Dismiss Notice
You are browsing this site as a guest. It takes 2 minutes to CREATE AN ACCOUNT and less than 1 minute to LOGIN

Mjue Mtemi Mkwawa wa uhehe na Wahehe

Discussion in 'Jukwaa la Historia' started by Lole Gwakisa, Nov 21, 2009.

  1. Lole Gwakisa

    Lole Gwakisa JF-Expert Member

    #1
    Nov 21, 2009
    Joined: Nov 5, 2008
    Messages: 3,806
    Likes Received: 194
    Trophy Points: 160
    Wakuu humu JF, this celebrated hero died 111 years ago,lest we forget his sacrifice and bravado.

    Chief Mkwawa of the Hehe
    This is a short history of Mtwa Mkwavinyika Munyigumba Mwamuyinga (1855-19th July 1898)

    The Tanganyikan interior in the latter half of the nineteenth century was in a state of chaotic flux. Incursions by Arab slave traders from the coast had disrupted the balance of power between clans and tribes, while the militaristic Ngoni tribe's invasion in the south had triggered several mass migrations. This uncertain climate provided ideal soil on which opportunistic leaders such as Chief Mirambo of the Nyamwezi could plant their own personal kingdoms.

    Another leader who emerged triumphantly from this confusion was a Hehe chief named Mtwa Mkwawa Mwamnyika ("Conqueror of Many Lands"), better known as Chief Mkwawa. Born near Kalenga in 1855, Mkwawa's ambitious character was well suited to his time. By 1889, he had become undisputed leader of the Hehe, whom he made the region's dominant tribe by uniting – though force or diplomacy – more than one hundred clans and smaller tribes. It was not just numbers, but regimented military organization that formed the basis of Hehe power, and which gave Mkwawa the ability to stem the hitherto inexorable southward advance of the Maasai. Mkwawa also began to threaten Arab control over the lucrative slave and ivory-carrying caravan routes that passed through his territory, though declining Arab power meant that it was not against the sultans of Zanzibar that the showdown eventually came, but against the German colonial war machine.

    At first, Mkwawa tried to secure treaties with the Germans, but when they refused, the Hehe turned their arms against the arrogant newcomers. On August 17, 1891, a year after the Germans had placed a garrison in Iringa, Mkwawa's troops surrounded and ambushed a German expeditionary force led by Lieutenant Emil von Zelewski in the Lugalo Hills east of Iringa, killing nearly five hundred soldiers and capturing a vast quantity of firearms and munitions. Only two German officers and fifteen men escaped.

    This is one story that has not been properly retold.
    Chief Mkwawa lured Zeweleskis troops that were advancing on Mkwawas villages, pillaging,torching village huts and killing resistant young warriors.

    A perfect pincer movement, whereby a retreating warrior force attracted a well armed German regiment under Zeweleski.

    To the surprise of the German force the warrior force as if by instinct came o a stand still and started to fight back while two flans of spear wielding warriors attacked on the main body of the German force. And it worked.

    On the 17th August 1891 the German force was annihilated, ten German officers lay dead including the commanding officer Lt Emil von Zeweleski.

    Mkwawas forces gave chase, about 300-400 crack warriors, and the Germans did not stop until after covering over 400km and rested at Kondoa.

    Mkwawa was no fool, and anticipated German revenge – by building a thirteen-kilometre, four-metre high wall around his palace and military base at Kalenga. The Germans took their time to reorganize, and it wasn't until October 1894 that they made their move, establishing themselves on a hill overlooking Kalenga, now the site of Tosamaganga, and beginning a two-day bombardment of Kalenga (the name tosamaganga means to "throw stones"). On October 30, 1894, the Germans under Tom von Prince stormed and took Kalenga with relative ease. The extent of Mkwawa's wealth can be gauged by the fact that it took four hundred porters to carry all his ivory away. The Germans also found 30,000 pounds of gunpowder, which they used to level the town. For Mkwawa, the loss of Kalenga was a double tragedy, since his mother – who had been told that her son had been captured – committed suicide.

