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Spetsnaz

Discussion in 'International Forum' started by Makwarukwaru, Aug 19, 2012.

  1. M

    Makwarukwaru Member

    #1
    Aug 19, 2012
    Joined: Mar 10, 2012
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    Hawa walikua ni special force ya Russia,je bado wapo mpaka sasa au walikufa na jamuhuri ya kisovieti? Naomba msaada kwa anaefahamu kwa undani kuhusu hawa jamaa.
     
  2. GIUSEPPE

    GIUSEPPE JF-Expert Member

    #2
    Aug 21, 2012
    Joined: Dec 31, 2011
    Messages: 1,841
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    Spetsnaz (Russian: Войска специального назначения, (спецназ, pronounced [spʲɪtsˈnas]) tr: Voyska spetsialnogo naznacheniya; pronounced [vɐjsˈka spʲɪtsɨˈalʲnəvə nəznɐˈtɕenʲɪjə]) is an umbrella term for any special forces in Russian, literally "special purpose forces". The term can specifically refer to any elite or special purpose units under the command of the Federal Security Service (FSB), Internal Troops of Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs, and the units controlled by the military intelligence service GRU.
    Currently, the term is also used to describe any special purpose units or task forces of other ministries (even the Emergency Situations Ministry special rescue unit).[SUP][1][/SUP] Foreign special forces are also commonly referred to as Spetsnaz on Russian television, with US special forces referred to as "American Spetsnaz" for example. Spetsnaz specialists have trained the Republican Guard of Syria, Angola, Cuba, Vietnam and Ethiopia and have been involved in training other special forces units across the world.[SUP][citation needed][/SUP]
    The original conception of special forces strategy and tactics is attributed to the Russian military theorist Mikhail Svechnykov (killed in Stalin's purges of 1938), who envisaged the development of unconventional warfare capabilities in order to overcome disadvantages that conventional forces may face in the field. However, implementation of these theories was initiated by Ilya Starinov, known as the "grandfather of the Russian spetsnaz".
    Spetsnaz carry out reconnaissance and "special warfare" missions in peacetime as well as in war.[SUP][citation needed][/SUP] The primary function of Spetsnaz troops in wartime is infiltration/insertion behind enemy lines (either in uniform or civilian clothing), usually well before hostilities are scheduled to begin and, once in place, to commit acts of sabotage (such as the destruction of vital NATO communications logistics centers)[SUP][citation needed][/SUP] and the assassination of key government leaders and military officers.[SUP][citation needed][/SUP]According to Vladimir Rezun, a GRU defector who used the pseudonym "Viktor Suvorov", there were 20 Spetsnaz brigades plus 41 separate companies at the time of his defection in 1978. Thus, the total strength of Spetsnaz forces was around 30,000 troops at the time. Currently, their numbers are unknown, but are estimated to be about 15,000.
    [h=2]Timeline of spetsnaz units[/h][​IMG]
    In 1950 Georgy Zhukov advocated creation of forty six military Spetsnaz companies (each company consisted of 120 servicemen). It was the first time after the World War II, when term "Spetsnaz" appeared as an original name of the separate military branch. Later, these companies were expanded to battalions, and then, to brigades, respectively. However, certain separate companies (orSpN) and detachments (ooSpN) existed along with brigades until the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Military spetsnaz included fourteen army and two naval brigades, together with numerous separate detachments and companies, which operated under the guidance of the Main Intelligence Directorate (GRU), and collectively are known as Spetsnaz GRU. These units and formations existed under the highest possible secrecy and were disguised as airborne troopers, bearing their uniform and insignia (Army Spetsnaz), or as naval infantrymen (Naval Spetsnaz).
    Twenty four years after the origin of military Spetsnaz, first anti-terrorist unit was established by the head of KGB Yuri Andropov. In the late 1970s and through 1980s various special purpose units (with emphasis on anti-terrorism and organized crime enforcement, bearing many similarities to SWAT) were created within the Committee for State Security (KGB) and Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD).
    In 1990s special detachments were established within the Federal Penitentiary Service (FSIN) and Airborne Troops (VDV): Saturn (ca 1992) and 45th Detached Reconnaissance Regiment (1994), respectively.
    Today, even some civil agencies with non-police functions created their own special units, which are also called "Spetsnaz", such as "Leader" special centre within the Ministry of Emergency Situations (MChS).


