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Remembering Samora Machel

Discussion in 'Jamii Intelligence' started by Askari Kanzu, Oct 19, 2011.

  1. Askari Kanzu

    Askari Kanzu JF-Expert Member

    Oct 19, 2011
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    Date: 19 October, 1986
    graca 4.jpg
    Samora Machel

    On 19 October 1986, the Mozambique President, Samora Machel and thirty-three other passengers, died when their Tupolev 134 plane crashed into the Lebombo Mountains, South Africa, after allegedly following a false beacon. Machel was a prominent leader of the Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO) and he led the Mozambican people in their fight for independence from Portugal. In 1975 they were victorious and he was elected as Mozambique's first president.

    At the time of his death, Machel had been in power for 11 years. On the day of the crash he was returning from an African leaders’ summit in Zambia. His death sent shockwaves throughout Southern Africa and the entire world. The crash remains a mystery; with some blaming it on bad weather and others believing that the South African authorities were to blame. A day before Machel’s death, Carlos Cardosa, Director of the Mozambican News Agency, received an anonymous message informing him that Machel had died.
  2. u

    utantambua JF-Expert Member

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    Angekuwapo leo angekua kama Bob Mugabe king'ang'anizi wa madaraka?
  3. Askari Kanzu

    Askari Kanzu JF-Expert Member

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    Inawezekana. Lakini angalau katika uhai wake alipigania ukombozi wa Msumbiji na nchi nyingine kusini mwa Africa. Si vibaya kuenzi historia, hata sisi wabongo tunao mtaa wa Samora Machel!
  4. IGWE

    IGWE JF-Expert Member

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    yeah.....sure mkuu
  5. eliakeem

    eliakeem JF-Expert Member

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    Hata ukienda Zimbabwe na Msumbiji utaona mtaa unaitwa Nyerere.
  6. Askari Kanzu

    Askari Kanzu JF-Expert Member

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    Ndio hapo basi. Ivyo ndo tunavyotakiwa tufanye!
  7. MaxShimba

    MaxShimba JF-Expert Member

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    ​Samora Avenue Dar Es Salaam
  8. Mlendamboga

    Mlendamboga JF-Expert Member

    Mar 5, 2015
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    [FONT=&amp] https://www.nelsonmandela.org/omalley/index.php/site/q/03lv02167/04lv02264/05lv02335/06lv02357/07lv02372/08lv02378.htm

    Chapter 6: Special Investigation into the death of President Samora Machel[/FONT]


    [FONT=&amp]1. On 19 October 1986, the Mozambican presidential aircraft, a Tupolev TU 134A-3 was returning from Zambia after the Lusaka Summit to be in time for Ms Graça Machel's birthday. President Samora Machel and twenty-four others died when the plane crashed in the mountainous terrain near Mbuzini near Komatipoort. The crash site is in the little triangle where the borders of Swaziland and Mozambique meet the South African border in the Lebombo Mountains.[/FONT]
    2. The Margo Commission of Inquiry was established to investigate the crash and concluded that it had been caused by pilot error. A Soviet team also conducted an investigation into the incident, and concluded that a decoy beacon had caused the plane to stray off-course before it crashed into the mountains at Mbuzini.[/FONT]
    3. This Commission's investigation into the matter did not find conclusive evidence to support either of these conclusions. Circumstantial evidence collected did, however, question the conclusions reached by the Margo Commission.[/FONT]

    [FONT=&amp]4. All available evidence was collected and analysed by the Commission, including documents and interviews. Finally, an in camera hearing, in terms of section 29 of the Promotion of National Unity and Reconciliation Act (the Act), was held at the Commission's offices in Cape Town and Johannesburg to enable commissioners to test the veracity of evidence presented by witnesses.[/FONT]
    5. Witnesses at the hearings included:[/FONT]

    [FONT=&amp]Ø Ms Graça Machel, the widow of President Samora Machel (and now the wife of President Mandela);[/FONT]
    [FONT=&amp]Ø Dr Abdul Minty, former honorary secretary of the British Anti-Apartheid Movement and current deputy director general in the Department of Foreign Affairs;[/FONT]

