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Maswali ya Kisayansia yanayonitatiza

Discussion in 'Habari na Hoja mchanganyiko' started by Quemu, Nov 23, 2009.

  1. Quemu

    Quemu JF-Expert Member

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    1. Uwezo wa Ndege (mnyama) kuweza kuruka na kuelea

    Ndege (mnyama) ana viungo gani vya ziada ambavyo vinamwezesha kuruka na kuelea angani?

    Kwa nini jamii nyingine ya ndege haiwezi kuelea angani? Mfano, kuku na bata wanaweza kuruka, lakini hawawezi kuelea angani.

    Je wataalam waliovumbua ndege (chombo cha usafiri) walidesa kutoka kwa ndege (myama) ili kuwezesha hicho chombo kuelea angani?

    Wanasayansia wa JF mpo?
     
  2. Serendipity

    Serendipity JF-Expert Member

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    Swali lako sio la kisayansi, unless kama hukusoma biology! Ndege anaweza kuruka na kuelea angani kwani mifupa yake ni mwepesi na anakuwa less denser than air ndo maana anweza kuelea. Issue ya ndege (chombo cha usafiri) nitofauti kabisa na ndege mnyama, mechanism inayotumika kufanya ndege iweze kuelea ni mambo ya physics, kama utakumbuka vizuri kuna formula inaitwa Bernoulli's equation hii ndo ina aply kwenye kuelea kwa ndege ya abiria.
     
  3. Quemu

    Quemu JF-Expert Member

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    Ahsante kwa ufafanuzi Wande.

    Sasa kama sio swali la kisayansi, basi ni swali la kitaaluma gani? Hivi sayansi ni biologia tu? Tukisema kuelea kwa ndege (myama) ni suala la fizikia. Je fizikia sio mchepuo wa sayansi? Kama sio, sasa mbona elimu ya sekondari inapotoa fursa kwa wanafunzi kuchagua mchepo wa sayansi huwa inaainisha Biologia, kemia na fizikia? Anyway, tuyaache hayo....

    Sasa umeelezea kuwa ndege anaweza kuelea angani kwa sababu mifupa yake ni myepesi, sasa kwa nini kuku hawezi kuelea, lakini ndege kama bundi (ambaye pengine anaweza kuwa mzito kuliko kuku) anaelea angani. Pia lijindege kubwa kama eagle (swahili?) linapeta tu angani, lakini bata anachemsha?

    Hilo suala la kufananisha urukaji wa ndege (myama) na ndege (chombo cha kusafiria) lilikuwa katika kujaribu kusoma wazo la wavumbuaji wa usafiri wa ndege lilitokana na kigezo kipi. Je kuna uwezekano the Wright Brothers walipata hiyo idea baada ya ku-study urukaji wa ndege (wanyama)?

    Where is dvd-ya-kisasa when you need him?
     
  4. Nyani Ngabu

    Nyani Ngabu Platinum Member

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    Yupo...pengine anadesa utirio sasa hivi ili akija aje amekamilika. Usikute ana google tu sasa hivi. Yule jamaa kiboko. Ni walking and talking encyclopaedia. Hamna kitu asichojua.
     
  5. MwanaFalsafa1

    MwanaFalsafa1 JF-Expert Member

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    Na hii siyo sayansi?
     
  6. Pape

    Pape JF-Expert Member

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    hapo mdau umekurupuka! mbona hiyo ni science kamili? umeshaongelea mambo ya density! ila unaposema mifupa yake mi myepesi mmmmh (chaka) bora uongelee 'weight' afu kwa sayansi yako ilivyofinyu hujaongelea hata effect of gravitational force! Do you know something called volume ratio? Then consider the volume of a bird and the volume of air. Do you know what is 'airflow'? Je huyo ndege anaelea au anaruka bila ku apply force? What is this force? Did you study the relationship of force and acceleration (mjongeo)?? Je ndege anamaumbile gani? bapa, mchongoko? Umeshawahi kujiuliza kwanini? Haya kaa mkao wa kula! Biologically, je hawa ndege wana maji maji ktk mifupa yao?
    Acha wadau wenye shule zao waumize vichwa!

    Karibu jamvini huku tunaendeleza ufundi wa magari!

    Nakuja na jibu hivi karibuni!
     