    Federal Security Service units

    Main article: FSB (Russia)
    The Center of Special Operations (CSN) of the FSB is designed to combat terrorism and international crime and to protect the constitutional order in the Russian Federation. The CSN FSB consists of three different "operative" subdivisions Department A (also known as spetsgruppa "Alfa"), Department V (also known as spetsgruppa "Vympel"), and so-called SOS (Special Operations Service). The headquarters of CSN FSB is a huge complex of buildings and training areas (dozens of hectares of land, 76 training facilities, etc.). The average training of a solid CSN operative lasts about five years.
    Training
    [TABLE="width: 164"]
    [TR]
    [TD][/TD]
    [TD][/TD]
    [/TR]
    [/TABLE]
    Alpha Group
    "Alfa" is a well-known counter-terrorist unit begun in 1974. Today "Alfa" is a highly professional unit, which consists of roughly 700 servicemen. The majority of the unit is stationed at Moscow, the rest of the unit is located in three other cities – Krasnodar, Yekaterinburg, and Khabarovsk. All the "Alfa" operatives undergo special airborne and firearms training. Roughly one third of them have special mountain training; another third have special counter-sabotage dive training. The unit utilizes a wide range of modern Russian and foreign weapons and equipment, some modified from the original versions to fit the unique needs of the unit.
    ]Vympel
    "Vympel" (the Pennant) – formerly known as an elite Cold War-era KGB unit similar to the CIA's Special Activities Division (responsible for covert operations involving sabotage, assassination, etc.) and now responsible for counter-terrorist and counter-sabotage operations. Unlike "Alfa", instead of learning how to storm aircraft and buses, they operate in an entirely different environment. They are experts in 18 special disciplines (including covert infiltration, extensive marksmanship and martial arts training, driving armoured personnel carriers and flying aircraft, and medical training) and are Russia's last defense against possible terrorist acts involving nuclear plants, hydroelectric dams, and other industrial complexes. However, "Vympel" operatives are still heavily used in special operations missions in the Northern Caucasus, along with their counterparts from "Alfa" unit. "Vympel" has four operative units, "Alfa" has 5 operative units One unit from each Department is always participating in offensive operations in Chechnya. They constantly rotate their troops, and each operative unit is stationed in Chechnya at least 2-3 times per year. "Vympel" is stationed in Moscow, but it also has multiple branch offices in virtually every city where there is a nuclear power plant.
    Department A and V operatives' standard BDU color is black. However, in Chechnya they use different kinds of camouflage such as the official woodland camouflage, "Flora".
    Special Operations Service
    Special Operations Service – Not much information about SOS can be obtained, but it is known that they also participate in FSB special operations in the Northern Caucasus and also act as highly skilled bodyguards for government officials.
    Regional units
    Together with Center of Special Operations and its elite units, there are many FSB special forces units of regional significance. Such operative detachments are usually called ROSN (Regional Department of Special Designation). The most powerful ROSNs are said to be at Saint Petersburg (ROSN "Grad") and Nizhny Novgorod.
    Ministry of Interior units

    Internal Troops
    Spetnaz MVD includes 25 Internal Troops units, which are of good quality and intended for use to combat insurgency, border security and for counter-terrorism purposes. These units usually have a unique name and official OSN number. The following is a partial list of the spetsnaz units:

    They are very well-trained, equipped and an extreme elite. Their missions may include reconnaissance missions and regular combat operations, mostly house-to-house and close quarters much like United States Army Rangers. Spetsnaz are much in comparison to the US Army Delta Force members, committing assassinations and intelligence missions. Also they are well known for their hand to hand combat skills rivaling the United Kingdom's Special Air Service units.
    Police
    Aside from the Interior troops special forces, MVD has plenty of Politsiya (former Militsiya) (police) special forces, which are stationed in virtually every large Russian city. WhileOMON units are mostly used as riot police and during drug busts, they are not really considered a significant counter-terrorist force and simply lack the sufficient expertise (alongside with the drug control (FSKN) Special forces). For these reasons MVD has numerous rapid response (SOBR)) units, which consist of senior ranked police officers and are properly trained and equipped to combat terrorists, insurgency, and to participate in any kind of high-risk mission in general.

    Red Beret
    MVD Spetsnaz servicemen from Internal Troops and police (including spetsnaz units of the prison guards (FSIN), drug control (FSKN)and rapid response (SOBR), but not riot police (OMON)) can compete for the distinction to wear the "Red Beret" ([SUP]RU[/SUP]), which is awarded to "most professional, physically and morally fit" sergeants and officers. The competitions are arranged twice a year and are handled byVityaz instructors. The competitors must first pass various physical fitness test and shooting exercises to be qualified for main course. The main competition includes 12 km cross-country running in full combat uniform, a 100 m sprint, urban assault exercises with wall climbing, acrobatic exercises, and a 12 minute free-style sparring match with three separate opponents. Due to harsh conditions, less than 10% of the applicants pass the tests and are granted the privilege to wear the Red Beret.
     
