliefs and practices in Islam. Muslims must repeat the shahadah in prayer, and non-Muslims wishing to convert to Islam are required to recite the creed.[49]
    [h=3]Prayer[/h]Main article: Salah
    See also: Mosque

    Muslims praying


    Ritual prayers, called Ṣalāh or Ṣalāt (Arabic: صلاة), must be performed five times a day. Salah is intended to focus the mind on God, and is seen as a personal communication with him that expresses gratitude and worship. Salah is compulsory but flexibility in the specifics is allowed depending on circumstances. The prayers are recited in the Arabic language, and consist of verses from the Qur'an.[50]
    A mosque is a place of worship for Muslims, who often refer to it by its Arabic name, masjid. The word mosque in English refers to all types of buildings dedicated to Islamic worship, although there is a distinction in Arabic between the smaller, privately owned mosque and the larger, "collective" mosque (masjid jāmi`).[51] Although the primary purpose of the mosque is to serve as a place of prayer, it is also important to the Muslim community as a place to meet and study. Modern mosques have evolved greatly from the early designs of the 7th century, and contain a variety of architectural elements such as minarets.[52]
    [h=3]Fasting[/h]Main article: Sawm
    Further information: Sawm of Ramadan
    Fasting, called "Sawm" (Arabic: صوم‎), from food and drink (among other things) must be performed from dawn to dusk during the month of Ramadhan. The fast is to encourage a feeling of nearness to God, and during it Muslims should express their gratitude for and dependence on him, atone for their past sins, and think of the needy. Sawm is not obligatory for several groups for whom it would constitute an undue burden. For others, flexibility is allowed depending on circumstances, but missed fasts usually must be made up quickly.[53]
    [h=3]Alms-giving[/h]Main articles: Zakat and Sadaqah
    "Zakāt" (Arabic: زكاة‎) is giving a fixed portion of accumulated wealth by those who can afford it to help the poor or needy, and also to assist the spread of Islam. It is considered a religious obligation (as opposed to voluntary charity) that the well-off owe to the needy because their wealth is seen as a "trust from God's bounty". The Qur'an and the hadith also suggest a Muslim give even more as an act of voluntary alms-giving (sadaqah).[54]




    The Kaaba during Hajj


    [h=3]Pilgrimage[/h]Main article: Hajj
    The pilgrimage, called the Hajj (Arabic: حج‎ Ḥajj) during the Islamic month of Dhu al-Hijjah in the city of Mecca. Every able-bodied Muslim who can afford it must make the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in his or her lifetime. Rituals of the Hajj include walking seven times around the Kaaba, touching the black stone if possible, walking or running seven times between Mount Safa and Mount Marwah, and symbolically stoning the Devil in Mina.[55]
    [h=2]Law and Jurisprudence[/h]Main articles: Sharia and Fiqh
    Part of a series on
    Economic[show]

    History
    Zakat
    Jizya · Nisab · Khums
    Sadaqah (Waqf)
    Bayt al-mal
    Banking
    Riba · Murabaha
    Takaful · Sukuk
    Inheritance
    Political[show]

    Political aspects of Islam
    Islamic leadership
    Caliphate · Imamah
    Wilayat al-faqih
    Bay'ah · Dhimmi

    Marital[show]

    Intentions · Contract
    Rights and obligations
    Mahr
    Nikah
    Misyar · Halala · Urfi
    Khula · Nikah Mut‘ah
    Polygyny · Talaq · Iddah
    Ma malakat aymanukum
    Adoption
    Sexual[show]

    Techniques
    Masturbation
    Hygiene
    Extramarital sex
    (Haram zada)
    Criminal[show]

    Hudud
    Blasphemy
    Maisir (gambling)
    Zina (extramarital sex)
    Hirabah (unlawful warfare)
    Fasad (mischief)
    Rajm (stoning)
    Tazir (discretionary)
    Qisas (retribution)
    Diyya (compensation)
    Etiquette[show]

    Adab
    Sex segregation
    Mahram
    Honorifics
    Toilet

    Theological[show]

    Baligh
    Salat
    Raka'ah · Qibla · Turbah
    Sunnah salat
    (Tahajjud • Tarawih)
    Nafl salat
    Sawm
    Hajj
    Ihram (Clothing • Mut'ah)
    Tawaf
    Umrah (with Hajj)
    Hygiene[show]

    Sexual · Toilet
    Taharah · Ihram
    Wudu · Masah
    Ghusl · Tayammum
    Miswak · Najis
    Dietary
    Dhabihah
    Alcohol · Pork
    Compared with kashrut
    Military[show]

    Defensive jihad
    Offensive jihad
    Hudna
    Istijarah (asylum)
    Ma malakat aymanukum
    Prisoners of war

    Islamic studies
    v · d · e
    The Sharia (literally "the path leading to the watering place") is Islamic law formed by traditional Islamic scholarship, which most Muslim groups adhere to. In Islam, Sharia is the expression of the divine will, and "constitutes a system of duties that are incumbent upon a Muslim by virtue of his religious belief".[56]
    Islamic law covers all aspects of life, from matters of state, like governance and foreign relations, to issues of daily living. The Qur'an defines hudud as the punishments for five specific crimes: unlawful intercourse, false accusation of unlawful intercourse, consumption of alcohol, theft, and highway robbery. The Qur'an and Sunnah also contain laws of inheritance, marriage, and restitution for injuries and murder, as well as rules for fasting, charity, and prayer. However, these prescriptions and prohibitions may be broad, so their application in practice varies. Islamic scholars (known as ulema) have elaborated systems of law on the basis of these rules and their interpretations.[57] Over the years there have been changing views on Islamic law but many such as Zahiri and Jariri[clarification needed] have since died out.[58][59]
    Fiqh, or "jurisprudence", is defined as the knowledge of the practical rules of the religion. The method Islamic jurists use to derive rulings is known as usul al-fiqh ("legal theory", or "principles of jurisprudence"). According to Islamic legal theory, law has four fundamental roots, which are given precedence in this order: the Qur'an, the Sunnah (actions and sayings of Muhammad), the consensus of the Muslim jurists (ijma), and analogical reasoning (qiyas). For early Islamic jurists, theory was less important than pragmatic application of the law. In the 9th century, the jurist ash-Shafi'i provided a theoretical basis for Islamic law by codifying the principles of jurisprudence (including the four fundamental roots) in his book ar-Risālah.[60]
    [h=3]Jurists[/h]Main articles: Ulama, Sheikh, and Imam