  7. Quemu

    Quemu JF-Expert Member

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    JP, sidhani kama Wande amekurupuka. Nafikiri alijua ni utirio gani alitaka kutiririka, isipokuwa alikosa njia nyepesi ya kutiririka. Tafadhali mpe muda afafanue.

    Lakini hata hivyo, wewe mwenye naona umerusha matufe ya kifizia tu lakini haujaelezea chochote. Hata hivyo umesema unarudi na utirio wanguvu. Nasubiri.
     
  8. Bluray

    Bluray JF-Expert Member

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    Nduguzanguni,

    Mbona tunataka kufanyana wengine kama resident scientists humu ndani? Taratibu, vibaya hivyoooo. Tutawafanya wengine wachelee kuja kujumuika wakati raha ya jamvi gumzo.

    Mimi si mtaalamu wa mambo haya, ila ina kiu sana ya kutaka kujua vitu tofauti.Na nitasema mambo kama nilivyofahamishwa, ikiwa ni pamoja na kutaja vyanzo ili kusudi wenzangu na nyie muweze kufaidika ama hata kuchokonoa mjadala zaidi kwa kuuliza maswali mengine.

    Kwa kadiri ninavyojua, kwa uchache, na kwa msaada wa mitandao ya vyuo mbalimbali, na nadharia zilizokubalika, mabaki ya kale kabisa ya ndege yanaweza kuhusishwa na madubwana ya aina ya "Dinosaur" yaliyotokea zama za "Jurassic" (kama umeona sinema ya "Jurassic Park" utakumbuka walivyojaribu kuzihuisha zama hizi katika filamu) katika madubwana haya ya Dinosaur kuna familia moja ikiitwa
    Archaeopteryx, hii ilikuwa kadiri miaka milioni 150 iliyopita.Kuna huyu mwanazuoni Robert Payne kaandika vizuri kuliko nitakavyoweza kuandika mimi hapa

    Kuhusu kwa nini jamii nyingine ya ndege haziwezi kuruka hewani, hili pia linatokana na evolution.Kwa mfano watangulizi wa ndege wa aina ya Kiwi walivyofika New Zealand walikuwa wanaweza kuruka, lakini kutokana na kukosekana kwa wanyama wa kuwafukuza katika visiwa vya New Zealand wakaacha kuruka, pole pole wakapoteza uwezo wao wa kuruka.Tafuta kitabu kipya cha Dr. Richard Dawkins "Evolution: The Greatest Show on Earth" ameelezea vizuri jinsi gani ndege hawa walivyopoteza uwezo wa kupaa.Bila shaka hata kuku walipitia kitu kama hicho hasa baada ya kuwa domesticated.

    Binadamu amekuwa akitaka kuiga ndege kuruka tangu kale ya kabla ya historia.Ukisoma hata mapokeo ya kigiriki (Greek Mythology) utaona hadithi ya Icarus alivyokuwa anataka kupaa kama ndege, alivyobandikwa mbawa na gundi, mpaka akaweza kuruka, akajisahau kwa kuona uroda wa kuruka, mpaka akaruka juu sana karibu na jua na kupelekea gundi iliyounganisha mbawa na mwili wake itoke, the rest is as they say history.Hata wavumbuzi kama kina Leonardo Da Vinci walitumia michoro na sanamu za kutohoa kutoka ndege (mnyama) ili kutunga ndege (chombo) itakayopaa.

    Hata kuja kufikia mwaka 1903 wakati wale kina kaka watengeneza baiskeli kina Howard na Orville wa Wilbur walipokuja kufanikiwa kurusha ndege, walikuwa wamepata inspirations na design nyingi kutoka kwa ndege, waliwaangalia ndege ili kuweza kuelewa jinsi ya ku control upepo kama walivyoandika katika kitabu chao ""After the First Flight". Hata kabla yao kulikuwa na wachunguzi kama kina Otto Lilienthal wa Ujerumani waliojaribu kurusha vitu vizito zaidi ya hewa angani. Unaweza kusoma zaidi habari zao na jinsi walivyojaribu kurusha mashine kwa kuangalia ndege hapa

    Sources nyingi sana, kwa sasa ni hizi unaweza kusoma na kuuliza zaidi kama kuna maswali.

    Haya sasa ngoja nirudi kwenye Cosmogony, multiverses and action at a distance spookiness.
     
