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Nyerere the father of southern african liberation

Discussion in 'Habari na Hoja mchanganyiko' started by MWENDAPOLE1, Oct 15, 2012.

  1. M

    MWENDAPOLE1 Member

    #1
    Oct 15, 2012
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    Mwalimu Julius Kambarage
    Nyerere was the father of
    southern African iberation, and
    one of the founding fathers of the
    Southern African Development
    Community. Born in Butiama near
    Lake Victoria on 13 April 1922, when he passed away 14 years
    ago on 14 October 1999, Africans
    everywhere shared the sense of loss felt by Tanzanians.
    He was Baba wa taifa, father of the nation, the moving force for
    the independence of Tanganyika
    on 9 December 1961 and for its
    unity with Zanzibar on 26 April
    1964 to create the United Republic of Tanzania. A
    charismatic leader of sharp intellect and great personal
    integrity, he welded a country and
    a national identity from over 120
    ethnic groups, united by their language Swahili and by a social harmony constructed on the
    ideals of peace, justice, unity and
    personal commitment.
    His firm support for equality and
    tolerance ranged across all
    diversity of race, religion, class
    and gender. He encouraged
    Tanzanian women to play a leadership role in society and
    adopted a parliamentary system
    that has guaranteed seats for
    women. His pursuit of an equitable socio-economic society
    through collective self-reliance
    was more difficult than he had
    envisaged, and he once said that
    "we are very good at sharing the
    wealth in Tanzania but I only wish
    we had made more wealth to
    share."
    Tanganyika's independence in
    1961 was an inspiration to those
    who believed that political
    independence could be achieved
    by non-violent means and he
    worked tirelessly in support of
    this goal for Zambia (1964),
    Malawi (1964), Botswana (1966),
    Lesotho (1966), Mauritius (1968),
    Swaziland (1968) and Seychelles
    (1976). When the other countries
    of southern Africa were forced
    into wars of liberation to
    eventually achieve the same end,
    Tanzania provided political,
    material and moral support until
    independence and majority rule
    were achieved in 1975
    (Mozambique, Angola), 1980
    (Zimbabwe), 1990 (Namibia) and
    finally, 1994 (South Africa).
    Nyerere pursued the ideals of
    liberation, democracy and
    common humanity into the rest of
    the continent and, with the
    leaders of the other few African
    countries that were independent
    in 1963, established the
    Organisation of African Unity
    (OAU), which later became the
    African Union. The main objective
    was political liberation for the rest
    of the continent.
    Their tool for achieving this, the
    OAU Liberation Committee, was
    hosted by Tanzania, and most
    liberation movements were based
    there at one time or another.
    Nyerere was one of nine leaders
    who came together in 1980 to
    establish the Southern Africa
    Development Coordination
    Conference (SADCC), which later
    became the Southern African
    Development Community (SADC).
    The leaders of Tanzania, Zambia
    and Botswana formed the Front
    Line States in 1974 to work
    together in a united front for
    common security and for majority
    rule in neighbouring countries,
    under the chairmanship of
    Nyerere, and this was a
    forerunner of the SADC Organ on
    Politics, Defence and Security
    Cooperation.
    The political changes in Namibia
    and South Africa in 1990 and
    1994, changed the face and
    future of the African continent,
    and completed the work of the
    OAU Liberation Committee, but
    socio-economic development has
    remained a vision. Through
    Nyerere's leadership, all
    Tanzanians were able to take
    pride in their contribution to the
    liberation of the region, through
    "people-to-peop le" support in
    hosting refugees, contributing
    food, clothing, and shillings.
    One very successful campaign
    drew a voluntary contribution of
    one shilling each to support
    Mozambique. Although the
    decision to initiate the SADCC was
    taken in Arusha, Tanzania and the
    launch was in Lusaka, Zambia, the
    organization was hosted by
    Botswana, and Nyerere used any
    occasion to give credit for its
    formation to his colleague and
    close friend, the late President
    Seretse Khama of Botswana.
    When the SADCC was formed in
    April 1980, Khama saw the
    difficulties ahead when he
    predicted that, "The struggle for
    economic liberation will be as
    bitterly contested as has been the
    struggle for political liberation."
    SADC, formally established by the
    Windhoek Treaty in 1992, has
    turned its vision of free trade into
    a formal agreement launched in
    2008, and most member states
    have developed a national Vision
    of where they want to be by 2016
    or 2020. The Lagos Plan of Action
    for socio-economic development
    of Africa was
     
  2. M

    MWENDAPOLE1 Member

    #2
    Oct 15, 2012
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    The Lagos Plan of Action
    for socio-economic development
    of Africa was the OAU's plan of
    action 1980-2000.
    Meeting in Lagos in April 1980
    just after the SADCC was launched,
    African leaders inspired by
    Nyerere and Khama, reaffirmed
    their commitment to set up an
    African Economic Community by
    the year 2000, "so as to ensure
    the economic, social and cultural
    integration of our continent." The
    aim of this community, in the
    terminology popularized by
    Nyerere, "shall be to promote
    collective, accelerated, self-reliant
    and self-sustaining development
    of Member States; co-operation
    among these States; and their
    integration in the economic, social
    and cultural fields." Nyerere
    retired as president of Tanzania in
    1985 and as chairman of the
    party Chama Cha Mapinduzi in
    1990.
    Tanzania has had three
    presidential transitions since then,
    first to Ali Hassan Mwinyi for two
    five-year terms, in 1995 to
    Benjamin Mkapa for two five-year
    terms, and then in 2005 to the
    current President, Jakaya Kikwete,
    who will seek re-election in 2010.
    After leaving office, Nyerere
    devoted his vision to mechanisms
    to strengthen developmental links
    between developing countries of
    the South. He chaired the South
    Commission 1987-90, and
    dedicated the next decade to the
    service of the South Centre,
    tirelessly fund-raising for a capital
    fund and operating costs.
    Mwalimu often said that his
    generation had achieved at least
    one goal, that of the political
    liberation of Africa, and that the
    next generations must take up
    the next goals. A long memorial
    verse by his close friend and
    colleague, Dr Kenneth Kaunda, the
    former President of Zambia,
    reminds us all that, "The best way
    of mourning him is to carry on
    where he has left
     
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