    Ottoman miniature painters


    There are many terms in Islam to refer to religiously sanctioned positions of Islam, but "jurist" generally refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. In a broader sense, the term ulema is used to describe the body of Muslim clergy who have completed several years of training and study of Islamic sciences, such as a mufti, qadi, faqih, or muhaddith. Some Muslims include under this term the village mullahs, imams, and maulvis—who have attained only the lowest rungs on the ladder of Islamic scholarship; other Muslims would say that clerics must meet higher standards to be considered ulema. Some Muslims practise ijtihad whereby they do not accept the authority of clergy.[61]

    Islam (Arabic: الإسلام‎ al-’islām, pronounced [ʔɪsˈlæːm] ( listen)[note 1]) is the monotheistic religion articulated by the Qur’an, a text considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God (Arabic: الله‎, Allah), and by the teachings and normative example (called the Sunnah and composed of Hadith) of Muhammad, considered by them to be the last prophet of God. An adherent of Islam is called a Muslim.
    Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable.[1] Muslims also believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith that was revealed at many times and places before, including through Abraham, Moses and Jesus, whom they consider prophets .[2] Muslims maintain that previous messages and revelations have been partially changed or corrupted over time,[3] but consider the Qur'an to be both the unaltered and the final revelation of God (the Final Testament, following the Old and New Testaments).[4] Religious concepts and practices include the five pillars of Islam, which are basic concepts and obligatory acts of worship, and following Islamic law, which touches on virtually every aspect of life and society, providing guidance on multifarious topics from banking, politics, and welfare, to warfare and the environment.[5][6]
    Most Muslims belong to one of two denominations; with 80-90% being Sunni and 10-20% being Shia.[7][8][9] About 13% of Muslims live in Indonesia, the largest Muslim country,[10] 25% in South Asia,[10] 20% in the Middle East,[11] 2% in Central Asia, 4% in the remaining South East Asian countries, and 15% in Sub-saharan Africa.[12] Sizable communities are also found in China and Russia, and parts of Europe. Converts and immigrant communities are found in almost every part of the world (see Islam by country). With about 1.41-1.57 billion Muslims, comprising about 21-23% of the world's population,[12][13] Islam is the second-largest religion and one of the fastest-growing religions in the world.[14][15]
    [h=2]Contents[/h][hide]
    1 Etymology and meaning
    2 Articles of faith
    2.1 God
    2.2 Angels
    2.3 Revelations
    2.4 Prophets
    2.5 Resurrection and judgment
    2.6 Predestination
    3 Five pillars
    3.1 Testimony
    3.2 Prayer
    3.3 Fasting
    3.4 Alms-giving
    3.5 Pilgrimage
    4 Law and Jurisprudence
    4.1 Jurists
    4.2 Etiquette and diet
    4.3 Family life
    4.4 Government
    4.5 Military
    5 History
    5.1 Muhammad (610–632)
    5.2 Rise of the caliphate and civil war (632–750)
    5.3 Golden Age (750–1258)
    5.4 Fragmentation and invasions
    5.5 New dynasties and colonialism (1030–1918)
    5.6 Modern times (1918–present)
    6 Denominations
    6.1 Sunni
    6.2 Shia
    6.3 Sufism
    6.4 Minor denominations
    7 Demographics
    8 Culture
    8.1 Architecture
    8.2 Art
    8.3 Calendar
    9 See also
    10 References
    10.1 Citations
    10.2 Footnotes
    10.3 Books and journals
    10.3.1 Encyclopedias
    11 Further reading
    12 External links
    [h=2]Etymology and meaning[/h]Islam is a verbal noun originating from the triliteral root s-l-m which forms a large class of words mostly relating to concepts of wholeness, completion and bonding/joining.[16] In a religious context it means "voluntary submission to God".[17][18] Muslim, the word for an adherent of Islam, is the active participle of the same verb of which Islām is the infinitive. Believers demonstrate submission to God by worshipping Him, following His commands, and avoiding polytheism. The word sometimes has distinct connotations in its various occurrences in the Qur'an. In some verses (ayat), there is stress on the quality of Islam as an internal conviction: "Whomsoever God desires to guide, He expands his breast to Islam."[19] Other verses connect islām and dīn (usually translated as "religion"): "Today, I have perfected your religion (dīn) for you; I have completed My blessing upon you; I have approved Islam for your religion."[20] Still others describe Islam as an action of returning to God—more than just a verbal affirmation of faith.[21] Another technical meaning in Islamic thought is as one part of a triad of islam, imān (faith), and ihsān (excellence) where it represents acts of worship (`ibādah) and Islamic law (sharia).[22]
    [h=2]Articles of faith[/h]Main articles: Aqidah and Iman
    [h=3]God[/h]Main article: God in Islam