    In fact, Mkwawa escaped into the forests west of Kalenga, from where he waged a four-year guerrilla war against the Germans. He was finally cornered in 1898, having been betrayed by informants attracted by a five-thousand-rupee reward. Rather than surrender, he shot his bodyguard, and then himself. The Germans, arriving on the scene shortly after, placed another shot into Mkwawa's head just to be sure, then severed it. The chief's headless body was buried by his family at Mlambalasi, 12km south of the road to Ruaha National Park, while his skull was sent on to Berlin and then on to the Bremen Anthropological Museum. There it remained until 1954, when it was finally returned to the Hehe – it's now the star exhibit of Kalenga's Mkwawa Memorial Museum.
    Mkwawa's death marked the end of two decades of resistance to German rule across Tanganyika, and the end of the Hehe Empire, but the ensuing peace was short-lived. Seven years on, the Maji Maji Uprising erupted.

    This year about 111 years ago, Mtwa Mkwawa must be remembered as a hero worth emulating.
     
  2. Ndahani

    Ndahani JF-Expert Member

    #2
    Nov 21, 2009
    Joined: Jun 3, 2008
    Messages: 11,548
    Likes Received: 131
    Trophy Points: 160
    Mabaki ya ile ngome kwakuwa hayakutunzwa, sidhani kama kuna hata dalili kama yalikuwepo. Tosamaganga baadae wamisionary walijikita sana pale na waliacha shule ambayo ilitamba enzi zile kwa kuto wanafunzi wengi bora.
    Na pale Zelewisk alipouwawa sijui kuna hali gani maana ni sehemu fulani hivi njiani kabla ya kufika Iringa mjini ukitokea Dar. Yote kheri ila historia ni kitu bora sana maana courage za watu kama kina Mkwawa tunazikosa leo kama Taifa. Wakina Zelewisk wamekuwa marafiki zetu!!!
     
  3. FirstLady1

    FirstLady1 JF-Expert Member

    #3
    Nov 21, 2009
    Joined: Jul 29, 2009
    Messages: 16,200
    Likes Received: 104
    Trophy Points: 160
    asante bwana l.Gwakisa unatukumbusha history zetu ambazo mala nyingi zinzkuwa zimesahauulika heshima kwako
     
  4. Fidel80

    Fidel80 JF-Expert Member

    #4
    Nov 21, 2009
    Joined: May 3, 2008
    Messages: 21,983
    Likes Received: 49
    Trophy Points: 145
    Nasikia lile fuvu wanasema sio lake maana ukiangalia alivyo jipiga risasi na tundu lilipo ni tofauti kabisa. Wajerumani wamebaki ba fuvu la Mkwawa huko huko kwao Ujerumani
     
  5. FirstLady1

    FirstLady1 JF-Expert Member

    #5
    Nov 21, 2009
    Joined: Jul 29, 2009
    Messages: 16,200
    Likes Received: 104
    Trophy Points: 160
    wamebaki nalo wanafanyia nini?
     
  6. Fidel80

    Fidel80 JF-Expert Member

    #6
    Nov 21, 2009
    Joined: May 3, 2008
    Messages: 21,983
    Likes Received: 49
    Trophy Points: 145
    Wameweka kwenye makumbusho yao lile lililopo Iringa ni feki sio fuvu la Mkwawa lile.
     
  7. P

    Pascal Mayalla JF-Expert Member

    #7
    Nov 21, 2009
    Joined: Sep 22, 2008
    Messages: 20,547
    Likes Received: 6,155
    Trophy Points: 280
    Asante kutukumbushia historia hiyo, kuna allegations kwamba Mtwa Mkwawa, sio tuu alikuwa shujaa, bali pia was very bright, ikisemekana baada ya kuzidiwa, alitoroka na watu watatu, akamvisha mmoja wa wasaidizi wake yale mavazi yake, akamshoot kwanza yule mwingine, ndipo akamshoot huyo msaidizi mwenye nguo zake in search a way ionekana ni suicide na yeye akavanish into thin air.

    Wajerumani wakaingia mkenge, wakakata kichwa na kupeleka fuvu kwao Ujerumani kabla ya kulirudisha Tanzania.