    [FONT=&amp]Ø Mr JNJ van Rensburg, attorney for the Margo Commission;[/FONT]
    [FONT=&amp]Ø "Ben" (real name withheld to protect his identity), former Military Intelligence (MI) officer;[/FONT]
    [FONT=&amp]Ø Major Craig Williamson, former South African security force spy;[/FONT]
    [FONT=&amp]Ø Mr Anton Uys, former security police officer who headed the South African Police (SAP) investigation immediately after the crash;[/FONT]
    [FONT=&amp]Ø "James" (real name withheld to protect his identity), former Koevoet member and subsequent MI officer.[/FONT]
    [FONT=&amp]6. The Commission's Investigation Unit interviewed many others in an attempt to arrive at the truth.[/FONT]

    [FONT=&amp]The context[/FONT]
    [FONT=&amp]7. A police video in the Commission's possession shows South African Foreign Minister Pik Botha telling journalists at the crash site that President Samora Machel and others killed in the crash were his and President PW Botha's very good friends, and that their deaths were therefore a tragedy for South Africa. However, cabinet minutes record that, for several months before the crash, tensions between South Africa and Mozambique were increasing.[/FONT]

    [FONT=&amp]8. Shortly before the crash, the Mozambican chief of staff accused the Malawi government of President Hastings Banda of assisting "South African surrogates" (RENAMO, the National Resistance Movement in Mozambique) to set up bases in Malawi, and of issuing travel documents to, amongst others, the RENAMO leader.[/FONT]

    [FONT=&amp]9. A month before the crash, President Machel confronted President Banda in the presence of his Zambian and Zimbabwean counterparts in an acrimonious exchange in Blantyre. President Banda was given an ultimatum to stop his activities or Mozambique would close its borders with Malawi. After the meeting, President Machel called a news conference at Maputo airport, saying that he would place missiles along the border with Malawi and would not hesitate to launch a pre-emptive strike if necessary.[/FONT]
    10. Following this, thousands of RENAMO troops left Malawi and entered northern Mozambique. An escalation of hostilities ensued, threatening to divide Mozambique in two.[/FONT]

    [FONT=&amp]11. In addition, weeks before the crash, six South Africans died in a landmine explosion on the border with Mozambique. South African Defence Minister Magnus Malan threatened President Machel openly for the first time – "he will clash head-on with South Africa" – and alleged that Mozambique had renewed its support for the African National Congress (ANC). This was followed by the termination of 58 000 Mozambican jobs in South Africa, a devastating blow to the fragile economy. South African military activity in Mozambique increased rapidly.[/FONT]

    [FONT=&amp]12. It is clear from cabinet minutes at this time that the South African government believed Mozambique to be on the verge of collapse.[/FONT]

    [FONT=&amp]13. On the night of the crash, President Machel was returning from the Lusaka Summit, which had focused on the liberation of the region.[/FONT]

    [FONT=&amp]14. After the crash, Foreign Minister Pik Botha alleged that the Lusaka Summit had plotted the overthrow the government of Malawi. No proof of this exists.[/FONT]

    [FONT=&amp]15. Further, the State Security Council (SSC) minutes from January 1984 indicate that the Mozambican working group, including General Jac Buchner and Major Craig Williamson, discussed how to help RENAMO overthrow the FRELIMO government (of Mozambique). Later in the same month, the SSC secretariat discussed RENAMO's chances of success.[/FONT]

    [FONT=&amp]16. Ms Graça Machel told the Commission that she believed that the Malawi government had held a crisis meeting in February 1984 – after President Machel had threatened to close off Malawi's access to the sea if that country did not cease its aid to RENAMO. The possibility of assassinating Machel was allegedly discussed. According to Ms Machel, who gave moving testimony, this proposal was later put to President Banda. The following week, Banda dispatched his senior officers to South Africa for a meeting with President PW Botha, who sent back a message of solidarity.[/FONT]

    [FONT=&amp]17. A South African delegation headed by Defence Minister Magnus Malan travelled to Malawi and met with President Banda.[/FONT]
    18. Ms Machel believed that the meeting discussed the formation of a special team to monitor the Mozambican president and to recruit senior Mozambican officials to co-operate with them. They allegedly even discussed the recruitment of an official at the Mozambican control tower.[/FONT]