    Allah means God in Arabic


    Islam's fundamental concept is a rigorous monotheism, called tawhīd. God is described in chapter 112 of the Qur'an as:[23] "Say: He is God, the One and Only; God, the Eternal, Absolute; He begetteth not, nor is He begotten; And there is none like unto Him." (112:1-4) Muslims repudiate the Christian doctrine of the Trinity and divinity of Jesus, comparing it to polytheism, but accept Jesus as a prophet. In Islam, God is beyond all comprehension and Muslims are not expected to visualize God. God is described and referred to by certain names or attributes, the most common being Al-Rahman, meaning "The Compassionate" and Al-Rahim, meaning "The Merciful" (See Names of God in Islam).[24]
    Muslims believe that the purpose of existence is to worship God.[25] He is viewed as a personal God who states “We are nearer to him than (his) jugular vein”[26] and responds whenever a person in need or distress calls Him.[7][27] There are no intermediaries, such as clergy, between God and the creation that he brought into being by the sheer command “‘Be’ and it is.”[7][28]
    Allāh is the term with no plural or gender used by Muslims to refer to the one God, while ʾilāh is the term used for a deity or a god in general.[29] Other non-Arab Muslims might use different names as much as Allah, for instance "Tanrı" in Turkish or "Khodā" in Persian.
    [h=3]Angels[/h]Main article: Islamic view of angels
    Belief in angels is fundamental to the faith of Islam. The Arabic word for angel (malak) means "messenger", like its counterparts in Hebrew (malakh) and Greek (angelos). According to the Qur'an, angels do not possess free will, and worship God in total obedience.[30] Angels' duties include communicating revelations from God, glorifying God, recording every person's actions, and taking a person's soul at the time of death. They are also thought to intercede on man's behalf. The Qur'an describes angels as "messengers with wings—two, or three, or four (pairs): He [God] adds to Creation as He pleases..."[31]
    [h=3]Revelations[/h]Main articles: Islamic holy books and Qur'an
    See also: History of the Qur'an

    The first sura in a Qur'anic manuscript by Hattat Aziz Efendi


    The Islamic holy books are the records which most Muslims believe were dictated by God to various prophets. Muslims believe that parts of the previously revealed scriptures, the Tawrat (Torah) and the Injil (Gospels), had become distorted—either in interpretation, in text, or both.[3] The Qur'an (literally, “Reading” or “Recitation”) is viewed by Muslims as the final revelation and literal Word of God and is widely regarded as the finest piece of literature work in the Arabic language.[32][33][34] Muslims believe that the verses of the Qur'an were revealed to Muhammad by God through the archangel Gabriel (Jibrīl). On many occasions between 610 and his death on June 8, 632.[35] The Qur'an was reportedly written down by Muhammad's companions (sahabah) while he was alive, although the prime method of transmission was orally. It was compiled in the time of Abu Bakr, the first caliph, and was standardized under the administration of Uthman, the third caliph.
    The Qur'an is divided into 114 suras, or chapters, which combined, contain 6,236 āyāt, or verses. The chronologically earlier suras, revealed at Mecca, are primarily concerned with ethical and spiritual topics. The later Medinan suras mostly discuss social and moral issues relevant to the Muslim community.[36] The Qur'an is more concerned with moral guidance than legal instruction, and is considered the "sourcebook of Islamic principles and values".[37] Muslim jurists consult the hadith, or the written record of Prophet Muhammad's life, to both supplement the Qur'an and assist with its interpretation. The science of Qur'anic commentary and exegesis is known as tafsir.[38]
    When Muslims speak in the abstract about "the Qur'an", they usually mean the scripture as recited in Arabic rather than the printed work or any translation of it. To Muslims, the Qur'an is perfect only as revealed in the original Arabic; translations are necessarily deficient because of language differences, the fallibility of translators, and the impossibility of preserving the original's inspired style. Translations are therefore regarded only as commentaries on the Qur'an, or "interpretations of its meaning", not as the Qur'an itself.[39]
    [h=3]Prophets[/h]
    Hadith collections


    Six major collections Sahih al-Bukhari
    Sahih Muslim
    al-Sunan al-Sughra
    Sunan Abi Dawood
    Sunan al-Tirmidhi
    Sunan Ibn Maja

    Other Sunni collections
    Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal
    Sahih Ibn Khuzaymah
    Sahih Ibn Hibbaan
    Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain
    Mawdu'at al-Kubra
    Riyadh as-Saaliheen
    Mishkat al-Masabih
    Talkhis al-Mustadrak
    Majma al-Zawa'id
    Bulugh al-Maram
    Kanz al-Ummal
    Zujajat al-Masabih
    Minhaj us Sawi
    The Four Books Kitab al-Kafi
    Man la yahduruhu al-Faqih
    Tahdhib al-Ahkam
    al-Istibsar