    Jee uliwahi kufanyika uchunguzi wowote scientifically to substianteor deny such allegations?
     
  8. FirstLady1

    FirstLady1 JF-Expert Member

    #8
    Nov 21, 2009
    Joined: Jul 29, 2009
    Messages: 16,200
    Likes Received: 104
    Trophy Points: 160
    pasco hebu fanya uchunguzi wa kina uje na report kamili inaonekana iko vere enterest
     
  9. Lole Gwakisa

    Lole Gwakisa JF-Expert Member

    #9
    Nov 21, 2009
    Joined: Nov 5, 2008
    Messages: 3,806
    Likes Received: 194
    Trophy Points: 160
    Skull of Mkwawa




    [​IMG]

    After his death, German soldiers removed Mkwawa's head. The skull was sent to Berlin and probably ended up in a Bremen museum. In 1918 the then British Administrator of German East Africa H.A. Byatt proposed to his government to demand a return of the skull to Tanganyika in order to reward the Wahehe for their cooperation with the British during the war and in order to have a symbol assuring the locals of the definitive end of German power. The skull's return was stipulated in the 1919 Treaty of Versailles:

    "ARTICLE 246. Within six months from the coming into force of the present Treaty, ... Germany will hand over to His Britannic Majesty's Government the skull of the Sultan Mkwawa which was removed from the Protectorate of German East Africa and taken to Germany."

    The Germans disputed the removal of the said skull from East Africa and the British government took the position that the whereabouts could not be traced.
    After World War II, however, the Governor of Tanganyika Sir Edward Twining took up the issue again.
    After enquiries he was directed to the Bremen Museum which he visited himself in 1953. The Museum had a collection of 2000 skulls, 84 of which originated from former German East Africa.
    He had the ones chosen which showed measurements similar to surviving relatives of Chief Mkwawa.

    From this selection he picked the only skull with a bullet-hole as the skull of chief Mkwawa.
    The skull was finally returned on 9 July 1954, and now resides at the Mkwawa Memorial Museum in Kalenga, near the town of Iringa.

    Source:wikipedia

    It was very important for the British to see through that the Wahehe, a formidable fighting tribe be appeased by the return of the skull of their Hero.
    The British wanted no trouble with the Wahehe,peace with them was the best option.
    Inactual factduring WorldWar I many Hehe Chiefs sided with the British to fight the Germans
     
  10. P

    Pascal Mayalla JF-Expert Member

    #10
    Nov 21, 2009
    Joined: Sep 22, 2008
    Messages: 20,547
    Likes Received: 6,155
    Trophy Points: 280
    Lole, swali langu bado lipo, kuna utafiti wowote uliofanywa kulithibitisho hilo fuvu ni la Mkwawa?.
     
  11. P

    Pascal Mayalla JF-Expert Member

    #11
    Nov 21, 2009
    Joined: Sep 22, 2008
    Messages: 20,547
    Likes Received: 6,155
    Trophy Points: 280
    First Lady, uchunguzi kama huu its not a joke, haya ni mambo ya forensic, yaani unafanywa na wataalamu wa fani zao.
     
  12. Lole Gwakisa

    Lole Gwakisa JF-Expert Member

    #12
    Nov 21, 2009
    Joined: Nov 5, 2008
    Messages: 3,806
    Likes Received: 194
    Trophy Points: 160
    Mkuu that remains to be a bone of contention, that is apart from what has been gathered so far.
    But I hope you appreciate two facts:
    Even in death Mkwawa was decisive in a major world conflict in the form of World War I,ambapo ilikuwa muhimu sana kwa waingereza kuonekana kuwa upande wa Wahehe wakati wa conflict ya World War I,hivyo kuahidi kurudisha fuvu la Chief Mkwawa

    Pili, you can imagine the times and period, sisi leo tumeelimika zaidi we might carry this foward scientifically .
     