    [FONT=&amp]19. A Zambian pilot, Mr Frankeson Zgambo, was recruited and trained by Major Craig Williamson to gather information about President Machel. Major Williamson admitted to this, but insisted that he knew nothing of a plot to assassinate the President.[/FONT]
    20. There is no doubt that President Machel was under enormous pressure at the time of his death, not least because of divisions in his own party. Ms Graça Machel confirmed previous attempts on his life, attacks on his residences and attempts by South Africa to attack the Mozambican capital. He was also engaged in a radical restructuring of both his cabinet and the military, which could have upset a number of high-ranking Mozambicans.[/FONT]

    [FONT=&amp]The crash[/FONT]
    [FONT=&amp]21. Of the thirty-four people on board the presidential aircraft at the time of the crash, only nine survived.[/FONT]
    22. One of the survivors walked to a nearby house to ask for help. Arriving back at the scene, he found security force officers already there. Others who arrived to assist, including a nurse, told the Commission that they were chased from the site. They also reported that the security force officers were seen rummaging through the wreckage and confiscating documents. Foreign Minister Pik Botha and Mr Niel Barnard, head of the National Intelligence Service, admitted that documents had been removed from the scene for copying.[/FONT]

    [FONT=&amp]23. Mozambique was informed about the incident only a full nine hours after it happened, after a massive land and sea search. The Commission heard evidence that the Mozambican Minister of Security contacted the South African security forces as soon as the Mozambican authorities realised the plane was missing. They were not informed about the accident.[/FONT]
    The Margo enquiry[/FONT]

    [FONT=&amp]24. The day after the crash, Mozambique and South Africa agreed that an international board of enquiry should be established with the participation of the International Civil Aviation Organisation. According to the Chicago Convention, South Africa, as the state on whose territory the crash had occurred, would head up the investigation. South Africa was, however, obliged to work in partnership with the state of ownership (Mozambique) and the state of manufacture (the Soviet Union). These countries were not, however, taken on as equal partners, and withdrew their participation after the initial stages.[/FONT]

    [FONT=&amp]25. The investigation was delayed for several weeks by General Lothar Neethling's refusal to hand over the cockpit voice recorder (the black box), which he had seized at the scene of the crash. Colonel Des Lynch, who headed the police investigation, told the Commission that it took a letter from a lawyer to persuade Neethling to release the box to the investigators.[/FONT]
    26. The Margo Commission of Enquiry concluded that the aircraft had been airworthy and fully serviced and that there was no evidence of sabotage or outside interference. The board:[/FONT]

    [FONT=&amp]unanimously determined that the cause of the accident was that the flight crew failed to follow procedural requirements for an instrument let-down approach, but continued to descend under visual flight rules in darkness and some cloud without having contact with the minimum safe altitude and minimum assigned altitude, and in addition ignored the Ground Warning Proximity alarm. [/FONT]
    27. The Soviet delegation issued a minority report, which stated that, their expertise and experience had been undermined. They advanced the theory of a false beacon, although Mr Justice Margo denied in his report that this charge was formally laid before the board.[/FONT]

    [FONT=&amp]28. The Soviet report focused on the 37 degrees' right turn that led the plane into the hills of Mbuzini. It rejected the finding of the Margo Commission, saying that the crew had read the ground proximity warning as false since they believed themselves to be in flat terrain as they approached landing.[/FONT]

    [FONT=&amp]29. A former television journalist who was allowed to attend the on-site investigations by the joint Soviet, Mozambican and South African team told the Commission that the television crew was approached on the first afternoon by an investigator of the Directorate of Civil Aviation who was holding a device the size of a pound of butter. The investigator informed the television crew that this could have been a frequency scrambler.[/FONT]

    [FONT=&amp]30. During the Margo enquiry, members of the Margo enquiry team told a journalist that the device had been found to be harmless. However, an expert on mobile beacons told the Commission that the device could have decoded the aeroplane's signal, locked onto it and been used to interfere in the direction of the aircraft.[/FONT]