    Other Shi'a collections
    Nahj al-Balagha
    The book of Sulaym ibn Qays
    Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya
    Wasael ush-Shia
    Bihar al-Anwar
    Haqq al-Yaqeen
    Ain Al-Hayat
    Sharh Usul al-Kafi
    al-Jami' as-Sahih
    Tartib al-Musnad
    Nahj with comments
    This box: view · talk · edit
    Main article: Prophets of Islam
    Muslims identify the prophets of Islam (Arabic: نبي‎) as those humans chosen by God to be His messengers. According to the Qur'an [40] the descendants of Abraham and Imran were chosen by God to bring the "Will of God" to the peoples of the nations. Muslims believe that prophets are human and not divine, though some are able to perform miracles to prove their claim. Islamic theology says that all of God's messengers preached the message of Islam—submission to the Will of God. The Qur'an mentions the names of numerous figures considered prophets in Islam, including Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses and Jesus, among others.[41] Muslims believe that God finally sent Muhammad (Seal of the Prophets) to convey the divine message to the whole world (to sum up and to finalize the word of God). In Islam, the "normative" example of Muhammad's life is called the Sunnah (literally "trodden path"). This example is preserved in traditions known as hadith ("reports"), which recount his words, his actions, and his personal characteristics. The classical Muslim jurist ash-Shafi'i (d. 820) emphasized the importance of the Sunnah in Islamic law, and Muslims are encouraged to emulate Muhammad's actions in their daily lives. The Sunnah is seen as crucial to guiding interpretation of the Qur'an. Six of these collections, compiled in the 3rd century AH (9th century CE), came to be regarded as especially authoritative by the largest group in Islām, the Sunnites. Another large group, the Shīʾah, has its own Ḥadīth contained in four canonical collections.[7]
    [h=3]Resurrection and judgment[/h]Main article: Qiyama
    Belief in the "Day of Resurrection", Qiyamah (also known as yawm ad-dīn, "Day of Judgment" and as-sā`a, "the Last Hour") is also crucial for Muslims. They believe that the time of Qiyāmah is preordained by God but unknown to man. The trials and tribulations preceding and during the Qiyāmah are described in the Qur'an and the hadith, and also in the commentaries of scholars. The Qur'an emphasizes bodily resurrection, a break from the pre-Islamic Arabian understanding of death.[42]
    The Qur'an lists several sins that can condemn a person to hell, such as disbelief, riba, and dishonesty. Muslims view heaven as a place of joy and bliss, with Qur'anic references describing its features and the physical pleasures to come. There are also references to ridwān.[43] Mystical traditions in Islam place these heavenly delights in the context of an ecstatic awareness of God.[44]
    [h=3]Predestination[/h]Main article: Predestination in Islam
    In accordance with the Islamic belief in predestination, or divine preordainment (al-qadā wa'l-qadar), God has full knowledge and control over all that occurs. This is explained in Qur'anic verses such as "Say: 'Nothing will happen to us except what Allah has decreed for us: He is our protector'..."[45] For Muslims, everything in the world that occurs, good or evil, has been preordained and nothing can happen unless permitted by God. According to Muslim theologians, although events are pre-ordained, man possesses free will in that he has the faculty to choose between right and wrong, and is thus responsible for his actions. According to Islamic tradition, all that has been decreed by God is written in al-Lawh al-Mahfūz, the "Preserved Tablet".[46]
    [h=2]Five pillars[/h]Main article: Five Pillars of Islam
    The Pillars of Islam (arkan al-Islam; also arkan ad-din, "pillars of religion") are five basic acts in Islam, considered obligatory for all believers. The Quran presents them as a framework for worship and a sign of commitment to the faith. They are (1) the shahadah (creed), (2) daily prayers (salat), (3) almsgiving (zakah), (4) fasting during Ramadan and (5) the pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj) at least once in a lifetime. The Shia and Sunni sects both agree on the essential details for the performance of these acts.[47]
    [h=3]Testimony[/h]Main article: Shahadah
    The Shahadah,[48] which is the basic creed of Islam that must be recited under oath with the specific statement: "'ašhadu 'al-lā ilāha illā-llāhu wa 'ašhadu 'anna muħammadan rasūlu-llāh", or "I testify that there is none worthy of worship except God and I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of God." This testament is a foundation for all other beliefs and practices in Islam. Muslims must repeat the shahadah in prayer, and non-Muslims wishing to convert to Islam are required to recite the creed.[49]
    [h=3]Prayer[/h]Main article: Salah
    See also: Mosque

    Muslims praying


    Ritual prayers, called Ṣalāh or Ṣalāt (Arabic: صلاة), must be performed five times a day. Salah is intended to focus the mind on God, and is seen as a personal communication with him that expresses gratitude and worship. Salah is compulsory but flexibility in the specifics is allowed depending on circumstances. The prayers are recited in the Arabic language, and consist of verses from the Qur'an.[50]
    A mosque is a place of worship for Muslims, who often refer to it by its Arabic name, masjid. The word mosque in English refers to all types of buildings dedicated to Islamic worship, although there is a distinction in Arabic between the smaller, privately owned mosque and the larger, "collective" mosque (masjid jāmi`).[51] Although the primary purpose of the mosque is to serve as a place of prayer, it is also important to the Muslim community as a place to meet and study. Modern mosques have evolved greatly from the early designs of the 7th century, and contain a variety of architectural elements such as minarets.[52]
    [h=3]Fasting[/h]Main article: Sawm
    Further information: Sawm of Ramadan
    Fasting, called "Sawm" (Arabic: صوم‎), from food and drink (among other things) must be performed from dawn to dusk during the month of Ramadhan. The fast is to encourage a feeling of nearness to God, and during it Muslims should express their gratitude for and dependence on him, atone for their past sins, and think of the needy. Sawm is not obligatory for several groups for whom it would constitute an undue burden. For others, flexibility is allowed depending on circumstances, but missed fasts usually must be made up quickly.[53]
    [h=3]Alms-giving[/h]Main articles: Zakat and Sadaqah
    "Zakāt" (Arabic: زكاة‎) is giving a fixed portion of accumulated wealth by those who can afford it to help the poor or needy, and also to assist the spread of Islam. It is considered a religious obligation (as opposed to voluntary charity) that the well-off owe to the needy because their wealth is seen as a "trust from God's bounty". The Qur'an and the hadith also suggest a Muslim give even more as an act of voluntary alms-giving (sadaqah).[54]




    The Kaaba during Hajj


    [h=3]Pilgrimage[/h]Main article: Hajj
    The pilgrimage, called the Hajj (Arabic: حج‎ Ḥajj) during the Islamic month of Dhu al-Hijjah in the city of Mecca. Every able-bodied Muslim who can afford it must make the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in his or her lifetime. Rituals of the Hajj include walking seven times around the Kaaba, touching the black stone if possible, walking or running seven times between Mount Safa and Mount Marwah, and symbolically stoning the Devil in Mina.[55]
    [h=2]Law and Jurisprudence[/h]Main articles: Sharia and Fiqh
    Part of a series on
    Economic[show]

    History
    Zakat
    Jizya · Nisab · Khums
    Sadaqah (Waqf)
    Bayt al-mal
    Banking
    Riba · Murabaha
    Takaful · Sukuk
    Inheritance
    Political[show]

    Political aspects of Islam
    Islamic leadership
    Caliphate · Imamah
    Wilayat al-faqih
    Bay'ah · Dhimmi

    Marital[show]

    Intentions · Contract
    Rights and obligations
    Mahr
    Nikah
    Misyar · Halala · Urfi
    Khula · Nikah Mut‘ah
    Polygyny · Talaq · Iddah
    Ma malakat aymanukum
    Adoption
    Sexual[show]

    Techniques
    Masturbation
    Hygiene
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    (Haram zada)
    Criminal[show]