  13. Zitto

    Zitto Verified User

    #13
    Nov 22, 2009
    Joined: Mar 2, 2007
    Messages: 1,192
    Likes Received: 24
    Trophy Points: 135
    Historia ni tamu sana. Nimesoma Tosamaganga na nimekwenda sana Kalenga. Ninapata hisia kali sana ninaposoma historia hii.

    Ushujaa huu wa kina Mkwawa umepotelea wapi?
     
  14. Zitto

    Zitto Verified User

    #14
    Nov 22, 2009
    Joined: Mar 2, 2007
    Messages: 1,192
    Likes Received: 24
    Trophy Points: 135
    Yale mafuvu 83 yaliyobakia ndo inakuwaje? Ngoja niende Bremen Museum kuwauliza.
    Isike naye alijilipua. Ile yeye ni baruti nadhani hawakupata kitu. Kinjiketile ilikuwaje? Kaburi lake lipo?
     
  15. P

    Pascal Mayalla JF-Expert Member

    #15
    Nov 22, 2009
    Joined: Sep 22, 2008
    Messages: 20,547
    Likes Received: 6,155
    Trophy Points: 280
    ,

    Unaweza usiamini, enda ikawa hiyo ndiyo misingi ya kukufikisha hapo ulipo na unapoyafanya hayo uyafanyayo bila wewe kujijua kuwa umetoka Tosa na ushujaa wa Mkwawa, umeshaonyesha kila dalili sasa tunasubiri tuu utekelezaji, ili siyo kwa njia hiyo unayotaka kuitumia ya kurudi lecture thieter na kuendelea kujaza maself ya pale maktaba, yalishashehenezwa na kushibishwa na ma thesis kibao, wewe kwako ni kule kule mjongoni.
     
  16. TIMING

    TIMING JF-Expert Member

    #16
    Nov 22, 2009
    Joined: Apr 12, 2008
    Messages: 21,797
    Likes Received: 53
    Trophy Points: 145
    Kuna haja, tena haja kubwa sana!!! Ya kurejea historia ya taifa letu... labda tutajirudi ustaarabu wa kusaidiana, kuheshimiana na kuepuka choyo, chuki, ufisadi nk.
     
  17. Lole Gwakisa

    Lole Gwakisa JF-Expert Member

    #17
    Nov 22, 2009
    Joined: Nov 5, 2008
    Messages: 3,806
    Likes Received: 194
    Trophy Points: 160
    Mkuu Zitto, wengi tunafarijika kama waheshimwa kama wewe mnakuwa pro active katika kufuatilia historia ya mashujaa wetu walioifanya Tanzania kama ilivyo leo.
    Ukifika Bremen, kwa wajerumani ni vyema ukawauliza , je sisi Watanzania tukuwatawala na mka resist, tukiwa shinda mtajisikiaje tukiwakata vichwa?
     
  18. Annina

    Annina JF-Expert Member

    #18
    Nov 22, 2009
    Joined: Nov 15, 2009
    Messages: 437
    Likes Received: 0
    Trophy Points: 33
    Pls tusaidie hilo, natokea kijiji cha kalenga, nitafurahi sana kama kutakuwa na taarifa zaidi juu ya hatma ya hayo mafuvu. Hivi watu wa makumbusho hawana taarifa hizi?
     
  19. Annina

    Annina JF-Expert Member

    #19
    Nov 22, 2009
    Joined: Nov 15, 2009
    Messages: 437
    Likes Received: 0
    Trophy Points: 33
    Thanx Gwakisa kwa post hii, inatukumbusha historia yetu. Wenye taarifa zaidi watusaidie hili, nadhani jina la Mkwawa (wahehe wenyewe wanatamka Mukwava) linatokana na Mukwavinyika na sio majina mawili ya Mkwawa Mwamnyika kama ilivyoonekana kwenye thread. Asante
     
  20. Ndahani

    Ndahani JF-Expert Member

    #20
    Nov 22, 2009
    Joined: Jun 3, 2008
    Messages: 11,548
    Likes Received: 131
    Trophy Points: 160
    Enzi gani mkubwa? Za dudu, Salingwa au Mbanga? Hii ilikuwa shule iliyotikisa kweli miaka ile.
     
Loading...