  9. Sikonge

    Sikonge JF-Expert Member

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    Jamani,

    Mie nipeni muda nijiweke sawa maana hii kitu sijawahi jiuliza haswaa.

    Mie ntakuja na majibu zaidi ya Phisics maana biology imekaa kushoto.

    Ila kwa leo nakubaliana na Bluray kuwa bird na aeroplane, concept yao ni sawa kabisa yaani basic. Ni sawa na Camera vs jicho.

    Umbo la Ndege wote ni muhimu sana ili aweze kuruka na kukaa angani kama ambavyo Coanda alivyogundua. Ukitaka kufahamu jinsi hii kitu ilivyo, basi angalia hii video ambayo hata wewe unaweza kujaribu kwa kushika kijiko kama jamaa alivyoelekeza hapa chini na usogeze karibu na maji. Please angalia ni upande upi unasogezwa karibu na water stream. Shika kijiko kwa juu kabisa kwenye ncha na sogeza. Ukiwa na kijiko cha kuchotea Icecream ndiyo utafaidi zaidi.

    [ame]http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AvLwqRCbGKY[/ame]
     
  10. Pape

    Pape JF-Expert Member

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    Well, Im back wana JF

    How does a bird fly through the air?

    A bird take off by making a huge jump a leap and flaps its wings constantly to get off the ground. Notice how a bird's wings aren't straight, they are curved. When in the air the air traveling above its wings have to go further to get across while the air underneath goes straight. (Leonardo da Vinci discovered this) this effect causes less pressure pushing down on top of the bird and more pressure on the bottom causing lift. airplanes are made this way. next time you see an airplane look at the wings. they aren't straight, they are curved at the top.

    When they are gliding that's right. The camber of their wings (and the angle of attack... higher in front) allow the headwind to generate lift.
    The flapping generates thrust. their wings therefore are capable of generating both lift and thrust. When french engineers tried to duplicate this in the 1800's they ended up with the ornithopter.
    While DaVinci sketched a flying machine in the 1400's it was Daniel Bernoulli that has been accepted as explaining the generation of lift. (also Newton's laws of motion apply)

    The "V" configuration of both wings when viewed head on is known as dihedral and adds to the bird's ability to hold a stable flightpath when gliding. Some aircraft have an inverted "V" known as anhedral (F-104 phantom most noticeable) which adds a bit of instability but greatly increases maneuverability.

    Also,

    The Bernoulli effect gives the bird lift when it's gliding, and has adequate airflow across the wings. It is suspected that flight began as reptiles accustomed to fast running began to augment their legs by waving their 'arms', adding a little forward thrust, and a little lift. This skill gradually improved, and the body form gradually changed, until it became effective enough to sustain flight. Birds are so good at it, that most don't need much running before they can take off, though some do.

    So, in a layman definition; The reason, or a secret to the bird's ability to fly is her light weight, turbulent design, and most important the way they flap their wings.

    Or in other words;

    When a bird flaps its wings, air is pushed downward. This produces an opposite force that "lifts" the bird into the air. Since a bird's wing is in the shape of an airfoil, it produces some lift even when the bird is just gliding.

    Forces Acting on An Airplane
    There are four forces acting on the airplane all the time during airplane is flying.The four forces are
    (1) Lift, (2) Gravity force or Weight, (3) Thrust, and (4) Drag.