  3. GIUSEPPE

    GIUSEPPE JF-Expert Member

    #3
    Aug 21, 2012
    Joined: Dec 31, 2011
    Messages: 1,841
    Likes Received: 1,393
    Trophy Points: 280
    Spetsnaz (Russian: Войска специального назначения, (спецназ, pronounced [spʲɪtsˈnas]) tr: Voyska spetsialnogo naznacheniya; pronounced [vɐjsˈka spʲɪtsɨˈalʲnəvə nəznɐˈtɕenʲɪjə]) is an umbrella term for any special forces in Russian, literally "special purpose forces". The term can specifically refer to any elite or special purpose units under the command of the Federal Security Service (FSB), Internal Troops of Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs, and the units controlled by the military intelligence service GRU.
    Currently, the term is also used to describe any special purpose units or task forces of other ministries (even the Emergency Situations Ministry special rescue unit).[SUP][1][/SUP] Foreign special forces are also commonly referred to as Spetsnaz on Russian television, with US special forces referred to as "American Spetsnaz" for example. Spetsnaz specialists have trained the Republican Guard of Syria, Angola, Cuba, Vietnam and Ethiopia and have been involved in training other special forces units across the world.[SUP][citation needed][/SUP]
    The original conception of special forces strategy and tactics is attributed to the Russian military theorist Mikhail Svechnykov (killed in Stalin's purges of 1938), who envisaged the development of unconventional warfare capabilities in order to overcome disadvantages that conventional forces may face in the field. However, implementation of these theories was initiated by Ilya Starinov, known as the "grandfather of the Russian spetsnaz".
    Spetsnaz carry out reconnaissance and "special warfare" missions in peacetime as well as in war.[SUP][citation needed][/SUP] The primary function of Spetsnaz troops in wartime is infiltration/insertion behind enemy lines (either in uniform or civilian clothing), usually well before hostilities are scheduled to begin and, once in place, to commit acts of sabotage (such as the destruction of vital NATO communications logistics centers)[SUP][citation needed][/SUP] and the assassination of key government leaders and military officers.[SUP][citation needed][/SUP]According to Vladimir Rezun, a GRU defector who used the pseudonym "Viktor Suvorov", there were 20 Spetsnaz brigades plus 41 separate companies at the time of his defection in 1978. Thus, the total strength of Spetsnaz forces was around 30,000 troops at the time. Currently, their numbers are unknown, but are estimated to be about 15,000.
    [h=2]Timeline of spetsnaz units[/h][​IMG]
    In 1950 Georgy Zhukov advocated creation of forty six military Spetsnaz companies (each company consisted of 120 servicemen). It was the first time after the World War II, when term "Spetsnaz" appeared as an original name of the separate military branch. Later, these companies were expanded to battalions, and then, to brigades, respectively. However, certain separate companies (orSpN) and detachments (ooSpN) existed along with brigades until the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Military spetsnaz included fourteen army and two naval brigades, together with numerous separate detachments and companies, which operated under the guidance of the Main Intelligence Directorate (GRU), and collectively are known as Spetsnaz GRU. These units and formations existed under the highest possible secrecy and were disguised as airborne troopers, bearing their uniform and insignia (Army Spetsnaz), or as naval infantrymen (Naval Spetsnaz).
    Twenty four years after the origin of military Spetsnaz, first anti-terrorist unit was established by the head of KGB Yuri Andropov. In the late 1970s and through 1980s various special purpose units (with emphasis on anti-terrorism and organized crime enforcement, bearing many similarities to SWAT) were created within the Committee for State Security (KGB) and Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD).
    In 1990s special detachments were established within the Federal Penitentiary Service (FSIN) and Airborne Troops (VDV): Saturn (ca 1992) and 45th Detached Reconnaissance Regiment (1994), respectively.
    Today, even some civil agencies with non-police functions created their own special units, which are also called "Spetsnaz", such as "Leader" special centre within the Ministry of Emergency Situations (MChS).