    Hudud
    Blasphemy
    Maisir (gambling)
    Zina (extramarital sex)
    Hirabah (unlawful warfare)
    Fasad (mischief)
    Rajm (stoning)
    Tazir (discretionary)
    Qisas (retribution)
    Diyya (compensation)
    Etiquette[show]

    Adab
    Sex segregation
    Mahram
    Honorifics
    Toilet

    Theological[show]

    Baligh
    Salat
    Raka'ah · Qibla · Turbah
    Sunnah salat
    (Tahajjud • Tarawih)
    Nafl salat
    Sawm
    Hajj
    Ihram (Clothing • Mut'ah)
    Tawaf
    Umrah (with Hajj)
    Hygiene[show]

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    Alcohol · Pork
    Compared with kashrut
    Military[show]

    Defensive jihad
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    Ma malakat aymanukum
    Prisoners of war

    Islamic studies
    v · d · e
    The Sharia (literally "the path leading to the watering place") is Islamic law formed by traditional Islamic scholarship, which most Muslim groups adhere to. In Islam, Sharia is the expression of the divine will, and "constitutes a system of duties that are incumbent upon a Muslim by virtue of his religious belief".[56]
    Islamic law covers all aspects of life, from matters of state, like governance and foreign relations, to issues of daily living. The Qur'an defines hudud as the punishments for five specific crimes: unlawful intercourse, false accusation of unlawful intercourse, consumption of alcohol, theft, and highway robbery. The Qur'an and Sunnah also contain laws of inheritance, marriage, and restitution for injuries and murder, as well as rules for fasting, charity, and prayer. However, these prescriptions and prohibitions may be broad, so their application in practice varies. Islamic scholars (known as ulema) have elaborated systems of law on the basis of these rules and their interpretations.[57] Over the years there have been changing views on Islamic law but many such as Zahiri and Jariri[clarification needed] have since died out.[58][59]
    Fiqh, or "jurisprudence", is defined as the knowledge of the practical rules of the religion. The method Islamic jurists use to derive rulings is known as usul al-fiqh ("legal theory", or "principles of jurisprudence"). According to Islamic legal theory, law has four fundamental roots, which are given precedence in this order: the Qur'an, the Sunnah (actions and sayings of Muhammad), the consensus of the Muslim jurists (ijma), and analogical reasoning (qiyas). For early Islamic jurists, theory was less important than pragmatic application of the law. In the 9th century, the jurist ash-Shafi'i provided a theoretical basis for Islamic law by codifying the principles of jurisprudence (including the four fundamental roots) in his book ar-Risālah.[60]
    [h=3]Jurists[/h]Main articles: Ulama, Sheikh, and Imam

    Ottoman miniature painters


    There are many terms in Islam to refer to religiously sanctioned positions of Islam, but "jurist" generally refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. In a broader sense, the term ulema is used to describe the body of Muslim clergy who have completed several years of training and study of Islamic sciences, such as a mufti, qadi, faqih, or muhaddith. Some Muslims include under this term the village mullahs, imams, and maulvis—who have attained only the lowest rungs on the ladder of Islamic scholarship; other Muslims would say that clerics must meet higher standards to be considered ulema. Some Muslims practise ijtihad whereby they do not accept the authority of clergy.[61]

    Islam (Arabic: الإسلام‎ al-’islām, pronounced [ʔɪsˈlæːm] ( listen)[note 1]) is the monotheistic religion articulated by the Qur’an, a text considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God (Arabic: الله‎, Allah), and by the teachings and normative example (called the Sunnah and composed of Hadith) of Muhammad, considered by them to be the last prophet of God. An adherent of Islam is called a Muslim.
    Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable.[1] Muslims also believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith that was revealed at many times and places before, including through Abraham, Moses and Jesus, whom they consider prophets .[2] Muslims maintain that previous messages and revelations have been partially changed or corrupted over time,[3] but consider the Qur'an to be both the unaltered and the final revelation of God (the Final Testament, following the Old and New Testaments).[4] Religious concepts and practices include the five pillars of Islam, which are basic concepts and obligatory acts of worship, and following Islamic law, which touches on virtually every aspect of life and society, providing guidance on multifarious topics from banking, politics, and welfare, to warfare and the environment.[5][6]
    Most Muslims belong to one of two denominations; with 80-90% being Sunni and 10-20% being Shia.[7][8][9] About 13% of Muslims live in Indonesia, the largest Muslim country,[10] 25% in South Asia,[10] 20% in the Middle East,[11] 2% in Central Asia, 4% in the remaining South East Asian countries, and 15% in Sub-saharan Africa.[12] Sizable communities are also found in China and Russia, and parts of Europe. Converts and immigrant communities are found in almost every part of the world (see Islam by country). With about 1.41-1.57 billion Muslims, comprising about 21-23% of the world's population,[12][13] Islam is the second-largest religion and one of the fastest-growing religions in the world.[14][15]
    [h=2]Contents[/h][hide]
    1 Etymology and meaning
    2 Articles of faith
    2.1 God
    2.2 Angels
    2.3 Revelations
    2.4 Prophets
    2.5 Resurrection and judgment
    2.6 Predestination
    3 Five pillars
    3.1 Testimony
    3.2 Prayer
    3.3 Fasting
    3.4 Alms-giving
    3.5 Pilgrimage
    4 Law and Jurisprudence
    4.1 Jurists
    4.2 Etiquette and diet
    4.3 Family life
    4.4 Government
    4.5 Military
    5 History
    5.1 Muhammad (610–632)
    5.2 Rise of the caliphate and civil war (632–750)
    5.3 Golden Age (750–1258)
    5.4 Fragmentation and invasions
    5.5 New dynasties and colonialism (1030–1918)
    5.6 Modern times (1918–present)
    6 Denominations
    6.1 Sunni
    6.2 Shia
    6.3 Sufism
    6.4 Minor denominations
    7 Demographics
    8 Culture
    8.1 Architecture
    8.2 Art
    8.3 Calendar
    9 See also
    10 References
    10.1 Citations
    10.2 Footnotes
    10.3 Books and journals
    10.3.1 Encyclopedias
    11 Further reading
    12 External links
    [h=2]Etymology and meaning[/h]Islam is a verbal noun originating from the triliteral root s-l-m which forms a large class of words mostly relating to concepts of wholeness, completion and bonding/joining.[16] In a religious context it means "voluntary submission to God".[17][18] Muslim, the word for an adherent of Islam, is the active participle of the same verb of which Islām is the infinitive. Believers demonstrate submission to God by worshipping Him, following His commands, and avoiding polytheism. The word sometimes has distinct connotations in its various occurrences in the Qur'an. In some verses (ayat), there is stress on the quality of Islam as an internal conviction: "Whomsoever God desires to guide, He expands his breast to Islam."[19] Other verses connect islām and dīn (usually translated as "religion"): "Today, I have perfected your religion (dīn) for you; I have completed My blessing upon you; I have approved Islam for your religion."[20] Still others describe Islam as an action of returning to God—more than just a verbal affirmation of faith.[21] Another technical meaning in Islamic thought is as one part of a triad of islam, imān (faith), and ihsān (excellence) where it represents acts of worship (`ibādah) and Islamic law (sharia).[22]
    [h=2]Articles of faith[/h]Main articles: Aqidah and Iman
    [h=3]God[/h]Main article: God in Islam