    Lift and drag: are considered aerodynamics forces because they exist due to the movement of the Airplane through the Air. ​
    [​IMG]
    Lift: is produced by a lower pressure created on the upper surface of an airplane's wings compared to the pressure on the wing's lower surfaces,causing the wing to be LIFTED upward. The special shape of the airplane wing (airfoil) is designed so that air flowing over it will have to travel a greater distance and faster resulting in a lower pressure area (see illustration) thus lifting the wing upward. Lift is that force which opposes the force of gravity (or weight).
    [​IMG]
    Lift depends upon (1) shape of the airfoil (2) the angle of attack (3) the area of the surface exposed to the airstream (4) the square of the air speed (5) the air density.​
    [​IMG]
    Weight: The weight acts vertically downward from the center of gravity (CG) of the airplane
    Thrust: is defined as the forward direction pushing or pulling force developed by aircraft engine . This includes reciprocating engines , turbojet engines, turboprop engines.
    [​IMG]
    Drag: is the force which opposes the forward motion of airplane. specifically, drag is a retarding force acting upon a body in motion through a fluid, parallel to the direction of motion of a body. It is the friction of the air as it meets and passes over an airplane and its components. Drag is created by air impact force, skin friction, and displacement of the air.
    [​IMG]Aircraft Flight Control
    An airplane is equipped with certain fixed and movable surfaces or airfoil which provide for stability and control during flight. These are illustrated in the picture.​
    [​IMG]
    Each of the named of the airfoil is designed to perform a specific function in the flight of the airplane. The fixed airfoils are the wings, the vertical stabilizer, and the horizontal stabilizer. The movable airfiols called control surfaces, are the ailerons, elevators, rudders and flaps.The ailerons, elevators, and rudders are used to "steer" the airplane in flight to make it go where the pilot wishes it to go. The flaps are normally used only during landings and extends some during takeoff​
    Aileron: may be defined as a movable control surface attached to the trailing edge of a wing to control an airplane in the roll, that is , rotation about the longitudinal axis
    Elevator: is defined as a horizontal control surface, usually attached to the trailing edge of horizontal stabilizer of an airplane, designed to apply a pitching movement to the airplane. A pitching movement is a force tending to rotate the airplane about the lateral axis,that is nose up or nose down
    Rudder: is a vertical control surface usually hinged to the tail post aft of the vertical stabilizer and designed to apply yawing movement to the airplane, that is to make it turn to the right or left about the vertical axis.
    [​IMG]
    Wing flaps: are hinged or sliding surfaces mounted at the trailing edge of wings and designed to increase the camber of the wings. The effect is to increase the lift of the wings.

    Swali la kizushi: why birds do not FLY at night??

     
  11. K

    Kituko JF-Expert Member

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    kamanda unakuwaga na point nzuri sana, lakini nilikuwa naomba ubadilishe hiyo font size yako kwani inasomeka kwa shidxa sana, watu wanataka kupata elmu humu
     
  12. c

    care4all Senior Member

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    Internal Structures of a Bird
    Flight is much more than feathers and wings. Everything about a bird is made perfectly for flight. Their entire body inside and out has been designed for flight. Every part must give maximum power with a minimum of weight.
    There is a weight limit for a flapping bird. The heavier the animal, the bigger its wings need to be. The bigger the wings, the more muscle is needed to move them. The biggest flying bird today is called the Great Bustard. They weigh as much as 32 pounds and are 4 feet long.
    The best way to fly is to be light. So most birds are small. Birds have feathers that are very light weight. The bones that birds have are also made for lightness. Birds have less bones than most animals. The bones they have are hard but thin. The biggest bones in flying birds are the breast bone and the shoulder bones.
    Some birds have bones weighing less than their feathers. The powerful flying birds have medium weight skeletons. Birds that don't fly have the heaviest skeleton. In birds many bones are fused together. In this way not as many muscles are needed. The biggest muscles a bird has are its flight muscles. These are very strong because they have to raise the entire body into the air
    Internal Structures of a Bird
    Flight is much more than feathers and wings. Everything about a bird is made perfectly for flight. Their entire body inside and out has been designed for flight. Every part must give maximum power with a minimum of weight.
    There is a weight limit for a flapping bird. The heavier the animal, the bigger its wings need to be. The bigger the wings, the more muscle is needed to move them. The biggest flying bird today is called the Great Bustard. They weigh as much as 32 pounds and are 4 feet long.
    The best way to fly is to be light. So most birds are small. Birds have feathers that are very light weight. The bones that birds have are also made for lightness. Birds have less bones than most animals. The bones they have are hard but thin. The biggest bones in flying birds are the breast bone and the shoulder bones.
    Some birds have bones weighing less than their feathers. The powerful flying birds have medium weight skeletons. Birds that don't fly have the heaviest skeleton. In birds many bones are fused together. In this way not as many muscles are needed. The biggest muscles a bird has are its flight muscles. These are very strong because they have to raise the entire body into the air.

    http://wings.avkids.com/Book/Animals/intermediate/birds-01.html
     
  13. Nyani Ngabu

    Nyani Ngabu Platinum Member

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    Babu, hizi nondo ni zako au ume kopi na kupesti?
     
  14. Pape

    Pape JF-Expert Member

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    Copy and paste!
     