    Federal Security Service units

    Main article: FSB (Russia)
    The Center of Special Operations (CSN) of the FSB is designed to combat terrorism and international crime and to protect the constitutional order in the Russian Federation. The CSN FSB consists of three different "operative" subdivisions Department A (also known as spetsgruppa "Alfa"), Department V (also known as spetsgruppa "Vympel"), and so-called SOS (Special Operations Service). The headquarters of CSN FSB is a huge complex of buildings and training areas (dozens of hectares of land, 76 training facilities, etc.). The average training of a solid CSN operative lasts about five years.
    Training
    [TABLE="width: 164"]
    [TR]
    [TD][/TD]
    [TD][/TD]
    [/TR]
    [/TABLE]
    Alpha Group
    "Alfa" is a well-known counter-terrorist unit begun in 1974. Today "Alfa" is a highly professional unit, which consists of roughly 700 servicemen. The majority of the unit is stationed at Moscow, the rest of the unit is located in three other cities – Krasnodar, Yekaterinburg, and Khabarovsk. All the "Alfa" operatives undergo special airborne and firearms training. Roughly one third of them have special mountain training; another third have special counter-sabotage dive training. The unit utilizes a wide range of modern Russian and foreign weapons and equipment, some modified from the original versions to fit the unique needs of the unit.
    ]Vympel
    "Vympel" (the Pennant) – formerly known as an elite Cold War-era KGB unit similar to the CIA's Special Activities Division (responsible for covert operations involving sabotage, assassination, etc.) and now responsible for counter-terrorist and counter-sabotage operations. Unlike "Alfa", instead of learning how to storm aircraft and buses, they operate in an entirely different environment. They are experts in 18 special disciplines (including covert infiltration, extensive marksmanship and martial arts training, driving armoured personnel carriers and flying aircraft, and medical training) and are Russia's last defense against possible terrorist acts involving nuclear plants, hydroelectric dams, and other industrial complexes. However, "Vympel" operatives are still heavily used in special operations missions in the Northern Caucasus, along with their counterparts from "Alfa" unit. "Vympel" has four operative units, "Alfa" has 5 operative units One unit from each Department is always participating in offensive operations in Chechnya. They constantly rotate their troops, and each operative unit is stationed in Chechnya at least 2-3 times per year. "Vympel" is stationed in Moscow, but it also has multiple branch offices in virtually every city where there is a nuclear power plant.
    Department A and V operatives' standard BDU color is black. However, in Chechnya they use different kinds of camouflage such as the official woodland camouflage, "Flora".
    Special Operations Service
    Special Operations Service – Not much information about SOS can be obtained, but it is known that they also participate in FSB special operations in the Northern Caucasus and also act as highly skilled bodyguards for government officials.
    Regional units
    Together with Center of Special Operations and its elite units, there are many FSB special forces units of regional significance. Such operative detachments are usually called ROSN (Regional Department of Special Designation). The most powerful ROSNs are said to be at Saint Petersburg (ROSN "Grad") and Nizhny Novgorod.
    Ministry of Interior units

    Internal Troops
    Spetnaz MVD includes 25 Internal Troops units, which are of good quality and intended for use to combat insurgency, border security and for counter-terrorism purposes. These units usually have a unique name and official OSN number. The following is a partial list of the spetsnaz units:

    They are very well-trained, equipped and an extreme elite. Their missions may include reconnaissance missions and regular combat operations, mostly house-to-house and close quarters much like United States Army Rangers. Spetsnaz are much in comparison to the US Army Delta Force members, committing assassinations and intelligence missions. Also they are well known for their hand to hand combat skills rivaling the United Kingdom's Special Air Service units.
    Police
    Aside from the Interior troops special forces, MVD has plenty of Politsiya (former Militsiya) (police) special forces, which are stationed in virtually every large Russian city. WhileOMON units are mostly used as riot police and during drug busts, they are not really considered a significant counter-terrorist force and simply lack the sufficient expertise (alongside with the drug control (FSKN) Special forces). For these reasons MVD has numerous rapid response (SOBR)) units, which consist of senior ranked police officers and are properly trained and equipped to combat terrorists, insurgency, and to participate in any kind of high-risk mission in general.

    Red Beret
    MVD Spetsnaz servicemen from Internal Troops and police (including spetsnaz units of the prison guards (FSIN), drug control (FSKN)and rapid response (SOBR), but not riot police (OMON)) can compete for the distinction to wear the "Red Beret" ([SUP]RU[/SUP]), which is awarded to "most professional, physically and morally fit" sergeants and officers. The competitions are arranged twice a year and are handled byVityaz instructors. The competitors must first pass various physical fitness test and shooting exercises to be qualified for main course. The main competition includes 12 km cross-country running in full combat uniform, a 100 m sprint, urban assault exercises with wall climbing, acrobatic exercises, and a 12 minute free-style sparring match with three separate opponents. Due to harsh conditions, less than 10% of the applicants pass the tests and are granted the privilege to wear the Red Beret.
     
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