    Allah means God in Arabic


    Islam's fundamental concept is a rigorous monotheism, called tawhīd. God is described in chapter 112 of the Qur'an as:[23] "Say: He is God, the One and Only; God, the Eternal, Absolute; He begetteth not, nor is He begotten; And there is none like unto Him." (112:1-4) Muslims repudiate the Christian doctrine of the Trinity and divinity of Jesus, comparing it to polytheism, but accept Jesus as a prophet. In Islam, God is beyond all comprehension and Muslims are not expected to visualize God. God is described and referred to by certain names or attributes, the most common being Al-Rahman, meaning "The Compassionate" and Al-Rahim, meaning "The Merciful" (See Names of God in Islam).[24]
    Muslims believe that the purpose of existence is to worship God.[25] He is viewed as a personal God who states “We are nearer to him than (his) jugular vein”[26] and responds whenever a person in need or distress calls Him.[7][27] There are no intermediaries, such as clergy, between God and the creation that he brought into being by the sheer command “‘Be’ and it is.”[7][28]
    Allāh is the term with no plural or gender used by Muslims to refer to the one God, while ʾilāh is the term used for a deity or a god in general.[29] Other non-Arab Muslims might use different names as much as Allah, for instance "Tanrı" in Turkish or "Khodā" in Persian.
    [h=3]Angels[/h]Main article: Islamic view of angels
    Belief in angels is fundamental to the faith of Islam. The Arabic word for angel (malak) means "messenger", like its counterparts in Hebrew (malakh) and Greek (angelos). According to the Qur'an, angels do not possess free will, and worship God in total obedience.[30] Angels' duties include communicating revelations from God, glorifying God, recording every person's actions, and taking a person's soul at the time of death. They are also thought to intercede on man's behalf. The Qur'an describes angels as "messengers with wings—two, or three, or four (pairs): He [God] adds to Creation as He pleases..."[31]
    [h=3]Revelations[/h]Main articles: Islamic holy books and Qur'an
    See also: History of the Qur'an

    The first sura in a Qur'anic manuscript by Hattat Aziz Efendi


    The Islamic holy books are the records which most Muslims believe were dictated by God to various prophets. Muslims believe that parts of the previously revealed scriptures, the Tawrat (Torah) and the Injil (Gospels), had become distorted—either in interpretation, in text, or both.[3] The Qur'an (literally, “Reading” or “Recitation”) is viewed by Muslims as the final revelation and literal Word of God and is widely regarded as the finest piece of literature work in the Arabic language.[32][33][34] Muslims believe that the verses of the Qur'an were revealed to Muhammad by God through the archangel Gabriel (Jibrīl). On many occasions between 610 and his death on June 8, 632.[35] The Qur'an was reportedly written down by Muhammad's companions (sahabah) while he was alive, although the prime method of transmission was orally. It was compiled in the time of Abu Bakr, the first caliph, and was standardized under the administration of Uthman, the third caliph.
    The Qur'an is divided into 114 suras, or chapters, which combined, contain 6,236 āyāt, or verses. The chronologically earlier suras, revealed at Mecca, are primarily concerned with ethical and spiritual topics. The later Medinan suras mostly discuss social and moral issues relevant to the Muslim community.[36] The Qur'an is more concerned with moral guidance than legal instruction, and is considered the "sourcebook of Islamic principles and values".[37] Muslim jurists consult the hadith, or the written record of Prophet Muhammad's life, to both supplement the Qur'an and assist with its interpretation. The science of Qur'anic commentary and exegesis is known as tafsir.[38]
    When Muslims speak in the abstract about "the Qur'an", they usually mean the scripture as recited in Arabic rather than the printed work or any translation of it. To Muslims, the Qur'an is perfect only as revealed in the original Arabic; translations are necessarily deficient because of language differences, the fallibility of translators, and the impossibility of preserving the original's inspired style. Translations are therefore regarded only as commentaries on the Qur'an, or "interpretations of its meaning", not as the Qur'an itself.[39]
    [h=3]Prophets[/h]
    Hadith collections


    Six major collections Sahih al-Bukhari
    Sahih Muslim
    al-Sunan al-Sughra
    Sunan Abi Dawood
    Sunan al-Tirmidhi
    Sunan Ibn Maja

    Other Sunni collections
    Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal
    Sahih Ibn Khuzaymah
    Sahih Ibn Hibbaan
    Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain
    Mawdu'at al-Kubra
    Riyadh as-Saaliheen
    Mishkat al-Masabih
    Talkhis al-Mustadrak
    Majma al-Zawa'id
    Bulugh al-Maram
    Kanz al-Ummal
    Zujajat al-Masabih
    Minhaj us Sawi
    The Four Books Kitab al-Kafi
    Man la yahduruhu al-Faqih
    Tahdhib al-Ahkam
    al-Istibsar