  15. Nyani Ngabu

    Nyani Ngabu Platinum Member

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    Okay, safari ijayo uweke chanzo chini ya habari basi...
     
  16. Sikonge

    Sikonge JF-Expert Member

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    Nafikiri hapa chini, hawa jamaa watasaidia sana kwani wanaonyesha kwa vitendo.

    [ame]http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2HCnhT7qoLs&feature=related[/ame]

    [ame]http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uxJQmtCyi3M&feature=related[/ame]

    Ila kwa ufupi, huu mchoro unaonyesha haswaa kile kinachotokea. Ndiyo maana majengo marefu kama magorofa, wanayajenga na FLAT ROOF kwa sababu ukijenga sloped roof, upepo ukija upande mmoja, unatengeneza pressure kubwa upande wa pili ambao unaanza kulinyenyua paa na kulibeba. Na kwa sababu juu upepo ni mkubwa, paa litang'oka hatimaye. Huu mchoro unaonyesha jinsi ndege inapokwenda na upepo/pressure unavyotokea. Ila kwenye nyumba, ni upepo unakwenda kasi na jengo limesimama ila effect yake ni ile ile, paa kunyenyuliwa na mshale wa LIFT hapa chini.

    Ukichunguza sana, utagundua kuwa ndege(plane) huwa zinatembea huku ikiwa imetengeneza slope yaani mbele kuko juu na nyuma kuko chini. Hata ndege(bird) almost wanafanya hivyo hivyo. Binadamu kajifunza mengi sana kutoka kwa ndege ili aruke.

    [​IMG]

    Ila sijui kama Warusi kwa hili bado wanatumia trick hiyo hiyo au ya UFO. Ila wanaonyesha kwanza jinsi Coanda effect inavyotumika.

    [ame]http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S-SAQtODAQw[/ame]

    Na mwisho angalia hiyo Tarielka au kisahani au saucer za Warusi. Kuna video nyingi na hizi nenda mwenye kwenye YOUTUBE na andika TARIELKA kwenye search.
    [ame]http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cThIbDONerI&feature=related[/ame]

    Hapa unasikia jamaa wanadai itatumia MAFUTA kidogo. Ila ukianza kutumia mafuta kidogo, kuna watu wanaanza kulia kuwa watauza kidogo. Too sad.
     
  17. Sikonge

    Sikonge JF-Expert Member

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    By the way, mie nilikuwa naamini kuwa Michael Jackson ndiye aliyepaa kwenye ile concert ya Romania. Ukweli ndiyo kwanza nimeuona sasa hivi kuwa kuna jamaa alicheza STUNT.
    Angalia vizuri kwenye sekunde ya 35, utagundua ukweli kuwa MJ anaingia kwenye BOX na kuondolewa, box linanyenyuliwa na STUNT anaonyeshwa. Changa la mwili MJ ulitupiga wenzio.

    [ame]http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EKSEktPHjJc&feature=related[/ame]

    Turudi kwenye KUPAA kwa ndege.
     
  18. Pape

    Pape JF-Expert Member

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    asante mkuu, nakupata vyema!
     
  19. Quemu

    Quemu JF-Expert Member

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    Usikonde Bluray, nilishasema wewe ni kama spana-malaya (compliment)...unafungua kila kitu - nati ya tairi, msumari uliopigiliwa kwenye bati, jiko la mchina, na mpaka "kufuli" ikibidi. Wazungu wanasema Knowledge is Power. You certainly have one!

    Sawa. Kwa hiyo kisio langu la kwamba wavumbuzi wa ndege (chombo cha usafiri) walidesa kutoka kwa ndege (mnyama) lina ukweli ndani yake. I'm happy!

    Otherwise, nitapitia hizo link ulizoweka ili nijifunue ufahamu zaidi.
     
  20. Quemu

    Quemu JF-Expert Member

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    JP,

    Niliposoma hapo juu nikasema yes mshikaji amekuja kumwaga nondo kisawasawa. Kumbe mzee umeenda kuzoa nondo za wengine kama zilivyo na kuja kuzimwaga hapa. Nafikiri ulikurupuka kumshambulia Wande amekurupua. Angalau yeye alijaribu kuelezea kwa maneno yake mwenyewe na halafu akatoa hint ya Bernoulli's equation

    Swali zuri.

    Basi naomba umwage utirio (katika maneno yako) kujibu hilo swali.​
     
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