    Other Shi'a collections
    Nahj al-Balagha
    The book of Sulaym ibn Qays
    Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya
    Wasael ush-Shia
    Bihar al-Anwar
    Haqq al-Yaqeen
    Ain Al-Hayat
    Sharh Usul al-Kafi
    al-Jami' as-Sahih
    Tartib al-Musnad
    Nahj with comments
    This box: view · talk · edit
    Main article: Prophets of Islam
    Muslims identify the prophets of Islam (Arabic: نبي‎) as those humans chosen by God to be His messengers. According to the Qur'an [40] the descendants of Abraham and Imran were chosen by God to bring the "Will of God" to the peoples of the nations. Muslims believe that prophets are human and not divine, though some are able to perform miracles to prove their claim. Islamic theology says that all of God's messengers preached the message of Islam—submission to the Will of God. The Qur'an mentions the names of numerous figures considered prophets in Islam, including Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses and Jesus, among others.[41] Muslims believe that God finally sent Muhammad (Seal of the Prophets) to convey the divine message to the whole world (to sum up and to finalize the word of God). In Islam, the "normative" example of Muhammad's life is called the Sunnah (literally "trodden path"). This example is preserved in traditions known as hadith ("reports"), which recount his words, his actions, and his personal characteristics. The classical Muslim jurist ash-Shafi'i (d. 820) emphasized the importance of the Sunnah in Islamic law, and Muslims are encouraged to emulate Muhammad's actions in their daily lives. The Sunnah is seen as crucial to guiding interpretation of the Qur'an. Six of these collections, compiled in the 3rd century AH (9th century CE), came to be regarded as especially authoritative by the largest group in Islām, the Sunnites. Another large group, the Shīʾah, has its own Ḥadīth contained in four canonical collections.[7]
    [h=3]Resurrection and judgment[/h]Main article: Qiyama
    Belief in the "Day of Resurrection", Qiyamah (also known as yawm ad-dīn, "Day of Judgment" and as-sā`a, "the Last Hour") is also crucial for Muslims. They believe that the time of Qiyāmah is preordained by God but unknown to man. The trials and tribulations preceding and during the Qiyāmah are described in the Qur'an and the hadith, and also in the commentaries of scholars. The Qur'an emphasizes bodily resurrection, a break from the pre-Islamic Arabian understanding of death.[42]
    The Qur'an lists several sins that can condemn a person to hell, such as disbelief, riba, and dishonesty. Muslims view heaven as a place of joy and bliss, with Qur'anic references describing its features and the physical pleasures to come. There are also references to ridwān.[43] Mystical traditions in Islam place these heavenly delights in the context of an ecstatic awareness of God.[44]
    [h=3]Predestination[/h]Main article: Predestination in Islam
    In accordance with the Islamic belief in predestination, or divine preordainment (al-qadā wa'l-qadar), God has full knowledge and control over all that occurs. This is explained in Qur'anic verses such as "Say: 'Nothing will happen to us except what Allah has decreed for us: He is our protector'..."[45] For Muslims, everything in the world that occurs, good or evil, has been preordained and nothing can happen unless permitted by God. According to Muslim theologians, although events are pre-ordained, man possesses free will in that he has the faculty to choose between right and wrong, and is thus responsible for his actions. According to Islamic tradition, all that has been decreed by God is written in al-Lawh al-Mahfūz, the "Preserved Tablet".[46]
    [h=2]Five pillars[/h]Main article: Five Pillars of Islam
    The Pillars of Islam (arkan al-Islam; also arkan ad-din, "pillars of religion") are five basic acts in Islam, considered obligatory for all believers. The Quran presents them as a framework for worship and a sign of commitment to the faith. They are (1) the shahadah (creed), (2) daily prayers (salat), (3) almsgiving (zakah), (4) fasting during Ramadan and (5) the pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj) at least once in a lifetime. The Shia and Sunni sects both agree on the essential details for the performance of these acts.[47]
    [h=3]Testimony[/h]Main article: Shahadah
    The Shahadah,[48] which is the basic creed of Islam that must be recited under oath with the specific statement: "'ašhadu 'al-lā ilāha illā-llāhu wa 'ašhadu 'anna muħammadan rasūlu-llāh", or "I testify that there is none worthy of worship except God and I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of God." This testament is a foundation for all other beliefs and practices in Islam. Muslims must repeat the shahadah in prayer, and non-Muslims wishing to convert to Islam are required to recite the creed.[49]
    [h=3]Prayer[/h]Main article: Salah
    See also: Mosque

    Muslims praying


    Ritual prayers, called Ṣalāh or Ṣalāt (Arabic: صلاة), must be performed five times a day. Salah is intended to focus the mind on God, and is seen as a personal communication with him that expresses gratitude and worship. Salah is compulsory but flexibility in the specifics is allowed depending on circumstances. The prayers are recited in the Arabic language, and consist of verses from the Qur'an.[50]
    A mosque is a place of worship for Muslims, who often refer to it by its Arabic name, masjid. The word mosque in English refers to all types of buildings dedicated to Islamic worship, although there is a distinction in Arabic between the smaller, privately owned mosque and the larger, "collective" mosque (masjid jāmi`).[51] Although the primary purpose of the mosque is to serve as a place of prayer, it is also important to the Muslim community as a place to meet and study. Modern mosques have evolved greatly from the early designs of the 7th century, and contain a variety of architectural elements such as minarets.[52]
    [h=3]Fasting[/h]Main article: Sawm
    Further information: Sawm of Ramadan
    Fasting, called "Sawm" (Arabic: صوم‎), from food and drink (among other things) must be performed from dawn to dusk during the month of Ramadhan. The fast is to encourage a feeling of nearness to God, and during it Muslims should express their gratitude for and dependence on him, atone for their past sins, and think of the needy. Sawm is not obligatory for several groups for whom it would constitute an undue burden. For others, flexibility is allowed depending on circumstances, but missed fasts usually must be made up quickly.[53]
    [h=3]Alms-giving[/h]Main articles: Zakat and Sadaqah
    "Zakāt" (Arabic: زكاة‎) is giving a fixed portion of accumulated wealth by those who can afford it to help the poor or needy, and also to assist the spread of Islam. It is considered a religious obligation (as opposed to voluntary charity) that the well-off owe to the needy because their wealth is seen as a "trust from God's bounty". The Qur'an and the hadith also suggest a Muslim give even more as an act of voluntary alms-giving (sadaqah).[54]




    The Kaaba during Hajj


    [h=3]Pilgrimage[/h]Main article: Hajj
    The pilgrimage, called the Hajj (Arabic: حج‎ Ḥajj) during the Islamic month of Dhu al-Hijjah in the city of Mecca. Every able-bodied Muslim who can afford it must make the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in his or her lifetime. Rituals of the Hajj include walking seven times around the Kaaba, touching the black stone if possible, walking or running seven times between Mount Safa and Mount Marwah, and symbolically stoning the Devil in Mina.[55]
    [h=2]Law and Jurisprudence[/h]Main articles: Sharia and Fiqh
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    Economic[show]

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    Jizya · Nisab · Khums
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    Political aspects of Islam
    Islamic leadership
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    Techniques
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    Hudud
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    Etiquette[show]

    Adab
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    Theological[show]

    Baligh
    Salat
    Raka'ah · Qibla · Turbah
    Sunnah salat
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    Nafl salat
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    Islamic studies
    v · d · e
    The Sharia (literally "the path leading to the watering place") is Islamic law formed by traditional Islamic scholarship, which most Muslim groups adhere to. In Islam, Sharia is the expression of the divine will, and "constitutes a system of duties that are incumbent upon a Muslim by virtue of his religious belief".[56]
    Islamic law covers all aspects of life, from matters of state, like governance and foreign relations, to issues of daily living. The Qur'an defines hudud as the punishments for five specific crimes: unlawful intercourse, false accusation of unlawful intercourse, consumption of alcohol, theft, and highway robbery. The Qur'an and Sunnah also contain laws of inheritance, marriage, and restitution for injuries and murder, as well as rules for fasting, charity, and prayer. However, these prescriptions and prohibitions may be broad, so their application in practice varies. Islamic scholars (known as ulema) have elaborated systems of law on the basis of these rules and their interpretations.[57] Over the years there have been changing views on Islamic law but many such as Zahiri and Jariri[clarification needed] have since died out.[58][59]
    Fiqh, or "jurisprudence", is defined as the knowledge of the practical rules of the religion. The method Islamic jurists use to derive rulings is known as usul al-fiqh ("legal theory", or "principles of jurisprudence"). According to Islamic legal theory, law has four fundamental roots, which are given precedence in this order: the Qur'an, the Sunnah (actions and sayings of Muhammad), the consensus of the Muslim jurists (ijma), and analogical reasoning (qiyas). For early Islamic jurists, theory was less important than pragmatic application of the law. In the 9th century, the jurist ash-Shafi'i provided a theoretical basis for Islamic law by codifying the principles of jurisprudence (including the four fundamental roots) in his book ar-Risālah.[60]
    [h=3]Jurists[/h]Main articles: Ulama, Sheikh, and Imam

    Ottoman miniature painters


    There are many terms in Islam to refer to religiously sanctioned positions of Islam, but "jurist" generally refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. In a broader sense, the term ulema is used to describe the body of Muslim clergy who have completed several years of training and study of Islamic sciences, such as a mufti, qadi, faqih, or muhaddith. Some Muslims include under this term the village mullahs, imams, and maulvis—who have attained only the lowest rungs on the ladder of Islamic scholarship; other Muslims would say that clerics must meet higher standards to be considered ulema. Some Muslims practise ijtihad whereby they do not accept the authority of clergy.[61]
     
  6. LordJustice1

    LordJustice1 JF-Expert Member

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    Taarifa yenyewe inatumia neno "may," so it is not conclusive!
     
  7. arabianfalcon

    arabianfalcon JF-Expert Member

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    waislamu kutupiwa matope ndio kazi yao,haiwi dini nyengine kufanya watasema pia waislamu ndio wamechangia,mwenyezi mungu hamfichi dhalim yatajulikana tuu.
     
  8. Sooth

    Sooth JF-Expert Member

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    Acha uongo, McVeigh hakuua sababu ya dini bali katiba. Alikuwa anapigania uhuru wa kila raia kumiliki silaha, kupunguzwa kwa kodi n.k. Yeye alidai anapigania katiba ambayo inampa uhuru raia na kwa msimamo wake aliona serikali (federal gvt) inabada uhuru huo wa kikatiba na dnio maana alililipua jengo la serikali.

    Pia ishu ya Norway sababu ya kufanya hivyo sio dini bali anapinga masuala ya uhamiaji (multi-culturism).
     
  9. Sooth

    Sooth JF-Expert Member

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    Waislam hili la ugaidi hamuwezi kulikwepa kwa sababu zifuatazo:
    • Hakuna jumuiya za kiislam zinazokemea mambo ya ugaidi yanapotokea wala kuweka misingi ya waislamu kuchukia kujitoa mhanga.
    • Waislam wengi wanakuwa proud linapofanyika tukio la namna hiyo. Wanaona kama wamefanikiwa kulipiza kisasi kwa 'maadui wa uislam'
    • Vitendo vingi vya ugaidi vinafanywa na waislam.Prof Njozi (Mwembechai Killings) amekiri hili kwa kusema "..utawatambua kwa matendo yao"!
     
  10. M

    Mr.Right JF-Expert Member

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    Hii habari inazungumzia kuhusu Gaidi wa Kikiristo. Hii habari imeandikwa na BBC. Hawa Christians Fundamentalists wamejaa sana hadi kwetu TZ, ni hatari kwa taifa.
     
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